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LEONARD'S VOYAGE TO THE WESTERN beral portion of the Legislature, have forced upon COASTS OF AFRICA.
the powers of Europe. Mr. Leonard relates twenty THE SLAVE TRADE AS IT EXISTS.
instances of the indifference or supineness of the
French prevention-ships to their duty; and shows THERE is a very general impression abroad in this country, that though the traffic in slaves is
us many of the elusory nature of the provisions of still carried on to a certain extent upon the coasts the existing treaties ; lax in their letter, and in of Africa, it is much circumscribed by the treaties
their spirit a mockery. “No French slave-ship,”
he between Great Britain and her allies, and that, at ships of war of any nation but their own; and, as
says, can be detained by us, or indeed by any rate, its attendant horrors are greatly miti- the French prevention squadron on the coast of gated. This idea, we lament to say, is entirely Africa, although nearly as large as ours, possess erroneous ; the trade exists at the present moment in full activity ; with this difference, that but little cruizing zeal, the trade is carried on,
now under the white flag, now under the tri-color, British vessels dare no longer openly engage in it,
enormous extent. The Portuguese and though British seamen, British colonial merchants,
Spanish slave-dealers, fully aware of their immu. and British capital, all co-operate in the iniquity. nity, take advantage of the
shelter which it affords, And, with this farther difference, that to the and obtain French papers for the ships they emwickedness and outrage of the former trade, are
ploy in the trade.” now added the pirate's worst vices of license and brutality; and wholesale cruelties more revolting demned trade, we can only speak in its middle
Of that trade--that man-abhorred, God-conand fiendlike than those which distinguished the
state. We shall neither look back to the brutal traffic in its former open state.
violence of deed, the cruel rapacity of motive, Tait's Magazine, which has been the uncom
which have dragged the miserable Africans from promising enemy of slavery, has this month brought their homes ; nor forward to the fate which awaits under our notice a late work which places the them when the colonial slave-mart shall have trade, as it is carried on at the present moment, in the true light, and shows it to be polluted with severed every tie of kindred, and transferred them more than its original treachery and barbarity. lash of the lawful proprietor of their fiesh and
to their final house of bondage, and to the legalized Mr. Leonard, a professional man of good education blood; and of all those free energies of body and and talent, sailed lately in the Dryad, a King's mind which man claims as the unalienable gift of ship, appointed to the West-Coast station, for the his Creator, and of which he can no · more denude prevention of the slave trade. Strange things himself, nor be justly deprived, than of his were made known to him, or fell under his notice and functions of action and thought than of his
organs during his long cruize in 1830-31, and he has per- life or his immortality. We restrict our view to formed a duty to God and man in proclaiming Mr. Leonard's representations of the intermediate them.—The opinion is not peculiar to Mr. Leonard condition of the slaves, in their transfer from their that the French Government, whether the younger or the elder branch of the Bourbons be at its head, native villages to the islands, and quote by no has never yet been sincere in wishing to put down means the most flagrant cases that he has re
corded : the slave trade; for if so, with the cordial concurrence of Britain, nothing could have been easier “ 18th February. [1831.] His Majesty's brig Plumper than to give the purpose efficacy. The treaty arrived to-day from the river Nunez, where she had been with France for the suppression is worse than nu. there under Spanish colours. The vessel was found; but
despatched in search of a slave vessel, reported to be lying gatory. She refuses the right of search conceded she hoisted French colours, and, of course, could not be. by the other states ; so that a slaver of any other touched. Several hundred slaves, ready for embarkation, nation has only to hoist the tri-color, and set at
were lodged in a factory, near the spot where she lay, waitthought, and defy, under this guise, all those mea- ing the arrival of a few more, to complete the number she
was able to cram into her hold. sures for the protection of the Africans, which the
“ 30 March. (1831.) A schooner, under Spanish colours, justice and humanity of the British people, and li- called the Primeira, arrived here today, with three hundred
and eleven slaves on board; detained by the Black Joke, easily prevented ! Were the commanders of his Majesty's tender to this ship, on the 22d ultimo, off Cape Mount, ships, as I have said before, to act otherwise, the most heary bound from the river Gallinas to the Havanna. From the pecuniary penalties would be awarded against them by the accounts brought by the captors, there is a very great num law. Therefore, until, as has been already said, the slave ber of vessels between this and Cape Palmos waiting to take trade shall be held, by a law of nations, to be piracy, and in slaves. The tender, on first seeing the Primeira, fired until all vessels found fitted for the purpose of carrying it several blank cartridges to bring her to, but paying no at on shall be held to have actually engaged in it, all our efforts tention to this mild injunction, shot was had recourse to, one to put a stop to this vile traffic must be fruitless." of which took effect, killing two of the slaves and the cook Mr. Leonard returns again and again to this of the vessel, and wounding two slaves, the mate, and four point. of the crew'. The slaves consist of one hundred and eleren
“ The pertinacious determination of the French Governmen, forty-five women, ninety-eight boys, fifty-three girls, and four infants at the breast, one of whom was born since
ment not to grant us the right of search and capture of the the period of capture, whose mother, umhappy, creature, gaged in this hateful traffic—the extensive annual importa
numerous vessels we meet with, under the French flag, ensickly and emaciated, was suckling it on deck, with hardly a
tion of slaves into the French colonies of Guadaloupe and rag to cover either herself or her offspring. “ The small space in which these unfortunate beings are
Martinique, in the face of the established laws, by evident huddled together is almost incredible. The schooner is only thorities the fact of the Portuguese Government agent, at
connictation or tacit consent, on the part of the local auone hundred and thirty tons burden, and the slave deck only Boa Vista, being openly one of the most extensive slate. two feet two inches high, so that they can hardly even sit
dealers on the coast of Africa, and continuing in his illiupright. The after part of the deck is occupied by the women and children, separated by a wooden partition from the
cit course so long unobstructed, all serve to shew, that other slaves. The horrors of this infernal apartment—the these Governments are regardless of their engagements
, and want of air---the suffocating heat--the filth--the stench have not a genuine desire towards the abolition of negro may be easily imagined ; although it is remarked that this slavery; but endeavour to screeu from nerited punishment ship is one of the cleanest that ever was brought to the co
those unprincipled adventurers, by whom the restrictions of lony. The men were bound together in twos, hy irons ri- flagrantly violated ; and it is evident, from the style of our
the treaties between these Governments and our own are so veted round the ancles. On their arrival these chains were removed, and they appeared much gratified. The counte
remonstrances, that we cannot command upright dealing,
where the interest of these powers is concerned. nances of all seemed lighted up with satisfaction at the prospect of being put on shore, towards which they often
turned jects of these foreign Governments for carrying on this illi
“ While there are so many facilities afforded to the subto gaze, with an expression of wonder and impatience. I went on board to visit the wounded. About one half of the cit trade, all our single-handed endeavours towards its supboys were circumcised. I could not ascertain that they be the sequel. Until it shall be declared piracy by a law of
pression must prove worse than useless, as will be seen in longed to a separate tribe, although their general appearance nations, and the equipment of vessels for the slave trade seemed to me slightly different from the rest. Slave vessels, shall be held an actual engagement in it—and until the in the rivers adjacent to Sierra Leone, receive considerable
most cordial union and co-operation, and the most energetic assistance in the pursuit of their illicit traffic from some of the merchants of this colony, in the shape of articles of trade suppression—and the utmost extent of punishment inflicted
measures are adopted by all civilized nations towards its and provisions; which trifling circumstance, as it pays well, and is no direct engagement in the slave trade, these pence the trade of blood can never be entirely put an end to."
on those who bid defiance to the laws enacted against itand farthing individuals may, perhaps, very well reconcile to their consciences. We learn that the Primeira was supplied Any one possessed of human feelings, who shall with bread from a vessel belonging to a merchant of Free- read the extract below, will surely not lack motive town."
to co-operate in atoning for this horrible injusBut this bread supply is nothing to what daily tice,-in wiping out this foul blot on European civipasses in a colony maintained by Britain at vast | lization, and on the very name of man. The scene expense of life and money to prevent the slave is a Spanish slave brig captured by the Black Joke, trade. Kidnapping is the constant practice of an English tender. many of the colonists—connivance is a general profession. We give one specimen of the efficacy of were found sitting on the heads and bodies of the dead and the existing treaties.
the dying below. Witnessing their distress, the "captors Information was received by the Dryad, that a Spanish brig and schooner, drink out of; but, being unused to such generosity, they
poured a large quantity of water into a tub for them to ready to receive slaves on board, was lying in the merely imagined that their usual scanty daily allowance of river Bonny. A tender was despatched to look half a pint per man was about to be served out; and when after them; and mark the result.
given to understand that they might take as much of it, and
as often as they felt inclined'; they seemed aštonished, and “ Here are two vessels fitted for the reception of slaves, rushed in a body, with headlong cagerness, to dip their and anchored at a notorious slave-port, ready to take on parched and feverish tongues in the refreshing liquid. Their board their wretched victims, whenever the number which heads became wedged in the tub, and were with some difit is possible to crowd into their holds shall be bronght ficulty got out—not until several were nearly suffocated in from the interior ; and we, although fully aware that they its contents. The drops that fell on the deck were lapped are so fitted, and that such is their intention, cannot legally and sucked up with a most frightful eagerness. "Jugs were prevent the inhuman act ; when, with the greatest ease also obtained, and the water handed round to them; and in imaginable, were the dictates of humanity not obstructed their precipitation and anxiety to obtain relief from the by the cold-blooded arm of the law, our tender or our boats burning thirst which gnawed their
vitals, they madly hit the might enter the river, capture, or destroy them, and thereby vessels with their teeth, and champed them into atoms Then
, effectually prevent them from accoinplishing their nefarious to see the look of gratification—the breathless unwillingness purpose. But no : the poor Africans must be suffered to be to part with the vessel, from which, by their glistening efek, collected together in the “ factory," like cattle, until the they seemed to have drawn such exquisite enjoyment ! Only numerous cargo is completed—we must suffer them to be half satisfied, they clung to it, though empty, as if it were shipped and subjugated to every horror, and to all the de more dear to them, and
had afforded them more of earthly gradation of the slavehold—Ive must permit, and in a man bliss, than all the nearest and dearest ties of kindred and sf ner countenance a crime which we know is about to be per- fection. It was a picture of such utter misery, from a natural petrated of the most diabolical nature, when it might be so want, more distressing than any one can conceive who has
- and Immediately after the vessel was sccured, the living
not witnessed the horrors attendant on the slave trade on monstrated that the account given to us, by the natives on the coast of Africa, or who has not felt, for many hours, the banks of the Bonny, of the extent of the massacre, had the cravings of a burning thirst under a tropical sun. been far from exaggerated. The individuals whose lives had On their way ashore to this island from the prize their been saved by the boats, were two fine intelligent young thirst still unquenched—they lapped the salt water from men, riveted together by the ancies in the manner described, the boat's side. The sea to them was new, until they Both of them when recovered, pointed to the Rapido as the tasted all its bitterness; they, no doubt, looked upon it as vessel from which they were thrown into the water. On one of their own expansive fresh water streams, in which board this vessel no slave was found ; but her remorseless they were wont to bathe, or drink with unrestrained free crew having been seen from both tenders busily engaged in dom and enjoyment. Before they were landed, many of their work of destruction, and as the two poor blacks, who enthe Africans already liberated at this settlement went on deavoured to express gratitude for their rescue by every means board to see them, and found among them several of their in their power, asserted, with horror and alarm depicted in friends and relations. The meeting, as may be supposed, every feature, that this was the vessel from which they were was, for the moment, one of pleasure, but soon changed in thrown, she was taken posssssion of. On board the Regulo to pain and grief. Can there be in Britain—the happy and only two hundred and four slaves were found remaining, the free an individual with a heart in his bosom, who of about four hundred and fifty." will, after this, advocate slavery? A single fact like this overthrows all the plausible sophistry which such an indi-boarded five different French slave vessels, on board
In one month (October 1830) this active tender vidual may make use of to obtain partisans, besides those who, like himself, are interested in its support. Such which were above sixteen hundred slaves, from the converts to the creed of the right of property in human river Bonny alone. Ten more French vessels were flesh are much misled. They have only shewn to them the then lying in a neighbouring river ready to take bright side of the picture the comparatively happy (yet slaves on board. If this is much longer to go on, truly wretched ! condition of the slaves in our West India what becomes of the sincere wish of our own colonies. They know nothing of the withering horrors daily taking place on the coast of this desolated and unhap-government for the suppression of the trade, ad. py land, from which between sixty or eighty thousand of mitting the cordiality of Louis Phillipe with the its poor unoffending children are forcibly abstracted annu- present cabinet, and its wholesome influence in ally-cruelly torn from home, friends, and kindred-from French councils to be any thing more than a name. all that can alone make a life of wretchedness tolerable. The Spanish crew, with the exception of a few sent up in
But one more short quotation and we have done. the prize to Sierra Leone, were kept prisoners for some The censure it conveys need not be confined to time at Fernando Po, but were afterwards sent in the Atholl the African colonies. to the island of Anabona, where they were landed and turned adrift."
“ It has been unfortunate for the improvement of Africa, as
well as for the advancement of the interests of our settleOne more exhibition of the existing state of the ments there, that the persons appointed to official situations traffic abolished by the British legislature, and by have very generally made mere jobs of thein ; and as soon the faith of treaties, and suppressed at a very
as they have served their end, of pocketing a considerable great annual expense to this distressed country.
sum of money, or in some other way furthering their own
private views, provided the climate spares their lives, they “ The Black Joke, while cruizing in the Bight of Benin, have scampered off, and left the settlement to the superinfell in with and captured, on the 20th of July, the Spanish tendence of other individuals, equally as ignorant and careschooner, Potosi, of ninety-eight tons, twenty-six men, and less of its interests, and equally as solicitous of their own, as one hundred and ninety-one slaves on board, from Lagos their predecessors. And this is one grand reason why I conto Havanna ; and, on the 10th September, the two tenders, in ceive that the natives or permanent residents, such as the company, chased into the river Bonny, and captured the Maroons at Sierra Leone, should be appointed, as soon as it brigs, Rapido and Regulo,—the former of one hundred and can be done, to fill official situations, in preference to the seventy-five tons, eight large guns, fifty-six men, and two factitious and ephemeral whites." hundred and four slaves; the latter, one hundred and fortyseven tons, (both Spanish admeasurement,) five large guns, fifty men, and two slaves ; both bound to Cuba. Connect
HOURS OF LABOUR FOR CHILDREN. ed with the capture of these vessels, a circumstance of the This is taken from a pamphlet published in Manchester, most horrid and revolting nature occurred, the relation of intended to shew that the children in the cotton factories which will afford an additional instance of the cruelty and are better off than in any other works, as their hours of work apathy of those who carry on the slave trade-of the im are only 69 hours a-week; and that the intended new law perfection of the laws enacted for its suppression, as well should extend to children in all factories. This is quite right. as of the additional inhumanity entailed upon it by our Hours of Labour of other Trades in which children are selves, as a consequence of the very imperfection of these employed in conjunction with adults (delivered in, and proved laws. Both vessels were discovered at the entrance of the on oath, and inserted in Appendix to that Evidence, No. 34.) Bonny, having just sailed from thence; and, when chased Earthenware and Porcelain—Staffordshire and Derby, by the tenders, put back, made all sail up the river, and 12 to 15 hours daily. ran on shore. During the chase, they were seen from File Cutters-Warrington, 72 hours weekly. our vessels to throw their slaves" overboard, by twos, Nail Makers_Birmingham, (Children begin at nine years shackled together by the ancles, and left in this manner old) 12 hours daily. to sink or swim as they best could! Men, women, and Iron Works, Forges, and Mills Warwickshire and Staf. young children, were seen, in great numbers, struggling fordshire—(Boys employed at eight years of age) 12 hours in the water, by every one on board of the two ten- daily, and, in alternate weeks, 12 hours nightly. ders; and, dreadful to relate, upwards of a hundred and Iron Founders Ditto (Ditto) 12 hours daily. fifty of these wretched creatures perished in this way, with Collieries-Ditto, (Boys begin at eight years old) 12 hows out there being a hand to help them; for they had all disap- daily, under ground. peared before the tenders reached the spot, excepting two, Ditto--Lancashire, (Ditto, ditto) 11 hours daily, under who were fortunately saved by our boats from the element ground, 12 and 13 above ground. with which they were struggling. Several managed, with Ditto-St. Helen's and Worsely, Girls as well as Boys are difficulty, as may be supposed, to swim on shore, and many employed, ditto, ditto. were thrown into large canoes, and in that manner landed, Glass Trade-Warwickshire and Staffordshire, Children and escaped death ; but the multitude of dead boilies crst employed from 9 to 10 years old, 12 hours daily; 12 hours upon the beach, during the suceeding fortnight, painfully de- | nightly.
Wire Card Makers-Halifax, &c., Employ chiefly chil- nication which have come uyder his notice are, that by a dren 12 to 13 hours daily.
canal connecting the Mediterranean with the Red Sea,Watch Makers-Coventry, 12 hours daily in winter, 14 that by which the Mediterranean should be connected with in summer.
Pin Makers—Warrington, Employ younger children than the Euphrates, and a third, suggested by himsell, comihuthe cotton mills of that place, 14 hours daily.
nicating between the Red Sea and the Nile, througħ the Needle Makers-Gloucester, 13 hours daily.
Lake of Menzaleh. It is understood that the Pacha and Manufacturers of Arms—Birmingham, Children begin the Sultan are both friendly to any design which should from seven to nine years old, 13 hours daily. Calico Printing-Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire, &cy sounded by Captain Chesney, undeterred by dangers and
render the Euphrates navigable; and that river has been Boys employed from eight years old and upwards
, 12 to 14, difficulties, as far as the town of Bir, full eleren hundred 15, and 16 hours daily, sometimes all night. Worsted Mills-Leeds, 13 hours daily.
miles up the stream, and to within twenty hours' journey Ditto-Halifax, 14 to 15 and 16 hours daily, and some of Aleppo, or fifty of the Gulf of Scanderoun. The reporta times all night.
contain the result of his inquiries, including a fair state. Ditto -Keighly, some of them all night. Ditto-Exwick, 12 hours daily.
ment of the difficulties necessary to be overcome, details as Ditto - Norwich, Girls begin at 10 years old, 14 hours to the capabilities and aspect of the country, and the dispo. daily, part of the people all night.
sitions of its inhabitants, and sketches of the kind of steam. Ditto- Manchester, 14 hours daily.
boats which would be necessary for navigating the EuphraFlax Mills-Leeds, &c., 13 hours daily.
tes,—the whole accompanied by maps and plans, and form. Ditto--Halifax, 14, 15, and 16 hours daily, several of ing a highly valuable guide to those who shall come after them all night.
him in the labours to which they refer. The routes by Ditto-Shrewsbury, 71 hours weekly.
the Euphrates and the Nile, Captain Chesney states to be Hosiery-Leicester, Boys, girls, women and men employ- both perfectly practicable, but only so for the transport of ed 12 hours daily in winter, and 13 in summer.
letters or light goods. They cannot be made sufficiently Ditto--Nottingham, 15 hours daily.
open for the passage of the stately vessels with which the Ditto-Mansfield, Employ a great number of children ; Company trade to the East. It will be seen, therefore, hours longer than at any cotton mill in that neighbours from the following passage, that his surveys terminate in a hood.
recommendation of the ancient plan for connecting the Red Lace Manufactory-Ditto, Children employed as soon as Sea with the Mediterranean. they can use the needle, ditto, ditto.
“ Any of these routes, however, which may be adopted, Ditto-Nottingham, Children employed at seven years will probably only pave the way to the realization of the old and upwards, 12 hours daily.
grand idea, so long indulged in England, and other parts of Ditto- Tiverton, 14 hours daily.
Europe, of counecting the Mediterranean with the Red Sea; Silk Mills-Derby, 72 hours weekly.
a little time will probably remove the ill-founded apprehen. Ditto-Macclesfield, 76 hours weekly.
sion of increasing the height of the former, by the influx of Ditto-Nottingham, Children employed at eight years the latter ; for, whatever natural causes can be supposed to old and upwards, 13 hours daily.
exist, likely to maintain the Red Sea at a higher level, can Ditto-Congleton, Employ near 2000 persons, of whom hardly fail to influence, equally, the Mediterranean at the the greater part are children from five years old upwards, distance of little more than one degree; the land, it is true, 12 hours daily.
shelves gradually from the Red Sea to the western shore of Ditto–Stockport, Children as in cotton factories, hours the Isthmus, at a mean difference of eighteen feet, according as in cotton factories.
to the French engineers. But it is very questionable Power-Loom Weaving-Ditto, ditto, ditto, ditto. whether the sea itself is really higher, communicating, as
Cotton Weavers by hand-Lancashire, Yorkshire, Cheshire, it does already, with the Mediterranean, round Africa ; but, &c., Children at all ages work the same hours as adults, 14 even if it could prove so, an additional inlet will no more to 16 hours daily.
increase the height of the latter sea than do the unceasing, Draw-Boy Weaving--Paisley, Children from seven years and infinitely more voluminous ones, pouring in frou the old upwards extensively employed as drawers to weavers, Atlantic on one side, and Black Sea on the other; for the 15 hours daily.
surplus is, and equally would be, disposed of by evapora. Ditto-Glasgow, In one village, near 1000 children, from tion, when seemingly greater, because the influx must be re 8 to 12 years old, are employed till 11 or 12 at night, or gulated by the quantity of water exhaled; and, I appr. even till one in the morning.
hend, can neither be more nor less, when supplied through
one or six inlets; on which principle, the Mediterranean NEW ROUTE TO INDIA.
(when it shall communicate) would as readily give to, as
receive from the Red Sea ; were not the temperature of the The project of shortening the communication between latter, and its exhalation, lessened by the cool north winds Europe and India, by avoiding the circuit of the Cape, has prevailing during the heat of the year; for which reas:B, been at all times a favourite subject of theory ; but unac-only a moderate current may be expected to run into the countably (when we consider the practicability of its accom
Mediterranean; and it is in fact rather to be feared that plishment, and the vast results which it would involve) ne- open a noble passage for ships of moderate burden, 'tian tha!
such an inlet would not give a sufficient body of water to glected as regards any practical notice. The establishment any prejudicial increase should be the consequence, to the of a route which should reduce by one-half the long sea shores of the Mediterranean. As to the executive part
: distance by which our vast Indian dependencies are at pre- there is but one opinion,—there are no serious natural di: sent reached, would bring with it advantages in which all deserves to be called a hillock ; and, in a country where la
ficulties, not a single mountain intervenes, scarcely what the European nations would be more or less sharers ; but, bour can be had without limit, and at a rate infinitely be to Britain, besides the great commercial benefits which the low that of any other part of the world, the expense would scheme includes, it offers the high political good of draw- he a moderate one for a single nation, and scarcely worth ing more nearly together the remote portions of her scat- dividing between the great kingdoms of Europe, who world tered empire. Captain Chesney has, it appears, been for be benefited by the measure. Were the Pacha and Sultan some time engaged in ascertaining the feasibility of this thousand Arabs on this work, as he did on the Mamou.
to consent, heartily, the former could employ five Trandred project, and surveying and comparing the different routes dieh Canal ; feeding them out of his stores, so as to put by which it might be effected. The three lines of commu- nearly the whole of the contracted sum into his pocket,
Mahomed Ali is fond of speculations, and this would be a three semi-diameters from the centre, it would weigh only gravd and beneficial one for the world, as well as a paying 1-9th of what it usually does; if as far as the moon, or 60 one for his coffers." _ United Service Gazette.
semi-diameters, it would weigh only 1-3600th part. It is
impossible to prove directly, that the weight of a body is FIRST LINES OF MECHANICS.
thus diminished by distance from the centre of the earth, as Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform that by which we would compare it must suffer an equal motion in a right line, unless compelled to change that state loss by the elevation; but the pendulum affords the means by force impressed upon it. All change of motion is pro- of proving it indirectly. The vibration of the penduluin portioned to the force impressed, and is made in the direc- depends entirely upon the attraction of the earth ; the smalltion of that force. Action and reaction are always equal er, therefore, the attraction is, the less quickly will the and opposite; or the mutual actions of two bodies are al- pendulum vibrate, and the more slowly will the clock move. ways equal and in contrary directions :---These three ge At the top of a high mountain, accordingly, a pendulum neral facts are denominated the laws of motion ; they form does not oscillate so fast as on the plain. At the equator, the axioms in the science of mechanics ; and all the facts which is farther from the centre than places in the polar reand inferences which relate to the motion of bodies presup- gions, the clock moves more slowly than with us.
It was pose their truth, and are deducible from them.
this fact observed at Cayenne, which led Newton to suppose When a body is simultaneously acted upon by two forces, that the earth was not perfectly spherical, but flattened to. the one of which would carry it in one direction, and the wards the poles; and actual measurement has verified his other in another, it will move in a line betwixt the two. conjecture. Thus, if a piece of wood be thrown into a river, when the The Centre of Gravity is that part of a body, around wind blows right across, it will be carried to the other side, which all its parts are so equally balanced, that, if it be but lower down. If the two forces are uniform, the body supported, the whole body will be so too. Take a book, moves through the diagonal of a parallelogram; but if only and find by trial under what part the finger must be placed one of the forces is uniform, and the other constantly acce to keep the book from falling ; above that point is the cenlerating or retarding, the body passes through a curve ; tre of gravity. The centre of gravity always descends first. thus, when a stone is thrown from the hand, the force im- The cork of a shuttlecock always comes down before the pressed upon it tends to make it go on uniformly in the feathers; and, for this reason, the point of an arrow is made direction given to it; but, in consequence of the action heavier than the other end. A straight line, falling perpenof gravity, it is drawn more and more from the straight dicular to the ground from the centre of gravity, is called line in which it set off, till it is at last brought to the the line of direction. The broader the base upon which a ground. The two forces here acting upon it make it de-body rests, the more difficult it will be to overturn it, as it scribe a curve, which is called a parabola. The planets are must be moved the more to bring the line of direction bekept in their orbit by the actions of two forces, the one yond the base. A cask is easily rolled along; a box is drawing them to the sun, the other inclining them to fly moved with difficulty. When a man, in wrestling, is likely off at a tangent; the consequence is, (both forces being con to be thrown down, he puts his feet as far asunder as possistant,) that they revolve in orbits nearly circular.
ble. The higher this centre of gravity, the more easily is a The Momentum of a moving body is its weight combined body overturned. A coach, empty inside, with passengers with the velocity of its motion. Let us take a ball of lead and luggage outside, is in more danger, than if there be peoand lay it on the ground, its weight will press on it; but ple inside. In man, the centre of gravity is so situated that let us give it velocity also by throwing it on the ground, it the line of direction falls between his feet; the same in the will then have momentum, and make a mark. Sand is em case of quadrupeds. It is not easy for a dog to stand on his ployed for shooting small birds which it is intended to kill hind-legs, as the centre of gravity lies far forward. Ducks, without injuring their plumage ; sand blown by the wind geese, and swans walk awkwardly for the same reason. In would have no effect. Momentum may be increased by in- cats and animals that spring upon their prey, the centre of creasing either the velocity or the weight of a body; and its gravity is so situated, that they uniformly fall on their feet. amount may always be estimated, by multiplying the weight and velocity together. It was on the principle that the mo
ROASTING BY GAS. mentum of a body is augmented by increasing its velocity, An apparatus for roasting meat of every kind by gas, that, in ancient naval battles, the rowers strained with alí has been recently invented by Mr Hicks, the patentee of the their might at the onset ; it is on the same principle that a improved iron oven, by which spirit is obtained from the exram, previous to striking, moves a little backward; and the halations of fermented bread while baking. This apparatus is same principle explains the battering-ram and many other so extremely simple and beautiful, that a very few words will warlike instruments of the ancients.
suffice to explain it. The gas is admitted to a metallic circle, All bodies near our earth are drawn towards it, and in a through a very narrow continuous opening, round the outdirect line towards its centre, by the force of gravity. If, side of which the gas issues, and forms a ring of blue filame. from the top of a high tower or precipice, a stone be drop- In the centre, supported by two lateral gas tubes, joined to ped, whatever number of feet it falls in the first second, it the circle, is an upright spike, serving as a spit on which will fall three times as many in the second, five times as the meat to be roasted is stuck. From the centre of the many in the third, seven times as many in the fourth, and circle, the pipe, which supplies the gas, passes down to the so on. It falls, therefore, four times as much in two se gas main, having a cock, with a regulating lever, by which conds as it does in one second, nine times as much in three, the gas can be turned on or off, and the degree of flame proand sixteen times'as; much in four seconds. Therefore, tó duced can be regulated with the greatest nicety. The find how far a body falls in any given time, in other words, circle is raised a few inches above a bench or table, so as to find the height of the tower or precipice, multiply the to admit of the introduction of a convex tin dish, furnished space through which it falls in the first second by the square with a spout for receiving the dripping, under each spit. of the number of seconds. By experiment it is found, that From this dish the dripping runs off by the spout, and is a body fals 16 feet l(inch in the first second ; in two se collected in any common dish placed under it. Over the conds, therefore, it will fall 64 feet 4 inches; in three se- bench, at the height of three or four feet, is a projecting conds, 144 feet 9 inches, &c. A body rolling down an in- boarded canopy or hood, for receiving the heated air a clined plane, as the side of a hill, observes the same law- smell from the gas and meat, and conducting them to only the distance it rolls the first second depends upon the so as to prevent them from accumulating in the k degree of inclination of the plane.
Directly above the gas circle, is a cone of polished In retiring from the centre of the earth, gravity decreases suspended by a weight. This cone is two inches " as the square of the distance. Thus, a body 4000 miles from diameter at the base than the gas circle, and it has the surface of the earth, being twice as far from the centre orifice at the top. When the operation of ro. ? as it would be at the surface, would weigh only 1-4th of performed, all that is necessary is to spit to what it usually docs; if 8000 miles from the surface, or the gas, regulating it so as to produce o