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the Castle of Stirling may be observed merging a busy, stirring population; while the same may into the clouds. But we cannot stop at this point be said of Burntísland, Aberdour, and Inverkeith. any longer, or we will not have seen all the beau-ing, to the west. In short, the whole chest of ties in and around Inchkeith, in a fortnight ; 0 Fife is instinct with life; the background af. come along :-see here is the south entrance to the fording a delightful diversity of hill and dale, the lighthouse enclosed grounds; and as we are sure hills not too numerous ; and, in the extreme disof a cordial welcome from Mr. B., who superintends tance, the Grampians may be discerned, towerin: the light, do not let us linger here any longer. alost in their misty grandeur. On this spot tha

You must make a considerable detour after en-) topographer might enjoy a bird's-eye view of one tering the enclosure, before you come to the main of the finest portions of Scotland, a living map vi building or tower, where the light is exhibited, the country being, as it were, laid down before but then your every step affords additional plea- him, and it is such a one as all must admire, ad sure from the scenery around you. And now you which an enthusiastic artist would luxuriate on for are at the door of the lighthouse, you receive a months together. kind invitation to enter, while you almost believe But we have spent so much time looking at ds that there is to be to-day an inspection by the tant objects, that we must descend and take Commissioners for the Northern Lights,—every hurried ramble through the island, or it will be thing around appears so clean and neat. You im- late ere we reach Auld Reekie again. The kee: mediately ascend to the upper part of the tower— sea breeze, and the unwonted exercise, however

, and then what a strange room you enter into, the have sharpened the appetite ; and, as our host ks: top and walls of which form one complete window. invited us to rest ourselves in the room under that In the centre stands what at first sight may be in which we have enjoyed so much pleasure during taken for a table clock, which is enclosed in a glass the last two hours, we may as well try to alla case, so as to afford a view of the whole interior the unpleasant sensation about the region of the machinery, now in motion, as it indeed must be stomach with what we have brought with us. W: day and night; the only difference being that you shall suppose all the replenishing of the inner ma are lighted by the rays of the glorious sun, whereas over, including a glass or two to qualify the subat night these argand lamps, and beautifully bur- stantial meal we have made ; and out we sally to nished reflectors, are made to revolve, so as to cast roam over the island, on the highest part of which, ever and anon their light afar over the deep, to as formerly mentioned, the lighthouse stands. Ai guide the way-worn mariner in his obscure tract, we descend the path on the north side, cast your and direct his course on entering the Firth. From eyes to the west : down in the valley bounded by the side of this room a door opens to a baleony that bluff, you see the keeper has a spot of promis on the outside, and you may walk round the ing vegetables that will supply the pot during the building, and enjoy such a view as can nowhere be year; and there is an enclosed park that would alsurpassed for loveliness ; the place, too, is so safe ford a good bite to a çow and a few sheep during that ladies may walk round it without fear or trem- the summer at least, though in the winter the bling. This is a spot from which Mr. Marshall, or could only “chew the cud of sweet and bitter T. some other of our panoramie painters, should take flection" in this place. After descending for a one of their pictures; and a very splendid one it short space, you get to a level the greatest in es: would be, if executed with any spirit, and one that tent in the island, where, we believe, the sports would no doubt very soon repay the artist for his the Celtic Society are held, when they take their labour.

summer jaunt to Inchkeith ; and below this, just The spectator, on the outside of the light-room, at the foot of this perpendicular precipice, is the has, in looking down the Firth, a first-rate sea north landing place, which you may reach by wind. view. There, in the distance, to your left, is the ing your way a little to the east.

The whale isle of May, the reflection of the sun on the glass coast of this side of the island is strewe with of the lighthouse of whieh dazzles your eyes, even rocks, some only covered, and others showing that at this distanee, and you can see the sheep brows- heads above the water, while the tide is foaming ing close by the lighthouse. On the right sta and boiling among them with great noise, Farther out the Bass Rock, frowning defiance on every east you see a deep ravine with precipitous banki ship that passes, while the vessels move on like on both sides, where, although at present dry & living creatures, proud in their strength. There bottom, you can easily perceive traces of the rayou have the land on the north side from the vages made by the sea during some tremendous East Neuk to the western part of Fife, the Ochil storm, which occurred at no very distant date, Hills bounding the view in that direction, though the sides of the ravinę are here and there tora. there appear more distant hills overtopping these, and large openings formed, which, if there is 9 until they are lost in the clouds, from which, in- spice of romance in your composition, you will

, of deed, they are not easily distinguishable. Imme. course, call “caverns vast.' diately opposite to you, in the fine sandy bay, mineralogists nor geologists we will not descend

, stands the thriving town of Kirkaldy, which, from but hurry on to the eastern extremity of the your present situation, appears to merit the epithet island, which is the parrowest part ; and, as you lang, as with it the Wemyss, Pysart, and King eave fully a mile to walk from this spot ere you horn, blend finely into one continuous range of reach the extreme east, you had better bové osy

As we are neither

for you will find it attended with more labour and again, repeat their repast of rabbits' flesh, ardently time than walking the same distance over a Mac- wishing for the accompanying luxury of a stale adamized road in the neighbourhood of a town. biscuit, or a crust of bread, and in the evening While you are travelling along, however, you may were compelled again to betake themselves to the as well east your eyes about you, for though you cave for their repose. In this manner they passed thought you saw everything worth seeing from the second day and night ; and it was late in the the dizzy height of the balcony around the light- afternoon of the third day ere the wind abated, room, yet you will find yourself mistaken; besides, when they were picked up by a man-of-war's boat, the greater distance, or some other cause, makes the crew of which observed them in passing, and even the objects you formerly saw wear a different were landed in Leith in a very exhausted state. aspect, now yon are on terra firma. Every step Their friends and acquaintances having given you take the scene changes, and every change is, them up as lost, the boat in which they left the like the figures of the kaleidoscope, if possible harbour having been cast ashore at Fisherrow, more beautiful than the one preceding.

their joy at their return may be easily imagined. We have been viewing the north, or Fife coast, There are, however, no dangers of this descripin going east, so you may as well keep up to the tion to be encountered nowadays--no hairrising ground in returning, and then we have the breadth escapes to be feared in an excursion to south coast in view all the way. The reader may Inchkeith ; with the exception of the remote chance now be as tired as the travellers, and will, no of a short detention in comfortable quarters, all is doubt, hail with pleasure the south entrance to as safe as a journey by the railway or any other the lighthouse grounds, the spot we formerly set land conveyance. out from. We now hid adieu to the pleasant isle,

COMMERCIAL THIEVES. embark again in the boat, reach Newhaven, and get home delighted and fatigued with the day's

In a book, entitled, “ A Caution to Merchants, Traders, exenrsion.

&c., &c., against Impositions of different kinds," we have the If it should come to blow a gale while you are on

following singular scenes unfolded. Who could imagine the island, you need not be surprised if you have to

so much roguery possible in the cautious and well-governed take up your quarters in the lighthouse for a night, city of Edinburgh. The work is said to be intended for az such has happened before to parties of pleasure private circulation only, though we believe our readers will visiting the island. About eight years ago a party agree with us in thinking this portion of it deserves all were detained in the hospitable little mansion of the

manner of publicity. But where is the use of concealing lightkeeper from Friday till the Monday following, the names of the parties? The very least punishment å ere they got back to their friends. However, this fraudulent trader or undoubted svindler deserves is exa is but a trifling inconvenience, in comparison to posure. the unpleasant predicament in which a friend and An account of Mr. a London Distiller and Reclis a companion found themselves placed some thirty

fier, well known in Scotland by the name Mr. Palent

Schiedam," years ago. The two youths, who were both very ardent sportsmen, and considered good shots, got London, who represented himself to be a scientific rectifier

A few years ago there appeared in Scotland a person from a boat from Leith harbour, and set off early in the and one who had learned the distiller's art in Holland. morning for the purpose of shooting rabbits, at This said personage having visited Scotland for the express that time in great abundance on the island of purpose of becoming acquainted with our distillers and recInchkeith. They had scarcely reached the island tifiers, was at no loss for want of an introduction, he being

in possession of a secret which served as his passport. In the when it came on a strong gale, which shortly af

course of his Scottish journey, of distilled rectified calling, terwards increased to a hurricane. They pro- he waited upou a rectifier, a friend of mine, stated that the ceeded with their sport, notwithstanding, and soon purport of his visit was to teach Scotch rectifiers the art of killed a number of rabbits ; but the boat, during making Hollands upon the principle practised in the celethe time, having broken from her moorings, and brated distillery of Schiedam. The Scotch rectifier on this

occasion, although, no doubt, anxious to possess a secret drifted to sea, their anxiety for game quickly which might be the means of securing to him a fortune, changed to anxiety for their personal safety. There had no notion of paying away his cash for fair promises. was at that time no lighthouse or building of any He, however, having ascertained Patent Schiedam's terms, description on the island, and never having anti- stated that if an article

, upon experiment, was made to rival cipated detention there, they had taken no provi- taken into consideration.

the famous Schiedam, the premium asked would then be

To this proposal Mr. Patent sions with them ; but necessity and a keen appe. Schiedam agreed, and being allowed to use the still-house tite sharpened their wits, and they collected some of the Scotch rectifier, in due time made the gin-experimendrift wood on the shore, with which, aided by tal. My friend, the rectifier

, invited a few of his intimate their gun and powder, they made a dre, roasted acquaintances to dine at his house, along with Mr. Patent some of the rabbits, and made a hearty meal. At and the company were requested to pass judgment on the

Schiedam. After dinner the gin-experimental was produced, sunset they took shelter in one of the caves in the super-excellent new distilled Schiedam.

The verdict reisland, where they slept soundly, expecting to be turned was guilty, and the gin-experimental being thus conpicked up by some vessel next day, and by that demned, because of its infra excellence, accounts for my means get home. The next day, however, brought friend, the Scotch rectifier, declining to avail himself of the

instructions offered to him by Mr. Patent Schiedam. them no relief, the wind continuing as violent as

Shortly after this experimental failure, Mr. Patent Schieever; they had therefore to kindle their fire dam returned to London, and, as fate would have it, one of

the presons who dined with him in the house of the Scotch | not been for the faithful services of Patent Schiedam, and rectifier, visited London in the way of business, nearly those of his friend, the Commission Agent, he would have about the same time. This said person" was a wine and been a ruined man, through the failure of worthless blackspirit merchant, and having by chance met with Mr. Patent guards. By way of example, he stated to the Scotch mer. Schiedam on the streets of London, they recognised each chant that he had been in partnership with said merchant's other. In the course of conversation, the Scotchman told countryman, Robert More, late distiller of Underwood, the London rectifier that his principal errand in London who, the d-d scoundrel, had swindled him out of ten was to look out for a reputable agent to sell his Scotch thousand pounds. The Scotch i merchant naturally conwhisky, which he meant to send to London. Mr. Patent cluded that this London distiller, brewer, and rectifier, must Schiedam immediately replied to the Scotchman, “ I am in in reality have been possessed of much wealth, if, after susthe employ of the greatest London rectifier, who is vastly taining many losses, equal in extent to the one said to have rich, and has made a fortune of my services alone ; and been sustained through the failure of More, he was still able thus, of course, I am well acquainted with the London to carry on trade. However, the Scotchman, after rumi. spirit trade.”

nating a little, brought to his own recollection a report The Scotchman, taking it for granted that his “ain gude which passed current in the country, namely, that Robert Jack wad ne'er forsake him,” concluded that he had now More was a very speculative and unfortunate man; that, met the man for his purpose, and hesitated not to treat Mr. in order to keep up his credit as long as possible, he purPatent Schiedam to a good dinner, and plenty to drink. chased, at the regular London mart, patent bills of erWhilst the decanter passed freely betwixt the parties, the change; and that, in order to realise cash to' honour said Scotchman proposed the agency for his whisky to Patent bills as they became due, he forwarded goods to the care of Schiedam ; but Patent Schiedam being a rogue, more than the parties who furnished him with such bills, which parcent. per cent. overproof, declined accepting the offered ties allowed the bills to be returned dishonoured ; and, at agency; pretended that nothing but a multiplicity of already the same time, made a claim upon More's estate to the entered-into engagements prevented him undertaking the amount of these accommodation bills, they having, latterly, commission ; and, by way of shewing his willingness to received in exchange for the patent currency, the said Roserve his new acquaintance, promised to introduce him to bert More's own acceptances. Although the Scotch mer. another gentleman still better qualified to do justice to so chant only considered the report of Mr. More's trafficking important an undertaking.

with patent London currency as being an ill-natured and The Scotch Merchant introduced to Mr. a Lon- ill-founded one, yet he considered it necessary to make some

don Commission Agent ; or, the Rogue his own Trum- inquiry concerning the respectability of this great man who | peter.

had given Mr. Schiedam and the Commission Agent such The day after Patent Schiedam had honoured the Scotch excellent characters. In the course of research and inves. man with his presence at dinner, he called upon the said tigation, he discovered that this great London distiller had Scotchman, and introduced him to his friend the commis- More; but it appeared that the firm or firms of this won,

never been known to have been in partnership with Mr. sion agent. The agent spoke much in his own behalf; derful distilling, brewing, and rectifying copartnery, had entered into a lengthened narrative of his success in forcing at last been pointed out to the Scotch merchant in a prisales ; and, in fine, acted the part of his own trumpeter so well, that ihe Scotch merchant began to think it might be

vate list at No. 76, Cornhill. This convinced the Scotchas well to sell out and out, instead of consigning his whisky in sending notice to his intended agent that, after mature

man that all was not right, and, therefore, he lost no time on commission. The London agent declared that it was equally the same to him whether he was, to purchase the deliberation, he had come to the resolution of not forward

. whisky, or to receive it in charge on commission. The ing the whisky, unless the sum was to be paid in ready Scotch merchant, therefore, offered to sell a few puncheons

money. by way of a beginning; and, at last, after much ado about ing his whisky, left London ; but upon his arrival in Scot,

The Scotch merchant, without fixing any agent for sellnothing, concluded a bargain for one puncheon, by way of sample. The terms of payment came next to be adjusted. land, found the following letter waiting him, the style of The Scotch merchant stated, that as only one puncheon

which cannot but be admired. was to be forwarded, and particularly, as it was the first

Letter 1st from the London Commission Agent to the business transaction, he of course, expected to be paid ready

Scotch Merchant ; or a Swindler's Sincerity. money. The London agent had no notion of ready-money

London, 220 November, 1830. buying, and, by way of evading such a make-sure mer

“ SIR–Mr. Schiedam called upon me the other day chant, at once declared that his practice was to treat all his and showed me a note, in which he is informed, that you mercantile connexions upon the broad basis of impartiality; are not sufficiently acquainted with my circumstances to and that, therefore, as he was only possessed of a limited enter into any arrangement respecting the whisky and ale capital, it would be both absurd and unjust for him to pre- commission. I must confess I was surprised, as, at our tend to pay ready money for any of his purchases. The second interview you appeared to be satisfied, and booked said agent proposed, in lieu of cash payment, a bill at three my order for the puncheon of whisky, which, likewise, in months, for aqua, and duties thereon. The Scotch mer- your note you decline to execute. My marim thus far in chant agreed to the proposed arrangement, provided respect business has been open sincerity; sometimes I have found able references could be granted. Mr. Patent Schiedam this (as in the present instance) to operate against me: immediately volunteered his services, and promised to fur- but, in the long run, I have no doubt I shall find • honesty nish the very best of references; namely, the house by to be the best policy.' I acknowledged to you that my cao which he himself was employed. "The Scotchman expressed pital was small; that I had been but a short time in bust. his satisfaction with the reference fixed upon, and accom

This I told you without asking. If you had put panied Mr. Schiedain to a brewery, belonging to the afore any questions to me you thought proper, I should not have mentioned Mr. the great London rectifier.

had any occasion to conceal the truth from you; but, as The Scotch Merchant introduced to Mr.

you had seen Mr.

the great London distiller,

The brewer, and rectifier,' I concluded you had received all the great London Distiller, Brewer, and Rectifier.” information you wished, otherwise I should have been more

Mr. Schiedam having conducted the Scotch merchant to communicative, and perhaps, by so doing, have been still a brewery about two miles distant from the city, and, upon farther from your confidence ; but, to cut the mallor short their arriving there, not finding the great L-D-, Band R-, he next conducted the Scotchman to a counting- of January next, and I want the spirits before Christmas

it is not convenient to pay for the whisky, until the latter end house in Red Lion Square, and there he introduced him co but, if you choose to execute the orders which I wish, to the great wealthy man. This noted distiller, brewer, and rectifier, took much pains to persuade the Scotch merchant back the bill

, which you may make at two months

, if

inake you secure, Mr. D-n1_, that he was a man of great importance ; swore that had it sou will divide the threepence. You may inquire respect.


Bow Road, will


ing this gentleman of Mr. B-y, ; or of Mr. B-11, “ Should you still have a desire to add the manufactur

my solicitor; and, if you think well of the coming of this spirit to your present business, I feel satisfied mission, the same gentle nan will be bouud for the sum of from the conversation that I have had with some of the two or three hundred pounds, that my transactions with rectifiers here, since I returned, and to whom I have shewn you shall be correct. Waiting your reply, I am, Sir, yours the sample of the Hollands I made at your works, that there truly, W-T-"

would be a very considerable demand for it in this market, The above letter, from its pretensions to candour and ho as the flavour of what I made for you is preferred in prenesty, together with the kind of references given, and secu ference to what I have made for them, either from English rities offered, satisfied the Scotch merchant that he had spirit or common grain. acted wisely in declining the London Agent's order, and “ When you have made the necessary arrangements, I caused him take no notice of the post office communica- will be glad to hear from you, and will cheerfully forward tion. The London Commission Agent, after three weeks' for you, under cover, my receipt, enclosed to my “law daily expectation of hearing from the Scotch merchant, be- agent,' whom I will leave to fix what remuneration ought gan to suspect that the whisky-man was not to be easily to pass between us for it. You may either address to me victimised ; and that, therefore, it would be better to make here, or to the care of Mr. B alias the Great Lona second attack on the Scotch rectifier.

don Distiller, Brewer, and Rectifier.' I am, Sir, your very

J ,'alias “Patent Schiedam." Letler Ist from the London Commission Agent to the obedient servant, “S

The Scotch rectifier having returned no answer to this Scotch Rectifier ; or a Swindler's Responsibility.

letter of Patent Schiedam, renders the letters from the Lon. Minories, London, 12th January, 1831.

don Commission Agent, to the Scotch merchant and Scotch “SIR,-My friend, Mr.

alias · Mr. Patent rectifier, to be productions from a suspicious quarter, and I Schiedam," has informed me, that when you were in Lon- having been consulted on the contents of the London letdon he had some conversation with you respecting sending ters, as a member of a society for the Protection of Trade, Edinburgh ale to this market, and pointing me out as a

gave it as my opinion that the said letters came from a person qualified to act as your agent. I have been some

gang of London swindlers. I advised the Scotch merchant time engaged in the spirit trade, and my connexion lies

and Scotch rectifier to keep clear of the parties. I have among old established and respectable houses ; and, upon

now to warn the allies of the Friends of Commerce, that making inquiries, I have no doubt that if I command a

the common enemy is again abroad under new colours. good article in Scotch ale, at the regular market price, I

(To be continued.) could dispose of a considerable quantity. I learn from Mr. Schiedam that you are not a brewer, but that you could readily furnish me with the article through some of your THE alarmists have begun to raise the most absurd and friends, provided a proper understanding was entered into groundless apprehensions in the public mind, on the subject between us as to the mode of delivery and terms of pay of the present epidemic, and we hear of maladies of all kinds ment. If an arrangement is concluded, I should propose and of all colours that are to follow it, but especially of the it to be upon the basis of mutual advantage and mulual re “ white plague,” which is at once the newest and most sponsibility ; but I should not dispose of ale where I hesi- dreaded. We are told that this visitation is to come from tated in zending spirits, let our agreement be upon what the east, in the track of the influenza. Now we have reprinciple it might. Mr. Patent Schiedam likewise told me ceived very recent medical journals from Berlin, and we that you have it in contemplation to work the Patent for have examined those of Paris, into which news relating to the production of rye spirit ; if you should do so, I have such matters is always speedily copied, but in neither have every reason to think that I could get rid of some quantity we been able to find anything to justify the coming of any of it amongst the London rectifiers, if the price was near pestilence ; on the contrary, the only form of disease of any to that of the raw grain spirit. I may observe, that if you considerable prevalence seems to be the grippe, or influenza, think well of my proposal, I have premises in a good situ- such as we now have among us, and occasional cases of choation, and well adapted for the ale trade, and can give you lera and dysentery. But again, we are told that the records substantial security for the honourable and honest exercise of past epidemics show that visitations of plague and other of any trust that may be reposed in me. In the meantime, malignant diseases have been generally preceded by influenza. if you think proper, and are writing to Mr. alias,

We take leave to deny this. Influenza, exactly such as the • the great London distiller, brewer, and rectifier,' you can present, has been known almost as long as we have any inquire of him respecting myself, and likewise respecting medical records ; it was particularly prevalent in the six

D –n Tos, Place, Bow Road, the gentleman who teenth and eighteenth centuries, but was scarcely heard of would be my security if necessary. Respecting Mr. T-s, in the seventeenth; thus it has traversed Europe in 1510, 1557, you can likewise inquire of Mr. B-n, Inn, my so

1564, 1580, and 1591 : then we lose it till 1675, but have licitor. Waiting your reply, I am, Sir, your humble ser. it again in 1709, 1732-3, 1743, 1762, 1767, 1775, aud 1781. vant, W-T

2. The 17th century (in the course of which influenza apFrom the foregoing letters, it would appear, that although peared only once) was remarkable not only for the “

great the Scotch rectifier did not purchase from Mr. Schiedam plague” of London, but for three other of the most formid

able epidemics ever witnessed in this country. the gin-distilling art, he must have parted with him on

As to the friendly terms; accordingly, on looking over the records of rest, so far as regards the metropolis, the influenza has the society to which I belong, I found the original manu

been “plague" enough, without looking for another ; it

has been a hundred-fold more prevalent than cholera was, seript of the following letter.

and we are inclined to believe has proved fatal within the Letter 1st from Mr. Patent Schiedam, to Mr.

last fortnight to a greater number of persons than that disthe Scotch Rectifier ; or a Swindler's Specifications and ease carried off in London within an equal period. CerPatents.

tainly this holds good with respect to the upper and middle London, 28th Oct. 1830. classes of society, among whom a large number of aged per“SIR,_Owing to very contrary winds, I only arrived sons have fallen victims to it. The increased mortality of here on Tuesday, since when I have seen Mr. the the metropolis during the present epidemic, is strikingly exgreat London distiller, &c., who informs me that in conse- emplified by the weekly accounts of the burials ; that ending quence of the increase of his business, since the opening of April 16, exhibits an increase over the preceding of 266 ; the beer trade, he has been prevented replying to the letter that ending April 23, another increase upon the above of which I wrote him, respecting his forwarding for your in- 209; that of May 1, a farther increase of 165-making the spection extracts or specifications of the patents which he entire increase in the number of funerals last week equal to holds for the production of rye spirits. He informs me that 640, and this, too, within the limits of the bills of mortality. he intends to write his solicitor, Mr. -, by this post, The epidemic is now, however, rapidlyon the decline, though to whose care the patents will be forwarded by Saturday's | a considerable number of relapses have occurred, and many steam-vessel,

i continue to linger under its effects.--Medical Gazette.

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harden the mind ina contrary course, and render it gradually

more insensible; that is, may form an habit of insensitifity EDUCATION THE FORMATION OF HABIT.

to all moral considerations For, from our very faculty Abridged from Bishop Butler.

of habits, passive impressions, by being repeated, grow The constitution of human creatures (and indeed of all

weaker. Thoughts, by often passing through the mind, creatures which come under our notice) is such, as that they

are felt less sensibly; being accustomed to danger bezete are capable of naturally becoming qualified for states O.

intrepidity, that is to say, lessens fear ; to distress, lesseris life, for which they were once wholly unqualified.

We find ourselves, in particular, endowed with capacities, the passion of pity; to instances of other's mortality, lessens not only of perceiving ideas, and of knowledge, or perceiv.

the sensible apprehension of our own. ing truth, but also of storin up our ideas and knowledge

And from these two observations together—that practi. by memory. We are capable, not only of acting, and of cal habits are formed and strengthened by repeated acts, having different momentary impressions made upon us ;

and that passive impressions grow weaker by being repeatbut of getting a new facility in any kind of action ; and of

ed upon us—it must follow, that active habits may be Bettled alterations in our temper or character. The power gradually forming and strengthening, by a course of acting

upon such and such motives and excitements, whilst these of the two last is the power of habits ; but neither the per

motives and excitements themselves are, by proportionable ception of ideas, nor knowledge of any sort, are habits ; though absolutely necessary to the forming of them. How- | degrees, growing less sensible, are continually less and less

sensibly felt, even as the active habits strengthen. ever, apprehensio reason, memory, which are the capacities

Experience confirms this; for active principles, at the of acquiring knowledge, are greatly improved by exercise.

very time that they are less lively in perception than they There are habits of perception, and habits of action. An

were, are found to be, somehow, wrought more thorouglu, instance of the former is our constant and even involuntary into the temper and character, and become more effectual readiness in correcting the impressions of our sight concern.

in influencing our practice. The three things first men, ing inagnitudes and distances, so as to substitute judgment tioned may afford instances of it. Perception of danger in the room of sensation imperceptibly to ourselves. And

is a natural excitement of passive fear and active caution ; it scems as if all other associations of ideas, not naturally and by being inured to danger, habits of the latter are gta. connected, might be called passive habits; as properly as dually wrought, at the same time that the former gradually our readiness in understanding languages upon sight, or

lesseng. Perception of distress in others, is a satural erhearing of words. And our readiness in speaking or writing citement, passively to pity, and actively to relieve it; but them is an instance of the latter, of active habits.

let a man set himself to attend to, inquire out, and reliere For distinctness, we may consider habits as belonging to

distressed persons, and he cannot but grow less and less the body, or the mind; and the latter will be explained by sensibly affected with the various miseries of life

, with the former,

which he must become acquainted; when yet, at the same Under the former are comprehended all bodily activities time, benevolence, considered not as a passion, but as a or inotions, whether graceful or unbecoming, which are

practical principle of action, will strengthen ; and whilst owing to use : under the latter, general habits of life and

he passively compassionates the distressed less, he will as conduct; such as those of obedience and submission to au

quire a greater aptitude actively to assist and befriend thes. thority, or to any particular person ; those of veracity, jus- so also, at the same time, that the daily instances of men's tice, and charity ; those of attention, industry, self-govern dying around us give us daily a less sensible passive feeling ment, envy, revenge.

or apprehension of our own mortality, such instances Habits of this latter kind seem produced by repeated acts, greatly contribute to the strengthening a practical regard as well as the former. And in like manner, as habits be

to it in serious men, to forming an habit of acting with a longing to the body are produced by external acts; so habits

constant view to it. And this seems again further to show, of the inind are produced by the exertion of inward prac- that passive impressions made upon our minds by admonis tical principles, thatįis, by carrying them into act, or acting tion, experience, example, though they may have a remote upon them ; the principles of obedience, of veracity, justice, efficacy, and a very great one, towards forming active habils

, and charity. Nor can those habits be formed by any er.

yet can have this efficacy no otherwise than by inducing ternal course of action, otherwise than as it proceeds from

us to such a course of action; and that it is not being these principles : because it is only these inward principles affected so and so, but acting, which forms those habits: exerted, which are strictly acts of obedience, of veracity, only it must be always remembered, that real endeavours of justice, and of charity. So likewise habits of attention,

to enforce good impressions upon ourselves, are a species of industry, self-government, are in the same manner acquired virtuous action. Nor do we know how far it is possible

, by exercise ; and habits of envy and revenge by indulgence, in the nature of things, that effects should be wrought ta whether in outward act, or in thought and intention ;

us at once, equivalent to habits, i. e. what is wrought by which is inward act, for such intention is an act. Resolu.

use and exercise. However the thing insisted upon is not tions also to do well are properly acts. And endeavouring what may be possible, but what is in fact the appointment to enforce upon our own minds a practical sense of virtue, of nature: which is, that active habits are to be formed by or to beget in others that practical sense of it, which a exercise. Their progress may be so gradual, as to be in. man really has himself, is a virtuous act. All these, there- perceptible of its steps. It may be hard to explain the fore, may and will contribute toward forming good habits

. faculty by which we are capable of habits thronglow

: But ng over the theory of virtue in one's the

hts, several parts; and to trace it up to its original, 30 si to talking well, and drawing fine pictures of it ; this is so distinguish it from all others in our mind; and it sentis far from necessarily or certainly conducing to form an ha

as if contrary effects were to be ascribed to it. But the bit of it, in him who thus employs himself, that it may thing in general, that our nature is forihed io vield, in

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