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ginn to support the mind, when the heart and flesh fail. | plicant regarding the nature of the rite On this occasion While a young man, Mr. Hall published his first work, the usual interrogatories were gone into with all solemnity « An Apology for the Freedom of the Press," a masterly on the part of the minister, and answered by the parishioner work, written in a style of the purest argumentative elo with mucb confidence, and not a little self-appreciatim. quence, and fervid with the spirit of freedom. Some time But the catechist, not entertaining the same opinion as the after appeared bis ser mon on Modern Infidelity, indisputa catechised, came to this conclusion_“ Really, Saunders, after bly the first work of its kind in the language. adorned with a', I dinna think ye're fit to hand up the bairn." * Wha all the graces of finished composition, and displaying the d'ye say, Sir ?" exclaimed his visiter. " I'm sayin, Sanaders mighty powers of a master of reasoning. His Sermon on that I dinna think ye're fit to haud it up." “Fit to haud it the Death of the Princess Charlotte is without a rival. up! 'Od saves, I could fing't ower the kirk!" Amongst tko pambers delivered on that melancholy occasion, and ti nose who would see noble ideas wedded to PARTIALITY FOR SCOTSMEN.-If the press is ever ma. noble diction, the eloquence of thought fitly enshrined amidst nimous, it is in favour of some Scotsman : Does he publish all the “ glories and beauties” of impassioned language, we a book ? -_there is a reverberating echo of praise like the would strongly recommend the pernsal of Mr. Hall's Ser- notes of a trumpet in the Lakes of Killarney : Hisexploita in mons on War ; and of the last twenty pages of the any other way are equally sure of fame. Scotland, in com. “ Thoughts on the Present Crisis,” we have inuch doubt if parison of this country, is in all respects contemptible , and there are twenty consecutive pages comparable with these yet we wonld challenge any list of names, containing the in the prose works of any other English writer. New of beneficial postholders, beneficial whether for honour

, fer Monthly.

profit, or patronage, and sure we are there would be found AFTER their disgraceful retreat at the battle of Preston, arduous as well as honourable service-the Irish come in

a majority of Scotsmen. In the army-that is to say, an Cope's dragoons were anything but a popular regiment; for a fair share. In the colonies, where money is to be madı, they were frequently stigmatized, and exposed to much bit- the preference of Scotsmen is a most notorious joke. With ter sarcasm and raillery. Once, when quartered in a town regard to the press of London, from causes that might ho on the eastern coast of Scotland, both officers and men were explained, it could, we think, be proved, that it is goressadly annoyed by Adam S—- of — a person, at that ed three parts by Scotland. This does not mean that the time, well known in the district alluded to. His appearance

editors are three parts Scotsmen, but many more than the

mere editors have powerful influence in a paper; there ar and manners were in accordance with the age in which he sub-editors and other subordinates, who, in their own de, lived. He was a robust, homely, “out spoken" man-an partments, are supreme. In the London press, what is a adept at leaping, running, and such exercises and possessed Scottish, with a few remarkable exceptions, is Irish : much real, pungent wit, which was willingły and unspar- dive into the mysteries of these matters; for he might

much from the fourth estate. Few persons will venture sa ingly employed against this regiment, which had always share the fate of the bear in fable, who put his rule been the object of the laird's particular dislike and con paw into the hornet's nest.-New Monthly Magazine. tempt. At length, his lampoons became so frequent and touchy, that one of the officers determined to challenge the

THE IRISH GENTRY AND THE Irish Poor. The offender ; and, by this method, at once to vindicate the ho- | wide hiatus between the gentry and the labouring cias

classes of society in Ireland are ill arranged. There is a nour of the corps, and put an end to all further annoyance for the class of small farmers, which constitute the ta from such a quarter. Accordingly, a brother officer was nantry of the country, cannot be ranked much above these despatched with the challenge. The laird espying a red- who labour for their daily subsistence. The class of fur coat approach his mansion, guessed right well his intent, mers in England and Scotland, which forms the pride and but determined on granting him admittance. He was forth such a class is created by some means, there is little hope

the strength of Britain, is unknown in Ireland. [at] with ushered into the presence, and formally communicated of the improvenient in agriculture of that conntry. A what he had been charged with. Adam heard him to an society is there at present constituted, the nobility and end, and agreed to accept the challenge, on the condition gentry can live in apparent splendour, while their terasi. that they should “ fecht wi' swurds, as pistols were kittle ry, the farmers, as they are called, eke ont an existening things.” This was acceeded to ; and the time and place of of sympathy is wanting betwixt them, and, until the com

more pitiable than the class who labour for hire. A beni meeting determined on-a hill at some distance. True to necting link is supplied, a reciprocal desire of mutua their engagement came the challenger and his second, and support, arising from an assimilation of interest, cannot be with them a surgeon ; and no less punctual came the party expected to exist among so widely separated classes of comchallenged, accompanied by a six feet farmer, whom he had munity.- Quarterly Journal of Agriculture. pressed into the service. The swords were measured, and

SKETCH OF AN IRISH PEASANT._Observe the hall. other necessary preliminaries adjusted with great siicety. clad peasant, breasting the storm with wiry sinews, ka “ Now," said the laird to his opponent, “ are ye ready ?" raggedcoat streaming in the wind, travelling to see He was replied to in the affirmative. “ Weel, lad, keep a

veighbouring market with a load on his shoulders Ther gude look out, for ye see, I intend fechting you the day as

load is a web of linen cloth, for which, should he be fearye did the Hielandmen at Preston ; and ye ken hoo that

tunate enough, he may obtain from 6d. to 10d. a-yard

And this trifling sum is all that this man obtains for : was.” “Sir, explain yourself,” retorted the officer. “Catch yard of cloth, after having grown his own far, on last me if ye can, man!" shouted Adam ; and giving a not very for which he must pay from thirty to eighty shillings per delicate part a loud smack in token of defiance, he bounded acre,_after the labour attending the pulling, watering

, 'off, and was out of sight in a moment, closely followed by to market. Then with the proceeds of the sale of this

drying, crigging, dressing, spinning, weaving, and taking his long-legged second, to the no small astonishment of the cloth, together with the sale of his corn-for these met two dragoons, and disappointment of the expectant ur- generally rent three or four acres of ground_he contrite geon.

to pay his rent; while himself and family live, or rather

dray out a miserable existence, entirely on potatoes : for The minister of a country town was solicited by a pa- his ducks and fowls, geese and turkeys, are all broaghi, to rishioner to administer the ordinance of baptism to his child market to enable him to purchase something to cover ha It had always been the practice of the divine, before com

nakedness with ; nor will his utmost exertions enable biu plying with such a request, to put a few questions to the ap

to procure better fare.-Loudon's Gardener's Magarite

ANECDOTE OF THOMAS CLARKSON, Esq.We extract | ing from the sale of the wreck of his superb library, which he following account of an attempt to kill Mr. Clarkson, fetched a very low price, because even in London, partyne of the earliest and most zealous, friends of the injured spirit prevented a competition of purchasers.--Dumoni's ons of Africa, from The Tourist, or, Sketch Book of the Recollections of Mirabeau. imes, ia iveekly periodical, which constantly advocates the bolition of slavery, and is also, in other respects, a valuable -ublications. I was one day on the pier-head at Liver.. ANECDOTE OF THE IRISH NORTHERN CIRCUIT.-The ooh, with many others, looking at some little boats below father of the bar was engaged to defend a prisoner of equal t the time of a heavy gale. Several persona, probably out purity of character and spotless integrity with my s gentle s curiosity, were hastening thither. I bad seen all I in handed” client. The prosecutor was a steady old northern, ended to see, and was departing, when I noticed eight or whose dim eyes and grey locks told the close of three-score ine persons making towards me. I was then only about years and ten, but whose honest indignation against the ight or niue yards from the precipice of the pier, but going innovations of knavery and theft supplied him with all the from it. I expected that they would have divided to let vehemence of yonthful ardour. « My good man," said his ne through them; instead of which, they closed upon me, lordship, “ take the crier's rod, and see if you can point out and bore me back. I was borne within a yard of the pre- the person who lightened your pocket; begin now up here, cipice, when I discovered my danger; and perceiving among and look all around the court,” said the learned judge, them the murderer of Peter Green, and two others who had pointing up at the head of the seat occupied by the bar. insulted me at the King's Arms, it instantly struck me The old gentleman looked steadily and cautiously down that they had a desigu to throw me over the pier-head; the seat ; at leugth, with the fixed and motionless glare of which they might have done at this time, and yet have the rattlesnake, placed himself opposite the worthy father, pleaded that I had been killed by accident. There was and laying the rod upon his hoary locks, exclaimed, “I'm not a moment to lose, Vigorous on account of the danger, thinking that's the chap!-eh, hould on a wee bit ; come I darted forward. One of thens, against whom I pushed up Jack," he shouts, turning round to his son, who was myself, fell down. Their ranks were broken, and I escaped, amongst the crowd, “come up, mon, and gie's a haun to not without blows, amidst their imprecations and abuse." thrapple the rubber (robber.") Judicial gravity could not

withstand this; it was truly electric. “ Very likely, my ASECDOTE OF ANDREW MARVELL.- The borough of have got some of your money in his pocket ; but will you

good man,” said his lordship, “ that white headed man may Hull, in the reign of Charles II., chose Andrew Marvell, a

swear that he's the lad that robbed you?"-"Well, in troth, yoning gentleman of little or no fortune, and maintained I'm no joost directly positive sure, but he's grey, and like him in London for the service of the public. His ander. the chap that I gruppit by the cuff of the neck anyhoir." standing, integrity, and spirit, were dreadful to the then infa- “Why, nian,” said his lordship, “ that's the prisoner's connmous administration. Persuaded that he would be theirs sel." “Och, I kenn'd bravely,” replies my old friend," he for properly asking, they sent his old school-fellow, the

was yin o' a bad crap ; he maun hae a lang-shanked ladle Lord Treasurer Danby, to renew acquaintance with him that sups kale with the diel."Dublin University Magain his garret. At parting, the Lord Treasurer, out of pure zine. affection, slipped into his hand £1000, and then went to his chariot. Marvell looking at the paper calls after the Treasurer, “My Lord, I request another moment." They went

THE LATE DR. ADAM CLARKE. A correspondent in. up again to the garret, and Jack, the servant boy, was quires whether the late Dr. Adam Clarke adhered to the called. “ Jack, child, what had í for dinner yesterday ?" last to the opinion he expressed respecting the probability of "Don't you reinember, Sir? You had the little shonider animals being recompensed in a future state for the unme. of mutton that you ordered me to bring from a woman in rited sufferings they endure in this ? Our correspondent has the market.” Very right, child_What have I for dinner addressed the inquiry to us, in consequence of having perused to-day?" . Don't you know, Sir, that you bid me lay by the introductory chapter of the Melange, in which the

the blade-bone to broil ?" "'Tis so ; very right, child; go learned and pious Doctor's theory on this subject is noticed ! away. My Lord, do you hear that? Andrew Marvell's and commented upon. In answer to this correspondent, all dinner is provided; there's your piece of paper, I want it

we can say is, that we never heard that Dr. Clarke had ever pot. I knew the sort of kindness you intended. I live repudiated his own doctrine on this subject ; and we know here to serve my constituents; the ministry may seek men that many persons of unaffected piety have held the same for their purpose ; I am not one."

opinion,-opinions from which nothing but good effects can result. The dumb animals"_in the words of the preface

to the Melange,_" are the work of the same God who TALLEYRAND. A sententious manner, frigid politeness, created man; and who shall presume to say that the author and an air of observation, formed an impenetrable shield of nature, who has called them into life, may not perpeturound his diplomatic character. When among his intimate ate their existence after their earthly career ?'' friends he was quite a different being. He was particularly fond of social conversation, which he usually prolonged to a very late hour. Familiar, affectionate, and A MORE THAN SPARTAN BREVITY OF SPEECH. It is attentive to the means of pleasing, he yielded to a species of one thing to write a good speech and another to speak one. intellectual epicurism, and became amusing, that he might This fact was illustrated some years since in a neighbouring be himself amused. He is the author of the bon-mot quoted county, in which a regiment of yeomanry cavalry had re. soumewhere by Champfort, where Ruthiere said, “ I know solved on presenting their Colonel with a splendid silver not why I am called a wicked man, for I never, in the porter jug, through the hands of the Adjutant. The day of whole course of my life, committed but one act of wicked- review came on, when the present was to be made-the nekodu.. The Bishop of Autun immediately exclaimed, with Colonel had got a hint, and had prepared a splendid oration his full sonorous voice, and significant manner, " But to return thanks. The Adjutant's presentation speech was when will this act be at an end ?" One evening, at whist, to be unsurpassable; the troops were drawn'out in line, all while he was in London, a lady of sixty was mentioned as eyes were turned towards the Adjutant, as he advanced bejust having married a footman. Several expressed their fore the soldiers, holding the glittering gift in his hand, and suriprise at such a choice. « When you are nine," said the the Colonel waiting to hear the address of the giver. All bishop of Autunt, * you do not count honours." His man ears were intent to hear the speech and reply. Alas! me. ner of story-telling is peculiarly graceful, and he is a model mory in both individuals had proved a treacherous guardian of good taste in conversation. Indolent, voluptuous, born of her treasures. The Adjutant approached, extended his tol wealth and grzandeur, he had yet, during his exile, ac- hand, presenting the dovation, but all his speech wascustomed himself to a life of privation; and he liberally « Cornel, there's the jug ;" and what was the equally obliShared with his friends the only resources he had left, aris- I vious officer's reply - Ay, is that the ing!"

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sages in the three laüt years were L.032,360 : that is, this charpe sto raahls palada de muerte


In the anti-tithest of the nob,

troducing to anti-rental doctrine; IRISH LANDED PROPERTY.We have a striking illus- ing upon an area for tumultuous tration of the extent to which Irish estates are dipped, in anti-rank contention ; though, in the demi the evidence of Mr. Mahony, before the tithe committee and opulence, the constitution that supported them

come down, overwhelming in its fall the interests of thou According to a return from the Registrar's office, the mort

persons who rashly pulled it to the ground. Baron Smith's was the aggregate amount of such of them as had the con HOWARD, THE PHILANTHROPIST,_The energy of his sideration money marked on the memorials ; but as there determination was so great, that if, instead of being habi. were 341 which had no indication of the amount of the tual, it had been shown only for a short time on particular consideration money, the real aggregate total must be above occasions, it would have appeared a vehement impetuosity:

but by being unintermitted, it had an equability of mas. the sum stated, and may, according to Mr. Mahony's cal- ner which scarcely appeared to exceed the tone of a calm culation, be estimated at least at a million. Besides mort- constancy, it was so totally the reverse of anything like gages, there were transactions of enormous magnitude in turbulence or agitation. It was the calmness of an inter bouds and judgments. In the three Courts of King's Bench, sity kept uniform by the nature of the human bind for. Common Pleas, and Exchequer, 17,336 original judgments dual forbidding it to be less. The habitual passion of this

bidding it to be more, and by the character of the indirwere entered on cognovit (that is upon bonds with warrant mind was a pitch of excitement and impulsion, almo of attorney :) 3,776 judgments were revived; and 1,465 equal to the temporary extremes and paroxysms of conson judgments re-docketed, all of which represent a penal sum minds ; as a great river, in its customary state, in quals of L.24,156,856, or an actual debt of L.12,304,372, besides

a small or moderate one when swollen to a torrent-F interest. Adding to this the amount of the mortgages, we

ster on Decision of Character. have a total debt recorded, within the last three years, of Dogs in a state of nature never bark; they simply within

BARKING OF DOGS, THE RESULT OF CIVILIZATION L.13,546,602, nine-tenths of which, as Mr. Mahony justly howl, and growl; this explosive noise is only found ameny supposes, affect landed property alone. The average annual those which are domesticated. Sonnini speaks of the boy increase of debt, within the period specified, is L.4,515,534, herd's dogs in the wilds of Egypt as not having this faculty and the value of all the landed property of Ireland is not and Columbus found the dogs which he had previously c*estimated by Mr. Griffith, the engineer, at more than ried to America, to have lost their propensity to barking L.12,715,578.-Dublin Evening Post.

BEAR-CATCHING-The inhabitants of the mountainous STERNE'S DAUGHTER—Sterne's daughter had been parts of Siberia fasten a very heavy block to a rope that baited incessantly about her religious opinions by a young terminates at the other end with a loop. This is laid man, a commonplace puppy, the son, or the nephew, or the brother, I declare I can't say which, for I never thought the accustomed to go. On getting his neck into the noose, and

near a steep precipice, in the path in which the bear is fact worth ascertaining, of one of the prebends of Durham. finding himself impeded by the log, he takes it up ini She had listened to his niaiseries with exemplary patience rage, and, to free himself from it, throws it down the for several days, when on a sudden it seemed to occur to precipice; it naturally pulls the bear after it

, and he is kidel her, that even to forbearance there are limits. He resumed by the fall. Should this, however, accidentally, net prene the attack this morning, with—“ Mrs what made you the case, he drags the block again up the mountain, and sceptical ?" The lives,” said she, “ of the Dean and Chapter of sinks exhausted to the ground, or ends his life by a da

reiterates his efforts with increasing fury, till he eithe Durham." The laugh went against him. Instead of readily joining

cisive plunge Cabinet of Arts.

PUNISHMENT OF CHILDREN.-Never let a child in it, and treating the matter as a sorry jest, a burst of merriment ensued on his rejoining, aside a most vehement aside punished for an action which he does not know the it was with an air of desperate pique, “I hate your clever him in the view

of others, for it will then infallibly harwomen, they are all such d'd fools." EDUCATION IN IRELAND,There has been no want

den his heart: Never let a child be punished till en either of Acts of Parliament, or grants of money, to make him without

being sure he has committed the fault

the third time Never pause Ireland both wealthy and wise. The treasury has been taxed ; the purses of the English, who, though a money-lov. well considered, and when the proper occasioni comes, Ti


question. And let the punishment you intend ing, are a kind-hearted people, have bled freely ; sermons have been preached in cathedrals and conventicles; the wi. gorously inflicted-Christian's Penny Magazines de dow has given her mite, and the child its allowance; and yet, every two or three years, we are sickened with the same ghastly tale of famine. Again, for the remedy of Irish ig

CONTEXTS OF NO, XXXVIH:s uudi norance, society upon society has been constituted, thou Hints for Conversation....**** sands after thousands have been subscribed by individuals; Society in North America.......... successive administrations in the greatest financial straits Shell Fish....... have liberally voted the public money, and the tightest eco Interesting nomists have hardly objected to the disbursement. Schools On a Mother's have risen in all quarters, and schoolmasters are almost as The Daisy..... numerous as authors; and yet the same complaint con USEFUL Notices-Gardening; The Chinese Method of Propea tinues the Irish are perishing for want of instruction. At gating Fruit Trees by Abscission ; Hints to Housewives... length the Government take the matter into their own Tae STORY TELLER-The Pasieka; or, Bee Farm-condaded hands. They resolve that the education for which the na Assassination of Marat by Charlotte tion are to pay, shall be a national education ; that the The Rev. Robert Hall....................... funds appropriated to the purpose shall be vested in respon. Anecdotes, &C......... sible hands; and that they shall be rendered beneficial to SCRAPS-Original and Selected... all who need and desire to avail themselves of the boon. What has followed ? Feeble, wavering support from half friends, and clamorous opposition from Tories and Dema

EDINBURGA : Printed by and for Joux JOHNSTONG, 19

, & don't

Square. Published by JOHN ANDERSON, Jun., Bookseller, , North gogues, a union such as hath not been seen since the Pharisees and the Herodians took counsel together.--Yorkshire Mom

Bridge Street, Edinburgh; by JORN MacLeod, and thisen Mag. nf Education.

Co., Booksellers, Glasgow ; and sold by all Bookseller und Sonde of Cheap Periodicals.

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patches of two or three acres, and two or three fields con.

stitute a farm. The wretched cultivators plant one acre or IN' August last we visited Belfast, Newry, Drogheda, mainder with wheat and oats. The produce of the latter

more of their possessions with potatoes, and sow the reDublin, Kildare, Rosscrea, Limerick, Charleville, Buttevant, Mallow, Cork, Fermoy, Clonmel, Kilkenny, Carlow, they deliver in kind to the Protestant clergyman and landand Dublin again, and returned by Slane and Ardee to Bel- lord's factor, and are well contented to be permitted to refast. The stage-coaches are admirable, drawn by high-met

serve the potatoes as their own. We saw scarcely any corn Gtled horses, which require to be held at the stages to pre

in stack in the open country. The advanced season of the vent them running away; and while held, not unfrequently year, just before harvest, might account for this to a great leap over the traces from impatience to get off. The drivers extent; but we were informed that, owing to the system are well-dressed, spirited, yet cautious men; the roads are, just described, comparatively few stacks are to be seen at in general, as good as highways not Macadamized can be any period. made ;' the country is uncommonly fertile, and extensively with in the open country. In some districts nearly all the

Huts and palaces are alınost the only habitations met cultivated ; the inns are in general good, and the charges h uses wilich may have served proprietors with incoines moderate so that, altogether, travelling in Ireland is com

under L. 1000 a-year, or tenants of 300 or 400 acres, have modious, rapid, and highly interesting.

been burned down, and present to the traveller walls withThe accounts generally given of the misery of the Irish

out roofs, while the winds of heaven are heard sweeping peasantry are below rather than above the truth. In Bel

through the windows. The palaces belong to bishops, or fast, and the neighbourhood, the people have the Scotch head,

proprietors, whose revenues enable them to maintain a reand manifest the corresponding talents and dispositions ; there, order, industry, and comfort

, abound. - After passing miles a great fabric is seen rising, huge and massive, in the

tinue fit to constitute a garrison. Every twenty or thirty the Newry mountains, however, thirty miles south of Belfast, wretchedriess begins, and has no termination, except in horizon. As you approach it, it turns out to be barracks the towns, till it reaches the sea. The habitations of the round ; and, besides, every village has its outpost of soldiers.

as large as an extensive square in a great city, walled all lower orders are cottages of mud or stone, without windows In the small towns alone, which are very 'numerous, is and chimneys; straw'serves for å bed, and stones for seats ; there any population of the middle rank to be found. a pot to boil potatoes, and a coarse brown jug to hold water, complete the articles of household furniture. Many indi.

We travelled from Dublin to Limerick with a very inviduals are in perfect tatters ; and those who are better telligent merchant, who exports rags and feathers from that clad can boast only, of a great-coat, with one or two necks, city. This trade brings him into close contact with the worn over a collection of rags. Under the burning sun of people. Last winter, he said, the fever-hospitals, and all August, thousands were seen loitering on the roads, or be other places that could be commanded, were crowded with fore the cottage doors, with these heavy great-coats At the patients, and still the calls for succour were loud and inces

sant. He collected L.9 in his own circle, and went among plough they wear the great-coat ; labourers mixing lime the poor to see how it could be best applied ; hc laid it all are burdened with it, and, under the encumbrance, tuck up out in purchasing straw, (which is there very cheaps) and its skirts. At the church and in the market-place the peo.

was not able to provide a bed of this material for all the ple are clad in great-coats. In short, Ireland is the great. cottagers who were sick of fever and destitute even of strawi coated nation. On asking an explanation, we were told

to lie on. Some of his customers confessed openly, that that the men have almost no employment, and no food ex they had been concerned in the conflagrations which then cept potatoes, and, in consequence of the want of excite- every night occurred; and one said, “ Last week we buried ment, feel cold at all seasons of the year, so that a great two-and-twenty, men shot in these attempts; and many a coat is thus a prime necessary of life.

widow sits with a tear in her eye that must not be shed, The cottages abound to a degree that to us was incon- and many a mother laments her son in grief that must not ceivable till we had observed it. In many places, and par- be expressed complaint would betray the living, and the ticularly between Limerick and Cork, one or more is to be dead are more fortunate than they." --About twenty miles met with every five hundred yards along the road, and they east of Limerick, we passed a group of cottages. It raised are to be seen extending, in dense "profusion on every side, fast; and across the corner of one of them, the walls of as far as the eye can reach. The fields are divided into which were raised only about four feet high, and which

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tttttt LLLLLLL 14. had as yết 110 roof, we stw some branches of trees stretch- | a new-comer to quit his possession, whicts, if not repsi-d ed, and a piile kimt of tiretrohing with rurfhod reshes at- with, is foftonvéd apk By Inis murder, me the datlarim of tempted arer tlimut. The space covered did not exceed a his property, To curb this system, połdings in iriangle of six sites in the sides. It containel 'n woman sick in the villages ; siugle houses.eyen are,lised in the Prize of favers she was deposited there by the inmates of her and converted into military stations : mutaeil, Dex own cottage to avoid contagion; and this was a common

patroles the highway during night; and imder in the practice and wise ones A collection was made for horrection-act it is a transportable often cé To be able among tlie passengers in the couch.

sight o'clock in the evening. These fatini oshirilgan In the towns, the manuber of wretches fizing in rags is produce a state of sociasy which banishes the peoprietors at appalling : gudat, in spite of all this external appearance the soily-reitliche property insecure presents the sinkt. of mistry, the Irishman is à gay, light-earted, being. ?

tion of capital and manufaétures, and seems to the ' 'This population is pretty generally instructed in letters. perpetual misery and degradation to the ountry in I. A gentleman, who had been employed hy government in in- land and Scotland, every corner of the land is termine de .vestigations in the county of Tipperary, stated, that, new houses and nascent manufactoriesas The north, of iss. eighteen years ago, not one in teu of the lower orders could | land partakes in this demonstration of prosperity; but of read or write his name, but that now the proportions are pas:ing the Nevry mountains, in all the reminder that ang reversed. fie discharged the same duties last year, and tour, we saw extremely few tenements exclusive of his spoke from observation in both instances. We saw many cottages, in the course of evection, 'schools held in buts such as already described ; the children

We were present at the assizes in CorkItaly sitting in crowds on the floor, and employed with books nutes we saw two men tried and sentenced to "to busy. and slates. Hedge-schools also were occasionally met with; tion ; a woman to long imprisonment; and a manto, las children were collected on the road-side, umder the lee of a wall separate cases, and after proof led o sura sjednica bila wall, or the shelter of a thick plantation, and there under the insurrection-aci, on the evidence of one aritmes Jlproʻtaught to read.

The complaint was loud everywhere, 'that neilket Idleness prevails in Ireland to an extent that is incon- criminal law, in the spirit of justice e risteit. Noin"

: ceivable, not from want of will to labour, but of work to blamed the higher judges ; but Catholics and culighet. pecform. 1 Every little farm is overstocked with hands, Protestants concurred in ascribing this evil to the exacesita and there is no employment for those who wish to let tion of feeling existing in the minds of inferior magistatheir labour to hire. The millions of starving tenants and juries. Protestants and Catholics regard each other with whom the soil groans have no capital; and hence with deadly and enduring hatred; and the class from was there are no tradesmen. The cartwright's shop and the jurors are selected is that which suffers most frequently a. bioeksmith's force, the shoemaker's and the tailor's shops, most severely from the outrages of the lower onders. Box are test met with every two or three miles, as in the sister therefore, beget a presumption of guilt, and the miorst 22m. kingdoms. The Irish drive siedges of the rudest fabric; ments and kindly affections have been so Hétium bethit the dig potatoes with a spade nine inches long, three inches recurrence of crime, condemnation, and punislutena ilus broad, and five feet long in the handle, which is used with the life of a fellow creature is disposed of

, with implementos out slopping, and rarely necds repair; and for raiment haste and palpable indifference. The officers or magais not they import the cast rags of England. and go without Seoteh criminal courts create disturbance by callint *. shoes

. An Irish town ou a market-day presents a specta. lence !" to the auilitory. In Cork they manage this t r.. cle truly deplorable. The articles, exposed for sale are tin. ter better; they write " Silence," in large letters on a pite pots, and the coursest crockery #are ; and the eountry

of a pasteboard, stick it into the cleftead of a long when population bring nothing to sell but garn, and loiter about rod, and wave it in the face of any one whose rajce s famished and wan, like ghosts on the Stygian shore.

heard rising above a whisper. It this does not produce Until we saw the conditiou of the pasantry, we could quiescence, the admomtion is a forced by a rap gu the license not understand the nocives of their confiagrations in but with the rodo, 2.8 3396 Broj se boys!! then these beenme: loo evident. Every part of the soil is In some places, where extensive proprietors are wsidenti possessed and over-reopled ; a tenant cjected cannot plant great exertions are used to introduce industry ani nulla a foot on an inch of ground without dispossessing others as habits. In the neighbourhood of Limerick, we saw jrome, poor as himself, and cannot obtain employment as a servant

whose attire scarcely sufticed the purpose of decency, sew... for hire. Losing his farm, therefore, is like an excommu

fine linen, and others busily omployed at the speaningachee nication from existence. If a landlord turn out a tenant, The great obstacle to the success of the benevolent endors and a neighbour take the ground, this is a mere shifting of

vours is the want of consumption. The prople hare possession; a farm is left vacant by the removal, and the mouey, and nobody requires their labours they havę byta community is nothing the worke; but if a stranger is in fore nothing to offer in exchange for the necessarides MLB. troduced, the previous tenant is thrust abroad on a coun. less the comforts and elegancies of life șr and hence sete try in which there is no room for him to exist. He is some

schemes are prosecuted at :: loss, and coon exhaust the fizem. times indnced to offer an exorbitint rent for another per- destined for their support. son's possession, and thus the misery is more widely dif These are the manifestations ; and our Phrenological fused. The overwhelming calamity produced by the set readers will naturally desire to know what is the develop tlement of a stranger, esperially if he possesses capital, takes mont of brain that produces them. extensive farms, and dispossesses twenty or thirty families, may be easily conceived. . It is the experience of this evil

• For this development we must refer'so Purecological louroal Ne

VI. The above is underst on to her been eritten by Mr. George that has generated the Rockite system. Notice is given to Coinbe, to a friend during a rouri, bant, in 1925




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