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ment the slumbers of a tyrant. Mr. Holwell has describ. to the corresponding end attached to the bobbin. The child ed in detail the horrors of that fatal night, which are was to superintend the progress of these fifty-six threads, scarcely paralleled in the annals of human misery. Every to move backward and forward' in his little tether of about moment added to their distress. All attempts to obtain ten feet, and the moment any accident happened, io repair relief by a change of posture, from the painful pressure to | it. I need not tell you, that I saw no great expressions of which it gave rise, only aggravated their sufferings. The cheerfulness in either the elder or the younger inhabitants air soon became pestilential, producing, at every respira- of these walls: their occupations were too anxious and tion, a feeling of suffocation; the perspiration flowed in monotonous the poor should not be too much elevated, streams, and they were tormented with the most burning and incited to forget themselves. There was a kind of thirst. Unfortunately, the stations at or near the windows stupid and hopeless vacancy in every face: this proceeded being decidedly the best, the most dreadful struggles were

from the same causes. made to reach them. Many of the prisoners being com. Not one of the persons before me exhibited any signs of mon and foreign soldiers, exempt by this dreadful calamity vigour and robust health. They were all sallow; their from all subordination, made an intolerable pressure, and muscles flaccid, and their form emaciated. Several of the the sufferers, as they grew weaker, began to be squeezed or children appeared to me, judging from their size, to be trampled to death. Lond cries being raised of “water !” | under four years of age-I never saw such children. Some the humane jemantdar pushed through the bars several were not tall enough with their little arms to reach the skins filled with that liquid; but this produced only an in- swift ; these had stools which they carried in their hands, crease of calamity, through the violent efforts made in and monnted as occasion offered. A few, I observed, had order to obtain it. The soldiers without found a savage a sort of iron buskins on which they were elevated; and, sport in witnessing these contests, and even brought lights as the iron was worked thin, they were not extremely unto the windows in order to view them to greater advantage. wieldy. Children, before they had learned that firm step About eleven, the prisoners began to die fast ; six of Mr. with the sole of the natural foot, without which it is imHolwell's intimate friends expired at his feet, and were possible ever to be a man, were thus disciplined to totter trampled upon by the survivors. Of those still alive, a

But this was a new invention, and not yet great proportion were raving or delirious ; some uttered fully established. incoherent prayers, others the most frightful blasphemies. This, or nearly all this, I observed upon my first survey They endeavoured, by furious invectives, to induce the guards of M. Vaublanc's manufactory. In addition to this, I to fire into the prison and end their miseries, but without afterwards found, what you will easily conceive, that it was effect. When, day dawned, the few who had not expired not without much severity that the children were traineil were most of them either raving or insensible. In this

to the regularity I saw. Figure to yourself a child of last state was Mr. Holwell himself, when, about six o'clock, three or four years of age. The mind of a child is essen. the nabob awoke and inquired for him. On learning the tially independent; he does not, till he has been formed to events of the night, he merely sent to ascertain if the English it by hard experience, frame to himself the ideas of authochief yet lived ; and being informed that there were appearan. rity and subjection. When he is rated by his nurse, he tes as if he might recover, he gave orders to open the fatal expresses his mutinous spirit by piercing cries ; when he is door. At that time, of the 146 who had been enclosed, there first struck by her in anger, he is ready to fall into con breatheil only twenty-three Mr. Holwell, being revived vulsions of rage: it almost never happens otherwise. It is by the fresh air, was immediately supported into the pre- a long while" (unless he is unmercifully treated, indeed,) sence of the nabob, who, on his beginning the dismal tale, before a rebuke or a blow produces in him immediate sympordered for him a seat and a draught of water, but showed

toms of submission. Whether, with the philosopher, we no other mark of sympathy. He immediately commenced choose to regard this as au evidence of our high destination, a strict interrogatory about the supposed treasure, discredit

or with the theologian, cite it as an indication of our ing extremely the assertion of its non-existence. Being universal depravity, and a brand we bear of Adam's transable, however, to learn nothing on this subject, he sent Mr. gression, the fact is indisputable. Almost all that any Holwell, with three other gentlemen, prisoners to Muxada- parent requires of a child of three or four years of age; vad. In this voyage they suffered severely, their bodies consists in negatives :~stand still : do not go there; do not being covered with boils, that had broken out in consequence of their confinement; to which, however, these him any mechanical attention. Contrast this with the si

touch that., He scarcely expects or desires to obtain from eruptions were supposed to afford relief. The other survi- tuation of the children I saw: brought to the mill at six vors were liberated,; while the dead bodies were, without in the morning ; detained till six at night ; and, with the any ceremony, thrown into a ditch. Edinburgh Cabinet exception of half an hour for breakfast, and an hour at dinLibrary. History of British India.

ner, kept incessantly watchful over the safety and regularity

of fifty-six threads continually turning. By my soul, 1 am VISIT TO A SILK FACTORY.

ashamed to tell you by what expedients they are brought

to this unintermitted vigilance, this dead life, this inactive You will not suppose there was any thing very cheerful or and torpid industry! exhilarating in the patadiske tre' hnd entered. The idea of Consider the subject in another light. Liberty is the a mill is the antipath of this. One perpetual dull, fag- school of understanding. This is not enough adverteil to. ging sound, pervaded the whole, 'The walls were bare; the Every boy. learns more in his hours of play than in his inhabitants were poor. by the children in general earned hours of labour. In school he lays in the materials of little more than twelve sons in a week; most of the wo-thinking; but in his sports he actually thinks: he whets men, and even several of the men, but about one French his faculties, and he opens his eyes. The child, from the crown, (two amd sixpence English.) We must correct our moment of his birth, is an experimental philosopher ; he ideas, and imagine a very sober paradise, before we can essays his organs and his limbs, and learns the use of he think of applying the name to this mansion.

muscles. Every one wlio will attentively observe him, I was most attentive to the employment of the children, will find that this is his perpetual employment. But the who were a pretty, equal number of both sexes. There whole process depends upon liberty. Put him into a mill, were about twenty on each floor, sixty in all. Their chief and his understanding will improve no more than that of business was to attend to the swifts; the usual number the horse which turns it. I know that it is said that the being fifty-six, which was assigned to the care of each lower orders of the people have nothing to do with the child. The threads, while the operation of winding was cultivation of the understanding ; though, for my part, I going on, were of course liable to break; and, the moment cannot see how they would be the worse for that growth of a thread was broken,' the benefit of the swift to which it practical intellect which should enable them to plan and belonged was at a stand. The affair of the child was, by provide, each one for himself, the increase of his conveniturning round the swift, to find the end, and then join it ences and competence. But be it so! I know that this.

Trade with the Countries on the Niger..............
Large and Small Farms....***...***.***...***** 18

Bridge Street, Edinburgh; by JOHN MACLKDD, and ATKINSIY & Cc

child, by the play of the muscles, and pushing ont his one years-Cosi Which I had growa for twenty60 from the best of the English soils; and Giobert found | bit of employing it well, is the latest rots happi

EDINBURGII : Printed by and for JOHN JORNATO dir, 55, Vorts

Booksellers, Glasgow, and sold by all Booksellers shit Vendere

carth is the great Bridewell of the universe, where spirits worm, and much superior in other respects to the other part descended from heaven are committed to drudgery and hart of the field, which suffered greatly. Thus trouraged toy labour. Yet I should be glad that our children, upon a these results, I sowed, the next year, ah alale bow of fortycortain age, rere exempt; sufficient is the harship and to acres, which had never repaid me communaseen years, subjection of their whole future life; methinks, even in consequence of nearly every crop being retroyed by the Egyptian taskmasters would consent that they should grow wire-worm'; and I am warranted in statire, that not a up in peace, till they had acquired the strength necessary single wire-worm could be found the fortring genr, and for substantial service.

the crop of wheat throughout, which was reaped last har. Liberty is the parent of strength. Nature teaches the vest, was superior

of the Bullish Farmer's Mú. to them gazine. thomselves. Hence it is that he is so fond of sports and

YOLK OF WOOL. tricka in the open air, and that these sports and tricks are Until the experiments of that excellent chemist, Ver. so beneficial to him. He runs, he vaults, he climbs, he quelin, were published, the nature of yolk was unknown practises exactness of eye and sureness of aim. His limbs He has found it to be an animal soap; and has observed grow straight and taper, and his joints well.knit and that wool which has remained a long time in its own yolt, exigible. The mind of a child is no less vagrant than his swelled up, split, and lost its strength : effects which tak steps; it pursues the gossainer, and flies from objcct to place also in too strong soapy water, elf,'Bus M. object, lawless and unconfined ; and it is equally necessary quelin, the water of yolk cauzes wool to swd to to the development of his frame, that his thoughts and his split in this manner, is it not possible that this accident body should be free from fetters. But then he cannot may often take place on the backs of the animals, esto cara twelve sous a-week. These children were uncouth cially during damp warm weather, or when they are shu* anıl ill-grown in every limb, anil were stiff and decrepit in up in folds, the litter of which is not often enough, rena, thrir carriage, so as to seem like old men. At four years ved ? It may not be impossible also that the acridits en of age ther could earn salt to their bread; but at forty, if yolk may occasion an irritation in their skin, and prora it were possible that they should live so long, they could the cause of some of those maladies to which this organ is not earn brea'l to their salt. They were made sacrifices, subject in these animals, and which must ocurr chien while yet tender ; and like the kid, spoken off by Moses, during damp warm weather ; fortunately at this season were seethed and prepared for the destroyer in their mother's they are occasionally exposed to rains which wash them, milk. This is the case in no state of society but in manu- and carry off at least a part of this matter. In this iv. facturing towns. The children of gipsies and savages have spect I am inclined to adopt the opinion of those who think rnddy cheeks and, a sturdy form, can run like lapwings, that the washing of sheep, during dry warm weather, may and climb trees with the squirrel.”

be useful to their health, and to the quality of the wool." [At this time, when the condition of the children in the Although every respect is due to so good a chemist : Factories is so powerful a subject of interest to the hu. M. Vanquelin, he could have formed his opinion of the mane, the above extract from Godwin's Fleetwood, is ap- effect of yolk on the skin of sheep only from anaings. As propriate.]

common soap is often used with success in clearsing to skin, and curing cutaneous disorders, anklogy would les !

us to expect that yolk, being of the same nature, kould be SCRAPS.

beneficial instead of being injurious. And it is observed

that fine woolled sheep are less subject to diseases of th: SAND AS A Manure.--An elaborate report on this sub-, being well supplied with yolk and oil

, and the latter har

skin, than those which carry coarse Alecces ; thé" forner ject has been presented to the French Academy of Sciences. ing drier wool and little yolk. M. Vauqnelin thinks yalı Good arable land is proved to contain four primitive earths, a naturally

perspired matter; but it. is more praghs a the varied proporiions of which forn the different qualities combination of the salt in sweat with the oil of wolof the soil. It appears the silicious principle predominates Library of Useful Knowledge. in good land. M. Chaptal found of it 49 per cent in the most fertile soil on the banks of the Loire; Davy extracted

LEISURE.--Leisure is the noblest 79 in the most productive lands near 'Turin. M. Dutro- and dignified old age. But he who exclusively applies hin. chet made the experiment of covering with silicious sand self to the acquisition of money, shall waste life under the previously unproductive land, and obtained, by this means.

pressure ; and, amid the vacuity of mental poverts, saal crops as good as in the most (naturally) fertile soil in the close his career by an old age of restless imbecility, or of vicinity; and he gives it as his opinion, that its great fer

painful insignificance. tezing virtue consists in its allowing both vrater and air to reach and penetrate to the roots of the vegetable, of which they form the two principal elements.

CONTENTS OF NO.UK THE WIRE-WORM.- White mustard-soed will protect

Temperance Societies.....................9 the grain from the wire-worm ; and this fact I have de COLUMN FOR THE YOUNG-Stories, el Biro The Roblomon monstrated perfectly to my own conviction, I first tried

COLUMN FOR THE Ladies-Exercise-Principles of Female Dress the experiment on half an acre, in the centre of a fifty acre

-Farewell - Mary Lindsay field of fallow, which was much subject to the wire-worm. The mustard-seed being carried, the whole field was fal

Abhorrence of War......... lowed for wheat; and the half acre that had been previously

Elements Or Thouggt-Patriotism-Philanthrops.. cropped with mustard-seed was wholly exempt from the Tue STORY-TELLER-First Going to Church... wire-worm—the remainder of the field was much injured.

The Pongos... Not only was the half acre thus preserved, but in the spring Character of Mr. Hume.... it was decidedly the most advanced part of the crop; and Black Hole of Calcutta.......... the prosperous appearance which it presented caused me to Visit to a Silk Factory.. repent the experiment, by sowing three acres more of mus. Senaps-Sand as a Manure-The Wire-worm-York of World tar! seed in the worst part of a field of forty-five acres, also

Leisure.... much subject to the wire-worm. The remainder of the field was sown with carly frame peas, which, with the mustard-seed, was cleared in the same week. The land

by was then ploughed for wheat ; and I had the pleasure of noticing these three acres to be quite free from the wire

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THE

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EDINBURGH WEEKLY MAGAZINE,

CONDUCTED BY JOHN JOHNSTONE.

THE SCHOOL MASTER IS ABROAD. LORD BROUGHAM.

No. 30.-VOL. II. SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 23, 1833. PRICE THREE-HALFPENCE.

HEREDITARY LEGISLATORS.

tue of his prerogative, to order his subjects to wear In a certain kingdom, a wise and just monarch breeches made by the "heir male” of a sausage. selected one hundred of the cleverest and most maker, and the heir male of the sausage-maker conscientious tailors he could find, and ordained had an undoubted right, in virtue of his patent, that they alone should make clothes for his sub- to force the people to wear whatever he chose to jects. His immediate successors imitated his

invent, and to pay whatever price he thought pro.

policy, and, from time to time, as the tailors died, per to exact. These hereditary breeches-makers, appointed others in their room, equally honest and finding the law upon their side, waxed more lazy able. So long as this practice continued, the and insolent every day, insomuch, that on several people were well dressed at a moderate price, the important occasions they flatly refused to execute tailors were respected for their skill and assiduity, the orders of their customers for new habits, or to and the monarch was revered for his wisdom. obey their instructions for altering old ones. At But, in course of time, there arose a king, who, last the people began to inquire one of another, departing from the ways of his predecessors, de whether it would not be better that the tailoring creed, that whenever a tailor died, “ the heir male trade should be thrown open to the public, so that of his body lawfully begotten,” should become a

instead of being compelled by law to deal for privileged snip in his stead. Now, it did not al- clothes with a butcher, or a mountebank, or the ways happen that the “ heir male” of the deceased heir male of either of these, the nation might be tailor had been bred to the tailoring trade ; indeed, at liberty to employ real tailors, who had served a in most cases, his father had brought him up in proper apprenticeship, and who thoroughly underidleness, and thus in a few years it came to

stood their business.

pass, that the right to make breeches for the nation fell The common argument in defence of hereditary into the hands of men who had never sat upon a peers is, that they operate as a check' upon the shop-board, or flourished a pair of shears. The House of Commons, and ensure an impartial calpeople, fortunately for themselves, had on hand a culation of the effects of every measure proposed stock of good raiment made in the earlier times, by the representatives of the people. Now, adand did not for a considerable period require, from mitting for the sake of the argument, that a check " the heirs male of the body,” any better kind upon the proceedings of the popular representaof work than patching and mending. But at last tives is, upon the whole, of public advantage, yet the national garments began to wear out, and the it by no means follows, that the salutary degree of people were forced to clothe themselves with such control can only be attained through the medium things as the bungling offspring of the genuine of hereditary peers. It still remains a question, tailors could produce. Their coats hung about whether the ardour of the Commons might not be them like hop-sacks, and instead of being, as for moderated, their mistakes corrected, nay, their merly, the envy and admiration of surrounding plans of national improvement facilitated, by a nations, they were laughed at for their clumsy supervising legislative body appointed for life, and attire, and scorned for submitting to the imposi founding its claim to that dignity upon acknowtions of a handful of botchers. Yet the measure ledged wisdom and ability, instead of resting it of their misfortune was not full, for another of upon the ludicrous basis of the words “heirs male,” their kings thought fit, in the exercise of his royal or, “ heirs male of the body," contained in musty prerogative, to add to the number of hereditary pieces of parchment. It is difficult to suppose, snips. But instead of conferring that honour upon that if the title and privileges of a peer were conmen brought up to the needle, he bestowed it fined to the life of the deserving individual, the upon butchers, and sausage-makers, and mounte- business of legislation would be performed in a banks, or any one, in short, that he took a parti- manner less couducive to the national welfare than cular liking to. The people groaned under this in the by-gone times of the constitution. And new oppression, but in vain. The law was against still more difficult is it to conceive, that a house of them. The king had an undoubted right, in vir- peers, so constituted, resting upon the secure roc'

of personal merit, would appear less respectable in in the government of a sentence, should yet be the eyes of the people, or obtain a smaller share proficient in the goveröment of a nation. And of their esteem and veneration, than an assembly they are lost in all astonishment, when they be. brought together without the slightest reference hold the unlearned son of a chief justice lounge to the moral or intellectual qualifications of its in judgment over a difficult appeal, and, with a iudividual members.

yawn, reverse a decree framed by the clear and There was a time, no doubt, but that was before comprehensive intelleet of his learned father. the Schoolmaster broke loose, when the multitude There are anomalies in the scheme and fabric asked no questions, and believed that, “ Noble- of our glorious constitution, which, however, farmmen,” and “ Solomon,” were synonyms. But this less or expedient they appeared to the wisdom of complimentary delusion has long been vanishing, our ancestors, may, peradventure, strike the minds and recent events have thoroughly dispelled it. of the present generation as too absurd to be sucMen are now awake to the truth, that what their cessfully defended, and too pernicious to be long ancestors transmitted to them as a body of collec endured. But it is not only on public grounds tive wisdom, is, after all, but an assembly of human that the system of hereditary honours may be con. beings; subject to the same frailties, the same sidered objectionable. Such a system seems cruel boisterous passions and selfish motives, the same and unjust towards the very individuals whom it foolish obstinacy and wilful blindness, as any body is supposed to consecrate and protect. It labels as of men equally numerous, and similarly acted upon a sage and prudent counsellor many an unobtruby the mighty levers of hope, and fear, and self- sive mortal, who is ready frankly to disclaim all interest. The world now discovers, somewhat late pretensions to those Nestorian attributes. It in the day, it must be confessed, that wisdom is not pawns upon the public credulity an assembly purthe constant concomitant of nobility, nor discre- porting to be the concentrated essence of human tion the Inseparable appendage of a dukedom; wisdom, when in truth it is, and from the prinand although the providential accident of being ciple of its constitution ever must be, one of the born of titled parents may still secure heraldic weakest possible solutions of that rare and invalureverence, it is the higher boon of mental power able simple. And what is the consequence? The and moral worth, and this alone, that henceforth fraud is detected. The innocent assembly, to which will command the nobler prize of popular respect. the constitution dishonestly ascribes virtues it never But there are some persons who, without pretend did possess, is, by the popular logic, stigmatized ing that because a man inherits a title he must as a crowd of impostors. The descendant of a inherit sense, would have us believe that hereditary Burleigh is sneered at because he lacks the sagar honours exercise a mysterious influence over the city of his ancestor, and the imbecile “ heir male," minds of their possessors, and, notwithstanding all of a Chatham or a Somers, is individually contrastnatural or acquired impediments, qualify them for ed with his prompt and vigorous progenitor. But the arduous duties of the senate or the judgment is it not evident, to every impartial mind, that a: seat. It is probable that the persons who talk in peers to whom the titles but not the wisdom of this way have but a vague idea of the duties of a their ancestors descend, are not the architects of judge or of a legislator. Their notion of legisla- their own minds, they are not blamable if they tion is, perhaps, derived from the newspaper reprove unfit for the dignity which devolves upon ports of parliamentary proceedings, and thus they them? They rather merit our compassion as the naturally conclude that the whole science consists victims of a merciless institution which imposes in uttering a few illegal propositions, voting now upon them honors nature never intended them to and then, and once in a session, or so, entering a bear, and duties too onerous to be discharged by protest upon the journals of the House. Their the efforts of their feeble minds. Nature may have idea of the duties of a judge, in the last resort, is, denied them the commonest capacity,—the insti

. no doubt

, the result of their own observations in tution ordains that, whether they have capacity the House of Lords, where they must frequently or not, they shall be legislators! Nature may have seen the members of that august tribunal have made them foolish, -unreasonable man desleeping away the hours of noon, amid the argu-mands of them the exercise of wisdom! Did proments and eloquence of counsel at the bar. vidence dispense to them just sense enough for the

That hereditary titles may powerfully contribute humblest occupations of life, the law declares they to form the habits of judges and legislators such have genius for the highest ? Born with sufficient as these, is perhaps nearer the truth than those wit to tend a flock, custom sets them to watch over who make the assertion suspect. But that to talk the safety of millions of human beings! Whether inconclusively, to say " content,” or “non-content,” they will or not, they are by their fictitious rank as the case may be, or to sleep comfortably, or thrust forward into the front of society. It might yawn listlessly from the beginning to the end o. be asked, even without the implication of satire

, an appeal, are accomplishments sufficient to con- why should not any other accident as well as that stitute an efficient legislative body and judicial of birth determine the lot? Why not throw the tribunal, is a proposition rather too monstrous for dice, or draw lots, to ascertain who shall wears the needle-eyed scepticism of modern times. The title, and make laws to bind the land ? Would the spectators below their Lordships' bar are tempted House of Lords consist of a body less wise or less to ask how it comes to pass that men who blunder virtuous if the right to sit there depended upon

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accidental circumstances of being born at å par- incandescence. Ile shows that this supposition canticular hour, or with eyes of a constitutional colour, not account for the lava. The volcanic furnaces or legs of a given length ? : Instead of the eldest must be fed by substances originally foreign to sops of men called “ Dukes." Marquises" them, and admitted to them only before an erupbeing entitled to frame our laws, why not predes. tion. The only foreign substance adequate to the tinater to that honour the eldest sons of men with effect is air or water, but the pressure of neither hooked roses or bandy legs? The men with of these could possibly elevate the lava. Besides, hooked noses would stand quite as good a chance this incandescence is itself quite hypothetical ; of procreating prudent counsellors, as the men who and notwithstanding the observations on the put ** Duke" before their names; and they of the increase of temperature in mines, is regarded as bandy legs might raise a breed of statesmen quite extremely doubtful. as sensible as the present race of Marquises.

He then considers the theory of Sir H. Davy. It would be ctuel indeed to demand wisdom of The metals which form the alkalies and earths are any man simply because his father had bow legs, supposed to lie in a state of purity in the bowels and the height of national folly to set up a class of the globe ; and to occasion the volcanic pheno.. of men'as law-makers, because their father's noses mena by uniting with oxygen and forming lava. were re not straight.

But it would not be worse “ There is no difficulty in conceiving that, by their than to elevate men, as the peerage now does, for contact with water, they might decompose it, no other reason than that they are the sons of A become changed into lava, and produce sufficient or B, instead of Cor D, to a station, where, if heat to account for the greater part of the volcanic they show no wisdom, they must provoke con phenomena. If water be really the agent which tempt. What should we think of a law which sustains the volcanic fires by means of its oxygen, forbade us to supply the theatre with actors of we must admit, as a necessary and very important obvious merit, and compelled us to fill the corps consequence, that an enormous quantity of Hydrodramatique with none but the children of old per- gen, either free or combined with some other prin. formers? What an execrable drama should we ciple, would be disengaged through the craters of have!

How the sons of Keeley would mangle volcanoes. Nevertheless, it does not appear that Hamlet ; and Liston's issue, with the comic visage the disengagement of hydrogen is very frequent in of their sire, what a jest would they not make on volcanoes. Although, during my residence at NaBenedict or Romeo! But wherein are hereditary ples in 1805, with my friends M, Alexander de peers better than hereditary players ? The glo. Humboldt and M. Leopold de Buch, I witnessed rious drama of legislation, how is it performed, and frequent explosions of Vesuvius, which threw up by whom? Are the actors selected for their ge- melted lava to the height of more than 200 metres, nius? Have they studied their parts long and I never perceived any inflammation of hydrogen. deeply? Are they masters of the mighty science Every explosion was followed by columns (torbil. they profess? No! The truth is known. Like lons) of a thick and black smoke, which must have the children of the players, they owe their situa- been ignited if they had been composed of Hydrotion to no 'real 'fitness of their own ; and, there- gen, being traversed by bodies heated to a temfore it is we nightly see the noble part of Cicero perature higher than was necessary to cause their burlesqued ; Solon rants like Cleon; and Demos- inflammation. This smoke, the evident cause of thenes is perfect only in the stammering.

the explosions, contained therefore other fluids lo' the foregoing observations it has been our than hydrogen. But what was its true nature ? principal object to attract the attention of our If we admit that it is water which furnishes oxygen readers towards an institution which, upon account to volcanoes, it will follow that, as its hydrogen

he high antiquity of its origin, and the does not disengage itself in a free state, it must prominent position it occupies in the scheme of enter into some combination. It cannot enter into vir constitution exercises mighty influence over any compound inflammable by means of heat at its our social and political character. Hereafter, we

contact with the air; it is, however, very possible may, perhaps, enter into a closer analysis of its that it unites with chlorine to form hydrochloric merits-to enumerate the benefits it confers, or is acid. supposed to confer, upon the nation at large : and,

The greater number of mountains, when they in the spirit of philosophical candour, to inquire arose from the heart of the earth, must have left how far its fundamental principle accords with the these vast cavities, which would remain empty maxims of the improved science of government, unless filled by water. I think, however, that De and the superior intelligence of the modern world. Luc, and many other geologists, have reasoned

very erroneously on these cavities, which they

imagine stretching out into long galleries, by means THEORY OF VOLCANOES.

of which earthquakes are communicated to a dis

tance. M. Gay-Lussac has recently published a memoir on the formation of yolcanoes. He inquires into the An earthquake, as Dr. Young has very justly hypothesis which ascribes combustion on the sur. observed, is analogous to a vibration of the air. face of the earth to the interior being in a state of It is a very strong sonorous undulation, excited

both of the

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