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modern times, been renewed levery quarter of a centry ; l'external gates of the building a Te is the one to the right as and it was not held in the year 1800, only because you enter, and it is always except in Roly years, made up with war, and the will of the French, who then held the con brick and covered with a curtain on which is a large cres trol in Italy, prevented it. In this year, usually called worked in gold. The ceremony of closing takes place in the holy year, the pope gives a general invitation to the the vestibulc, which, being four hundred and thiny tits sons of the church in all coumtries, to make a pilgrimage feet long, thirty-seven wide, and sixty-two high, affords to the seat of their spiritual head, promising absolution of accommodation for a large number of spectators. In this sins and extraordinary indulgences to those who shalt visit portico, unequalled for 'iis magnificence as well as for it certain churthes, and perform certain ceremonfes within dimensions, and now richly adorned witli crimson bordered the year. Such an invitation, given (as you may remem- with gold, was placed the papal chair, covered with white ber it was) with affectionate earnestness and solemnity, by sisk and golden flowers, and having a canopy of crimsot). one who is held to be infallible, and addressed to those who It was elevated on several steps with the back to the church, look upon such performances as a sure means of obtaining a few yards from the holy gate, and opposite to it was etei favour in the sight of heaven, could not fail to produce a | ted a gallery running the whole length of the portion, it considerable effect; and, accordingly, the number of pilgrims tended for the accommodation of ladies, who were, hov. who have arrived during the year 1825 at Rome, though ever, nearly excluded from sight by a kind of lattice-work, not wonderful when the population of the catholic coun Underneath the gallery was a division intended for de tries is considered, and though much inferior, I understand, gentlemen, and there were other compartments appropriate to the number in former holy years, produces no small stir to the ambassadors, and the religious orders; a large späck in this capital. The vast majority of them seem, from around the papal chair was left to be occupied by the capia their dress, to be peasants and Italians, with a large admix- nals, bishops, and other members of the procession, as well ture of priests and monks, but there are also numbers from as by a few of the pope's guards. Half the portion 144 Germany, Spain, and even Ireland, and there are priests left for the crowd, and it would easily accommodate settaa from every quarter of the globe. The places to be visited thousand persons. It was required that every individual were the cathedral churches (basiliche) of St. Peter's, St. admitted into the galleries, and other compartments near John Lateran, Santa Maria Maggiore, and Santa Maria the pope, should be provided with a ticket from a mentbex Trastevere ; at all which there are holy gates only opened of the Government or a representative of some foreign ponet, during the holy year, and to be entered by none but pil- and should be dressed either in black or in uniform. A grims. I have never gone to any of these churches without large proportion of the privileged spectators were English seeing pilgrims entering on their knees, worshipping before who, from their numbers and wealth, and I think, I my the shrines and attending the confessionals; they also add from their commanding appearance, always receive the ascend on their knees the Scala Santa, (holy staircase,) a highest honour and distinction, on public occasions at Roms Aight of twenty-eight marble steps, said to have belonged to and in every part of Italy. Even I have often found mysel the house of Pilate, and to have been ascended and de- here to be a “gran Signor Inglese ;” and, therefore, it scended by Christ. In walking about the streets I have vested with my greatness, and provided with what is at continually encountered parties of pilgrims, male and fe- least equally necessary when you have to do with Ses male, nsually dressed in the bright colours worn in the guards—a ticket from the British Consul, I went and placed southern parts of Europe, with tattered sandals, long staff, myself nearly opposite his Holiness. The galleries were full scallop shelt on their breasts, and scrip over their shoulder, to overflowing at two o'clock, though the ceremouy did not slowly pacing from one church to another, and devoutly take place till four ; and long before the latter hour the muttering or reading their prayers.
other compartments were filled with ambassadors, noble The pilgrims are entertained during three days at the jesuits, dominicans, and capuchios. In private boxes were public expense, and at dinner they are waited upon by indi-| the dowager Queen of Sardinia, the Duke and Duchess of viduals in the middle and upper ranks of society who also Lucca, and some other members of the royal families, but wash their feet before the meal. The nobles and princesses they also were latticed off like so many nuns. of Rome, as well as the cardinals and bishops, frequently The first ceremony of the day was the performance of assist on these occasions. I went on the last evening of vespers by the cardinals in the Sistiue chapel; and a shet this entertainment to see the pilgrims at dinner, and saw time after this was over, the procession was formed to asher the men, but was not allowed to enter the halls where the in his holiness. We first saw issuing through the hely gate women dined. Several large halls were repentedly filled a long train of priests bearing large wax candles; they were and emptied by the pilgrims, and I was informed that on followed by numerous dignitaries, according to their rana the preceding day no less than 9,747 persons had been fed. in their sweeping sacerdotal robes, and amongst them, bis The fare was somewhat meagre, being on a Friday, but the far the most conspicuous, were two Armenian bishop food appeared good of its kind, and abundant; it consisted wearing crowns richly
adorned with jewels ; next snecerile of bread, fish, soup, eggs , sallads, cheese, wine, and fruit
, the cardinals, iearly forty in number, in scarlet pobes.com and sausages are added on other days. The waitors were
which the trains were carried by attendants, with ermiz not numerous, and I think there were none of rank, except capes, and plain white mitres. Lastly, bearing, like all the the Bishop of Aleppo.
rest, an enormous candle, advanced the pontiff, wearings The termination of the holy year is marked by the elog mitre of gold brocade and an ample white stole, loaded with ing of the holy gates at the churches, which is performed gold, and clasped over the breast with an ornament repic with great pomp and ceremony on Christmas eve. The senting the keys of St. Peter; slowly moving through the Pope himself officiates at St Peter's, and cardinal legates at ranged file of cardinals, amidst the blaze of the candles
, sobre the other churches. His Holiness having been of late most sound of martial music, and the peals of all the bello in it is thought he cannot live long, there had been consider-seat. All eyes were anxiously bent upon him, and I believe seriously indisposed, and being in such a state of health that the city,
he ascended the steps
of the chair and took bij able doubt whether he would
be able to appear in public; it was the general ini pression that he appeared pale and but this was in a great measure removed by his appearance feeble. He sat looking deliberately round for about tw on the preceding Sunday in St Peter's, during the ceremony minutes, and his physiognomy, though not striking, samt of canonizing a saint.* The holy gate is one of the five me the idea of a man of some character and energy. He gates communicating from the grand vestibule to the in- then rose, and advanced to a table placed near the bols terior of the church, and which correspond with the five where, his mitre being removed, as well as the mitres of the • The venerable Father Angelo, of Acri, in the kingwom of Naples, cardinals
, he read a short prayer, and swung to and fro the a capuchin missionary, who died in the year 1739. The Diario di vessel containing incense. After this, having put on Roma of November 23, 1825, contains an account of three miracles
apron edged with lace, he took three gilded bricks nada rites to have been performed by the images and relies of this sain arte golden trowel, and blessed them, and, on his knces, laid the his death; and, in consequence of this proor, the beatification of the bricks with mortar, at the same time pronour ing a press monk was decreed and solemnized.
which being done, he was conducted back to his shait, sau
replaced on his head. Other bricks, covered with appear ridiculous.” I would say, however, from all that I silver, were raid by the grand penitentiary and four other have seen and heard, that they won't do even for Italians dignitaries, and then the curtain, bearing the
golden cross, much longer, and that there is scarcely an individual in this was drawn, the test of the brick work being left to secular country, above the most illiterate and credulous Fulgar, hands, A service, composed for these great occasions, was who does not inwardly despise them. then chanted and read by the pope, who stood uncovered, I was very differently impressed by the ceremony of the the cardinals' and the band of singers joining in the re- papal benediction, a few hours after. We went, at eleven sponses: his voice was uncertain and tremulous, though he o'clock, to the Sistine chapel in the vatican, where we exerted himself to chant distinctly, For a few moments found the cardinals performing mass ; the singers in this he knelt down, and, at the same time, the military, the chapel, which is the pope's own chapel, and, on several cardinals, the priests of every order, and all the spectators accounts, the most celebrated in Rome, chanted remarknear him, except its heretics, sunk on their knees. The ser. ably well; they are accounted the finest performers of vice being concluded, he stretched out his hands and made sacred music in the world ; but I confess I was more enthe sign of the cross to the multitude, who again knelt. gaged in looking at the Last Judgment, and the frescos of The whole ceremony fasted about half an hour, when his Michael Angelo, which I now saw for the first time, than holiness retired to the vaticân by the great staircase, amidst in listening to what I could not understand. When the the best of drums and the pealing of cannon from the castle service was concluded, the old cardinals walked in proof St. Angelo. And thus terminated the year of jubilee. cession past us, and proceeded to the balcony where the
Christmas day is ushered in with splendid religious ce pope was to give his benediction ; 1 particularly noticed remonies in many of the Churches of Rome. A midnight Cardinal Fesch, the unele of Napoleon, a fresh-looking litmass is performed in St. Peter's, and several other churches, | tle man of sixty-three, with a good countenance, but withamongst which, the one most visited on acccouut of its mag- out resemblance to his imperial nephew, or anything nificence and brilliant illumination, is the French church of striking in his features. When the cardinals had passed, St. Louis. I went there at half-past eleven o'clock, and we hurried through the court of the vatican, and took our found the building, which is rather small, but decorated places in a gallery erected over one of the sides of the recwith a profusion of rich marbles, one blaze of light from tilinear place in front of St. Peter's. You are aware that five hundred wax candies, placed above and around the altar. the vatican palace communicates with St. Peter's, and in Several priests were engaged in performing mass, but the front of the church extends an area, compared with which chanting was 'not remarkably good, and the organ, like all the places I have seen shrink into insignificance. That all that I have heard in Italy, was exceedingly poor. After part nearest the church is rectilinear, and is nearly four staying upwards of half an hour, I quitted the stifling hundred feet each way: beyond it, inclosed by enormous crowd that filled the church, and retired to my hotel. colonnades, four pillars deep, and surmounted by a hun.
I issued forth again, however, at half-past four in the dred and ninety-two colossal statues, is a still larger oval morning, to see an exhibition which is made at one of the piazza, in the midst of which is a lofty Egyptian obetisk, first cathedrals in Rome, St. Mary the Greater (better flanked by two noble fountains. It is only on such occa. known, perhaps, even in England, by the Italian name of sions as these that you can really feel the niagnitude and Santa Maria Maggiore), of the infant Jesus in the cradle. grandeur of the church and its piazza: every part of the The splendid edifice was brilliantly illuminated and crowd- architecture is so well proportioned, that when the area ed to excess : a large body of priests, richly arrayed, with is empty, you cannot persuade yourself of its actual dimena' mitred bishop at their head, were engaged in performing sions ; when, on the contrary, it is covered with human be mass. When this was over, they moved in procession to ings, you learn to appreciate its magnitude from their di. one of the chapels at the side of the nave, which, from the minutiveness, and from the multitudes it contains. The lights, the marbles, the paintings, and the gilded and jew- magnificent flights of steps stretching nearly the whole elled altar, presented a gorgeous spectacle. Hence they breadth of the piazza, were covered with spectators, and in shortly issued and made a procession round the church, front of them a large space was kept open by two regiments bearing the crucifix, and a large vase of glass, about the of soldiers, outside of whom was also a great throng : persize of a cradle, which had on its cover the golden image haps forty thousand persons might be present, but I believe of a child, and contained also a representation of a new-born the area, if closely packed, would contain twenty times that infant, in wax. Returning to the chapel, the priests com- number. The place whence the benediction is pronounced, menced another mass. With some difficulty we got admission and where the cardinals had already stationed themselves, to the chapel, a cordon of soldiers being drawn round the en- is an open window over the centre gate of the church, with trance, and the multitude pressing to see through the open a projectiog balcony, now adorned with crimson cloth. gates the exhibition within. We found, under the altar-piece, | Till i saw this window filled with the priests, I could form a representation of the birth of Christ, consisting of statues, no idea of the size of the building ; we were stationed in a &c., in some material as white as alabaster : the infant was gallery, which, on any other day, I should have thought seen lying in the manger, with rays of gold round its head, exceedingly near the balcony, but which I now found so and two oxen feeding near it. On one side the virgin mo- distant as to render our bearing anything that passed quite ther, with clasped hands, was worshipping the child; and, hopeless. However we saw perfectly; and, to render the on the opposite side, was another figure in the same atti scene more lively and impressive, the sun, which had bren tude. But what surprised me most was, to hear occasion obscured in the morning, shone forth in anclouded spley. ally, a short, plaintive cry, evidently proceeding from that dour. We had waited some time, when, on a signal, the part of the chapel where the child was, and so exactly re- military band struck up, and all eyes were instantly fixed sembling the cry of an infant, that I supposed there must on the balcony; the cardinals opened in the midst, and two be a living child in the place. I was confirmed by the opin- large fans of ostrich feathers were borne forwards, immefon of those around me, as to the quarter from which the diately behind which appeared the pontiff, seated in his cry proceeded, and I can therefore only conjecture that it chair, carried on the shoulders of men invisible to us. He was a contrivance of the priests, to impress more vividly wore the same rich garment as on the previous day, but had upon the minds of the multitude the scene which they now the tiara, or triple crown, instead of the mitre, and wished to represent. If all the spectators had been chil. it is difficult to conceive the noble effect of these flowing dren, it might have answered the end proposed, but surely, robes and this lofty diadem. One of the cardinals then to persons of mature age, this puppet-show mimicry must read the solemn prayer of the high-priest to heaven, for a appear calculated to attach degrading and ridiculous asso. blessing on the people, and the remission of their sins ; he ciations to sacred events. I was in company with two invoked the Redeemer, the Virgin, the Archangel Michael, English catholic ladies at this spectacle, and one of them the Evangelists
, and the Apostles; and, at the concluding said after it was over_« Well, 1 own, though I am a ca- sentence, the pope rose from his chair, made a cross to the tholie, I don't like these ceremonies; they may do very well multitude as each person of the Trinity was named, then for persons in this country; but to us sober English they stretched his hands towards Heaven, as if to draw down ito
benediction on thie kuerling thousands, and finally, as he to examine well into the grounds of it, and to commit his resumed his seat, chasped his aruns fervently upon his breast conscience'io nokeeping but his ajvn Sving the infirmity The tall and venerable figure of the pontiff, supported, tre of human resort, he should be humble in the maintainance Saw not low, Over the heads of the cardinals, anul so high of his own opinions, and Jiberat towards the opinions of above all the multitudeschis dignified attitude, which told others. He should revolt from the idea of compelling us what we were too distant to hear,-the wrapt silence any man to change his views of pumishing him, in the which prevailed around, the humble posture of the soldiers slightest degree, for maintaining them. He should be and the multitude, apparently actuated by one feeling of jealous of the excitements of any established clergy towards awe,--the solemnity of the appeal from o!le who claims the intolerance, for he finds that every established clergy, though sovereignty over the church on earth to his heavenly master of the most opposite tenets, 'is intolerant, and, from inte for a blessing on the whole world, -all combined to make rested motives, even more than from prejudice_intolerant
, this the most sublime and touching ceremony I ever wit- too, just in proportion as they are interested. He should nessed. Its effect was that of an unearthly vision, and we seek for the recognition of universal religious liberty, that were ready to exclaim—“how awful is this place!" This conscience may be unfettered, that judgment may be free, was not iny feeling alone—the impression was universal ; that an open field may be left for truth to fight her ort the protestants almost longed to be catholics, and many of battles against every form of error. He should promote the catholics were melted in tears.
liberality abroad by setting the example of it at home. 'He The pope was borne out in the same manner as he had should uniformly act upon the sage counsel of Gamalielentered, and amidst peals of cannon from the castle of St. “ Refrain from these men, and let them alone: for it this Angelo. Immediately on his retiring, all our heresy was counsel, or this work be of men, it will come to naught: confirmed afresh, for the cardinals threw down indulgences but if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow it ; lest haply ve amongst the people, which there was a most violent and be found even to fight against God." indecent scuffle to secure. The preposterous farce filled us with sorrow and indignation, and even provoked us to think
NOTES ON THE ISLAND OF TAHITI, AND ON that much of the surprising effect of the previous ceremony
THE SANDWICH ISLANDS, SOUTHERN was owing to politic contrivance.
PACIFIC OCEAN. The firing of cannon continued for some time; the multi
BY GEORGE BENNET, M.R.C.$. &c. tude gradually dispersed; the files of soldiers were drawn off; the cardinals drove away in their splendid coaches ;and we—we protestants , retired from this scene of unequal towering mountains of this modern Cythera became visible
It was on the 29th of September, 1829, at 6 A.N. that the led magnificence, went out of the city gates, and mounted bearing N. } E. by compass, at the distance of about 1:0 up into a garret* to perform our devotions, not ashamed,1 miles; by 6 P.M. we were off the eastern extremity of the hope, of onr numbers, or of our religion, but having received island, the appearance of this part of the island was moun. a seasonable lesson of humility.
No protestant can travel thionghi catholic countries with tainous, woody, and, as the sun sank behind the mountains, out frequently receiving lessons of humility and liberality. dells, which had a beantiful effect.
a glare of light was thrown over portions of the romantic
At daylight of the He sces many things which he is compelled to disapprove, 30th, we bore up for Point Venus, were boarded by a m. and he expresses himself strongly, as, perhaps, I have done, tive pilot, and anchored in Taone harbour at 7 A.M. in reprobation of them. But it is useful, if not agreeable, for him to find, that all mankind do not entertain exactly had visited the island, established port regulations, asi
was not long since that Captain Laws, in H.M.S. Satellite
, the same opinions and prejudices as are cherished by him. given the Tahitans a fag, which was usually hoisted every self, his neighbours, and his country; on the contrary, that Sunday, on a small islet situated in the centre of Papie! the religion which he has, from his infancy, seen held up harbour. to all honour and to unquestioning allegiance at home,
Soon after anchoring, I accompanied my friend 'Mr. S. is despised abroad ; and that a religion, whieh he has always contemned, is regarded by whole nations with
P, Henry to his residence at Mairipéhé, which tras sitrate!
on the south side of the island, distant abönt forty mils The stately cathedral , the proud hier from our anchorage ; we proceeded by water
, passing Pt. archy, the royal protection, the magisterial attendance, and piété bay, which has a beautifully picturesque appearance the full congregation of the people are with him no longer; but he must seek out the plain chapel, the obscure priest, the Missionary station at Bunaawia, and
we passed also Motuveojo Point, and at 1 P.M. arrived at the small and humble audience, and worship God, if he can, ceived by Mr. Darling, the missionary on from conscience and not from iustom. To some men this the land on the west side of the island had an arid appeal must occasion a sad disturbance of their ideas. They have believed, with all the confidence of ignorance, that what
ance from a long drought having been experiencell Resuieeverybody said must be right, and hare imagined that ing our voyage from this place, we found the narigation crerybody meant the inhabitants of their parish, or, in the very bad; the tide falling, the rocks and shoals impeded leter wiler sense, the people of their country, and they have progress. We passed a place named Tarévareva, which thought that any one who differed from this general sense,
was pointed ont as memorable from the last battle having must do it from mere perverseness, and must deserve punish- maré and the Idolaters, which terminated in favour of the
been fought there, between the Christians led on bi po Now, when such persons enter the cathedrals of former : at this place were two elegant groups of' aito tres catholic countries, and above all those of Rome, where (casuarina equisetifolia.) The island of Eimeo por they find themselves in a miserable minority, and summarily conllemned as leretics, they mnst feel exceedingly tant from this part of Tahiti : this island is included under cubarrassed by the novel circunstances. Nor can they the Tahitan government. About midnight we landet i account for the mystery, by setting down all who differ Papara, (20 miles distant from Bunnawia), "not being able from them as ignorant :ind vulgar, for the catholic religion from the intricacy of the navigation to proceed further the has, for many ages, comprehended kings, nobles, men of night, being however only five miles distant from Mairipéter gening, and the larger part of the civilized world amongst we slept at a house of Tati, the chief of Papara its votaries. If, then, they should attribute the errors of catholics to the invincible power of early prejudice they proceeded and arrived at Mairipéhé in about to be update
At daylight of the following morning (1st October) ** may, perhaps, stamble upon the thonght, that they them- the appearance of this part of the island was verdane amer Hility, be labouring under its infinences. These considera of the island. The appearance of the country was fertile tions should nnsettle no man's faith, but should teach him
nature appears to have been very bountiful, Tout aft has + The English clape' is a room on the third or fourth storey of a done but little for the country; Cultivation was very lihouse just outside the Portne del Popula ; * soldier is stationed at the mited. On the 3d of October, I visited, in condpany with entrance, I have been told, for the purpose of preventing any but English attending.
Mr. Henry, the mission station at Tiarei 'The portion of
country over which we passed was very picturesque ; nu a mountainous but romantic appearance; the towering rocks merous rivers, but of small size, discharge themselves into were of various fantastic forms, some having the appearthe sea, and we had to pass several before we had proceed- ance of ruined castles. We had a good view en passant of ed a distance of tiro niles. After riding on the sea beach | Talu harbour in which Cook anchored, and arrived at Mr. for the distance of about 10 miles, we arrived at Taravao Simpson's residence at Papetoai soon after dark. This harbour, lover which we were obliged to swim the horses, island, from the parts ) visited, has a fertile appearance; and pass over ourselves in a canoe. At this place the scen and cattle introduced by the missionaries were now abun. ury was beautiful, and what was termed the isthmus, dant both at this island and Tahiti, from which excellent was for the most part flat, but covered by a profusion of milk and butter, as also good beef can be procured. At this flowering shrubs and plants ; a verdant hill of moderate island I saw a misshapen native dwarf, of about four height rose at one part of the isthmus, and the view was feet in height. He reminded me of the « Black Diart” of terminated in the distance by the lofty mountains of Taia- Sir Walter Scott, his arms were long, head large, legs short, rabu. This place would be valuable for a settlement, having &c. He was employed in tolling the church-bell. a good harbour for shipping, and excellent land calculated On the 14th November, 1829, the dark towering volcanic for the cultivation of the sugar-cane.
mountains of the island of Hawai were scen bearing W. by Horses have been imported from South America, but rid S. at a distance of 40 miles ; on the 15th we passed Maui, ing on the island is frequently unpleasant from a deficiency Morokai, and other islands forming the group ; on the 16th of good roads, which are now however in progress of forma- at daylight, we were off Diamond Hill, (Island Oahu,) tion. We arrived at Tiarei about 11 P.M., where we were which is a high conical hill, having a crater on the summit, kindly received by Mr. Henry, the missionary on the sta- and forms the west point of Waititi bay; we had been aided tion. At Tiarei I was introduced to the chiefs Paofai and during the night by a strong westerly current, setting about Hitoti, who appeared very intelligent men. The population two or three miles an hour. The Island had, about this of the island has been stated to me as consisting of 7,000 part, a dry, barren appearance, occasioned by a long drought. personis.
We passed the bay and village of Waititi, at which the The musical instruments now remaining among the na native houses were intermingled with cocoa-nut trees, and tives, were the Vivo or nasal flute, and the Hio or reed about nine A.M., the pilot, Adams, came on board, and as pipes; the former were of bamboo, and have a pleasing but we neared the harbour and town of Honoraru, (which was monotonous sound : the latter were usually played in con. seen crowded with shipping,) the British Consul, R. Charlton cert, and were not inharmonious.
Esq., and C. Jones, Esq., the American consul, came on Ou the Ilth of October I visited Matavai bay. The recol-board ; when off the harbour, boats from the whale and lections of this place from its frequent description, and the other ships came off and towed us in. We fortunately ennumerous scenes which have occurred, and are related by tered before the breeze set out, which would otherwise have our circumnavigators, excited much interest, when I stood obliged us to anchor in the outer roads, which is considered ou “One-tree bill," and viewed the scene in the distance,
unsafe. which may be felt but not described. The view from “ One The town of Honoruru is of some extent, but the streets tree Hill" was beautiful, consisting of the fertile valley of are irregular, the scattered style of native towns not having Matavai, the village of Hapape, in the bay, which was dis. yet given place to the European; the greatest part of the tinctly seen, and the surf breaking on the “Dolphin rock," or dwellings are in the native style, and have not an unapt more correctly reef. It was on this reef that Wallis's ship resemblance to haystacks, being covered with a kind of struck ; it recalled to my recollection the scenes and inci- grass called pide, and sometimes the edges are decorated dents he had described. Here also Cook anchored, and a low with a black ridge, formed from fern leaves, dyeil of a black point seen in the distance was that to which he gave the colour by being steeped in taro mud, which is a revival of an name of Point Venus; and on this hill a columo ought to old native custom ; there are, however, several fine build. be erected, commemorating the discoveries of that great ings belonging to European and American residents. circumnavigator, On descending into the valley, we ar The natives of both sexes adopt, some the European style rived at a place where the first residences of the mission of dress, others the native, and some a dress in which both aries were pointed out to me, near which gretv some farge are mingled; the native females decorate their heads with orange and lemon trees, as also a tamarind tree which had wreaths of fowers, giving a preference to flowers of a yelbeen planted by them. The place where the King's house low colour, which have a neat and elegant appearance, disstood during the visit that Cook'made to this island, was playing that taste in the arrangement, in which the female also shewn me; several houses had been erected on this spot sex, in every part of the world, whether among civilized since that time, as the materials of which the dwellings are or uncivilized nations, excel; these ornaments are called constructed, are very perishable.
lei, and the yellow fleirers of the rima (sida sp.) or the On my return from Matavai, I observed at Papaoa or
nohu (tribulus sp.) are inuch used for the purpose. Among Pare the residence of the Queen Pomare, (who was at this those of high rank, these ornaments are formed of red and time absent on a visit to the Leeward Islands ;) near it is a yellow feathers. long thatched building, where “ the Parliament" assembles On the 21st of November, I visited the beautiful valley to make or revise the laws, &c. &c. Not far from the royal of Nuanu, in company with Mr. Wilson, from it the view residence was a small house, whitewashed, with Venetian of Honoruru and the shipping in the harbour was very fine ; windows painted of a black colour : this was the tomb of the lofty towering hills were verdant ; taro plantations, irPomari, the late king, and also his son who died young; rigated by small rivulets of water, were numerous and octhe coffin of the late king had beeu placed on stools in this casionally a few native habitations, near which the plantain dwelling, the natives not liking to have it placed under-tree spread its broad foliage, diversified the scene. The ground; there were several contrary statements given to me acacia falcata, or koa of the natives, waz abundant in dif. Ixespecting the remains being still there. Some said, that ferent stages of growth, displaying the curious change of being decayed, the bones were buried; others stated, that foliage peculiar to the acacia tribe. After viding for some they had been taken away to another island, and kept se distance up the valley, we arrived at the country residence cret in whatever place they had been deposited, so that on of Boki, the governor of Oahu, who was residing there for the event of a war the bones of the king might not be cap- change of air; after having an interview, we proceeded. The tuured juthis is a remnant of old superstitions, Near the valley increasing in beauty and luxuriance of vegetation as spot was a place in which mumerous tamanu trees (calo- we proceeded; on reaching the Pare or precipice, the view phyllum inophyllum) grew ; this spot had formerly been of the valley below, named Kolou, interspersed with small The site of a largu morae, where the kings were elected, &c, verdant hills, was very picturesque. It is said that over
We left Tahiti at daylight of the 17th of October, 1829, this pare Tameahmeah drove a chief and his party when and about 2 2.M, we were off the island of Eimco, when I he conquered the island; and human boncs, it was also accompanied Mr. Simpson, a most intelligent missionary, stated, could still be found in the valley, being the remains and the Commander, to land on the island. This islaud has of those who perished on that occasion : a story pathway
wound dową from the height on wbteh we stood into the it would be a superior harbour to that of Honiaruru, ist valley. On our return froin oar agreeable excursion, the only iu point of size, but from the great advantage it would report of cannon announced the arrival of a ship of war ; possess over it in situation, perusitting ships to enteroruke it proved to be the United Service ship, Vincennes, Captain their departure with the trade wind. - About dusk weletFinch, from Hawai, returning with the king and suite. In rived at Eva or Wyeva, where, after taking refreshment, we the erening I accompanied the British consul on board, and retired to rest, sleeping on the cool mats of the country's was politely) received by the officers; the Vincennes was a agreeable in a sultry climate, and with our coverlet of fine ship, in excellent order, mounting 24 guns of heavy tive cloth. The usual beds of the chiefs in this country are metal for her class, (nedium 24 lbs.) and had a crew of 210 mats piled to about the height of two feet from the ground
On the dawn of the following day (the 9th) we resume A subsequent journey up the beautiful valley of Manoa our journey over a long extent of elevated plains, of which was delightful, Although not equal in extent to Nuanu, the soil was fertile, but now lying waste, covered by drink it surpassed it in beauty; the sun shone bright, but was grass and a few plants and shrubs, calculated to forw not oppressive ; the hills were verdant, and numbers of a excellent pasturage for innumerable herds of cattle; the species of hawk moth (sphinx pungens) flitted about like distant view was high-wooded hills forming a five back the puny humming-bird, thrusting its proboscis into every ground to the landscape. After some hours' ride, during flower to extract the nectar; plantations of taro and sugar- which we had to cross some deep marines, we arrived at cane were numerous, and the latter being in full flower had Wyrua, (wy, water, rua, two, from two rivers passing near a splendid appearance, as the silvery flowers waved to the it,) and took breakfast at the house of an Englishwan passing breeze. The summit of the valley terminated in a named Thomas, who had a neat habitation, about which is dense vegetation, among which the apu or cibotium chamis- a plantation grew taro, breadfruit-trees, and several large soi, and mau or sadeleria cyatheoides ferns were abundant, trees of the Eugenia malaccensis, called by the natives elis, and the declivities of the hills were adorned by the whitened and which were loaded with ripe fruit, this man held the foliage of the aleurites triloba or candle nut-tree. On the tenure of the land under one of the chiefs, and he complais2d of December I rode towards Diamond Hill; the evening ed of the oppression he experienced. From his account it was very fine and clear; a few cocoa-nut trees (particularly appears that the holders of land have to give half their mind ahout Waititi) mingled with the native habitations, but did duce to the chiefs, and as much more as the chiefs demand: not seem to be much valued by the natives; the tou or kou they can also be called upon to serve the chief in any of his tree (cordia orientalis) was also abundant. Near Diamond war expeditions, and if they refuse, the tenure of the land Hill is the remains of a morae, or, as called by the natives is lost. The increasing desire of the chiefs for luanins of this group, the heiau; it was now in ruins ; it did not causes the holders of lands to suffer much oppression, it was appear originally to have been of much extent, On its a subject of general complaint during the time that I visitruinous walls grew several small kou trees, covered with a ed these islands; the provisions brought into the markets profusion of orange-coloured blossoms.
pay to the government half of the price for which they're The natives carry about for sale calabashes, neatly paint sold, which necessarily raised the price. At the villages ed; they are sold at low prices, and called huawai. The Wyrua we met Kaliakanoa, wife of the chief Hina, kita, pative mats are manufactured from the fara or pandanus ; (hiva, hiva, signifies crazy ; this personage was formert the finer kind are made from a species of rush, one of which high-priest to the old king Temerınea,) who accompanies is of small size, but has the sulms of a red colour, which us to Wymea, situated at a distance of about two roles are dried, and worked tastefully into the mats of the best from Wyrua. Wymea is a small village, at the tide of my kind, and are ornamental. This kind of rush is named by visit thinly inhabitated, in consequence of most of the inthe natives makaroa. There is a rush of a large size, called habitants being in the mountains collecting sandal wed; akakai, used by the coopers of the whale ships, and by the during which time they build houses in the mountains, patives in the manufacture of a coarser kind of matting. where they reside until having collected the quantity of
The bodies of the late king and queen are supposed to wood required they return to their village; it is situated in be removed from Hawai, that island being the usual burial. a valley close to the sea-shore; the coast at this period was place of the royal family. I could obtain no further infor- covered by a heavy surf, but at times it was stated there mation respecting their place of removal; it appeared to be was merely a ripple, so that a boat could land in safety: preserved with secrecy. The only answer I received was, behind the village were lofty hills. Wymea bay oppeste that the house having fallea down, the bodies had been re the village has good anchorage, but is very exposer la moved.
was in this bay that the Dædalus store-ship anchoned, which On the 8th of December I accompanied the British con was commanded by Lientenant Hurgest ; Tthe spet ** şuu on a visit to Wymea, situated about 45 miles distant pointed out to me where Lieutenant Hurgest and Mr. from the town of Honorúru. Between Honorutu and the Gooch were scated when the attack was first made on them Pearl River we passed a salt pond; it has no visible outlet, with stones by the natives; they fied across a narrowrites, and is situated abont a quarter of a mile from the sea-coast. and were finally killed a short distance up the valley, and It has the appearance of an old volcanic crater. It yields a some marines also who were with them. The principal quantity of excellent crystallized salt, and, during dry wea chief who killed them was named Uehu ; they were farm ther, the pond is covered with a saline incrustation. Not merly considered a more savage race at this island than a far alistant from it is a ligh hill, called Mouna Roa, and a any other of the group. The narrative of the above unfor pond of fresh water The salt pond was stated to be unfa. tunate circumstance is related in Vancouver's Voyage. W thomable.'
left Wymea on the 11th, and arrived at Honoruru in this * We rode on for some time, the scenery occasionally di- evening, enjoying the diversified scenery of Pearl River again versified by tao plantations, the taro being the most culti- on our return. Turkeys have been introduced from Aman vated vegetable at these islands, which may be accounted rica, and thrive well at these islands, (although geest for buy the great consumption of the favourite poë which is and ducks have not yet succeeded,) and are sold at from two made from the taro root. Then the Pearl river appeared and a half to four dollars each ; goats are numerous, suami in view, its appearance, whether at a distance or near ap- are taken as stock by shipping, and are sold at fron proach, was very picturesque and beautiful; this, although to three dollars each. termed a river, is, more properly speaking, an arm of the The winter season at these islands is said to be inally sea, forming an extensive harbour, of a very picturesque as hot as the summer; the reason assigned for which was
. appearance, being studded with numerous low verdant that the north-east trade-wind blew with more consta islands, and several small rivers empty themselves into it ; during the summer than the winter months and rendered the depth of water in the barbour is sufficient in almost any the atmosphere more cool during the preceding mettes part for a ship of the line; the only impediment to this. The females of these islands are not generally hamisuwe : harbour is a bar at the entrance, which, however, from be- and when dressed in the native style
, whith is prietal in jug old coral-sock, might be removed; that being effected, its character, appear to more advantage thau when dresser!