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EDINBURGH WEEKLY MAGAZINE.
CONDUCTED BY JOHN JOHNSTONE.
THE SCHOOL MASTER IS ABROAD. LORD BROUGHAM.
No. 25.-Vol. II. SATURDAY, JANUARY 19, 1833. Price THREE-HALFPENCE.
THE DU'TIES OF THE PEOPLE AT THE taxes which prevent or restrain the diffusion of PRESENT PERIOD.
political and other useful knowledge. These
foolish and tyrannical imposts maintain the Although they have been, in a great measure, reign of ignorance, error, and prejudice ; they liberated from the political thraldom in which they retard the progress of science and arts, and were so long and so injuriously compelled to re- the improvement of morals; they consequently main, for the purpose of enabling the Aristocracy prevent the accumulation of wealth, and the to enhance its wealth and power, by every legal amelioration of the circumstances of the peoized expedient of spoliation, the People must not ple; and, of course, unnecessarily tend to uphold imagine that they have done their duty by obtain-vice, immorality, and insubordination, and thus to ing the enactment of the Reform Bills, or by re-add, unnecessarily and most injuriously, to the turning to the Parliament, about to assemble, expense of military and police establishments, men who were instrumental in getting these bills while they render religious and educational insti. passed. They must not suppose that this is re- tutions much less efficient and beneficial than they form—it is only the instrument by which, if pro- would otherwise be. Of imposts of such pestifeperly exerted, a practical efficient reform is to be ous tendency, no good government can stand in obtained : and it must never be forgotten, that it need. It ought never to be forgotten, that it is not is only by the judicious, steady, persevering for the purpose of bringing money into the trea. exertions of the people themselves, that this in- sury, but with the diabolic intent of keeping the strument can be made to accomplish the great people in ignorance of their own concerns, and for ends for which it was intrusted to them. The maintaining abuses and the misgovernment of those duties more particularly incumbent on them, on who “ loved darkness rather than the light, because the eve of the meeting of the first reformned Par. their deeds were evil,” that these taxes were augliament, are the following:
mented, and have so long, in opposition to the ge
neral will, been retained. This was openly and 1. To keep constantly and steadily in view, unblushingly avowed in the House of Commons that representatives are sent to Parliament, not under the Tory regime. Every government, esfor the promotion of the particular and exclusive sentially aristocratic and oligarchical, will natuinterests of particular individuals, orders, classes, rally incline to fetter the press, and seek for plaucommunities, sects, or professions—but for the sible pretences for retaining, in part at least, the purpose of ensuring, by the abolition of bad, and taxes on paper and advertisements. It has, there--the enactment of beneficent laws, “the greatest fore, been of late hypocritically pretended that possible happiness of the greatest possible num
these imposts could not, in the actual state of the ber” of the whole people ; and, therefore,
public finances, be dispensed with ; but were any 2. In a spirit of impartiality and philanthropy, desire existing among men in power to render the to use all the means in their power of acquiring press, as it ought to be, essentially and really free, and diffusing an accurate knowledge of the prin- and usefully efficient, as the Schoolmaster-General ciples of those laws which regulate the acquisi- of the whole people, an unobjectionable succedation and distribution of public wealth, and of the neum could easily be found.-Vide next section. several classes of circumstances which do, or may
CORN LAWS. affect the welfare of the community: in other words, it is incumbent on every individual, so far and intellectual, it is incumbent on the people to
4. Next to the duty of providing for their moral as his circumstances allow, to acquire and diffuse
ensure the supply of their physical wants. The a correct knowledge of the principles of political CORN Laws, therefore, which have been enacted economy and politics; and consequently,
not for the purpose of adding to the revenue, nor
for affording encouragement or benefit to the ac3d. 'To promote petitioning, at as early a period tual cultivator of the soil, but merely for the as possible, for the ENTIRE ABOLITION of all those wicked purpose of dishonestly and iniquitously
DUTIES OF REPRESENTATIVES.
ABOLITION OP TAXES ON KNOWLEDGE.
enhancing the rents of corn lands, for the sole repealed, without diminishing the revenue, or benefit of the owners of such lands, and the clergy, adding to the burdens of the people, while whose incomes are regulated by the price of commerce would be encouraged, the rate of profit grain, and plainly also to the detriment of the augmented, the accumulation of capital accelerated, public fise, of the owners of pasture lands, of agri- and the poor enabled to live on a more acceptable culturists of every description, and of all other and nutritious aliment than potatoes. It is much classes of the community,-ought not to be any to be deplored that the clergy are remunerated for longer tolerated; and the people, especially in great their services in a manner which makes it their in. cities, and in manufacturing towns, ought imme- terest to uphold the existing system of iniquity. diately to denounce them, in strong and plain lan- It is too bad that a clergyman cannot, with all his guage, and to petition for their immediate repeal. heart, (how could he ?) thank the bountiful giver On the particularly injurious tendency and opera- of all good, for an abundant harvest, which may tion of these execrable laws, it is unnecessary, reduce his poor stipend 20 or 30 per cent. No considering how often they have been clearly ex- wonder, especially when the actual operation of the posed, to dwell ; but it may be mentioned, and law of patronage is considered, that the clergy of ought to be steadily kept in view, that they occa. the established church are, in general, illiberal sion, according to the moderate calculation of a anti-reformers'; nor that we have lately seen a parvery cautious and considerate practical financier, son, as an elector, after uttering a nonsensical Jerean annual loss to this nation of no less than fifteen miade on the downfall of the price of corn, wool
, millions, and that, although this large sum is most and kelp, come forward, in a Highland county, injuriously extracted from the people, scarcely one as the proposer of an Ultra-Tory exclusionist, (of million of its amount ever comes to the Exchequer whose legislatorial abilities his most partial friends in the shape of duty on foreign corn, and that cannot venture to boast,) in opposition to one of even but a small proportion of it finds its way into the most intelligent and talented men of the age. the pockets of the landlords themselves, the rest No wonder that landlords and parsons, and every being as pure loss as if it were sunk in the bottom other profiter by abuse and misrule, should, with of the ocean, or consumed in the vomitory of Mount such inveterate malignity, decry the study of the Ætna. It were far better for the people that the all-important science of political economy, and es. landlords should have their incomes enhanced by ert all their endeavours to render it a subject of means of pensions, the extent of the benefit vituperation and ridicule. No wonder that that which they really derive from these laws, than in uitous monopolizing triumvirate, Lord Rapar that such a system as the present, of legalized Rackrent, John Company, and Sawney M'Scourger, swindling, should be tolerated. In the petitions should co-operate in upholding their respective which have formerly been presented to the burgh- frauds, in keeping up the price of corn, tea, and monger Parliaments for their repeal, the injuri- sugar, when, in this ungodly work they are assisted ous effects of these laws were often well pointed by the Right Reverend Father in God, Dr Thomas out, in a merely economical view; but, now, not Tithedraw, Lord Bishop of Pluralstall, and the Re. only should this be done, but their injustice, wick-verend Calvin Gatherpecks, minister of Girnel. edness, and glaring dishonesty and sinfulness, dale, without opposition from any other pulpiteer should be strongly and solemnly dwelt on, in a than the Reverend Simon Sectary of Noglebe, manner becoming a moral and religious people, The farmers, poor deluded dupes, should at length conscious of their responsibility, not merely to their learn wisdom. They should now be able to perfellow creatures, but to their Omnipotent and All-ceive that high rents and high profits are incom, just Creator. Let any man read seriously and at- patible, and should, with fear and trembling, and tentively Dr. Dwight's discourse on the eighth humble contrition, consider that the great loss of commandment, and let him say if, without violat- capital, which the corn laws have occasioned to ing every suggestion of conscience, and disregard their class, was the just and inevitable punishment ing every deduction of reason, he can presume to of their sinful co-operation with their landlords, in look with supine indifference on the existence of the iniquitous spoliation of their fellow subjects. this grinding, pauperizing instrument of oppres. It is now their duty to co-operate with the people
, sion, or fail to bastir himself in relieving his fellow in obtaining the abrogation of these laws; and the men from its destructive action. It is not meant people ought, of course, to assist them in obtainthat foreign corn may not, fairly and properly, being, by law, -such equitable deduction of rent as a subject of taxation, when the object is the legi.. their circumstances require. timate one of merely adding to the receipts of the public fisc, and not of giving an undue advan.
5. The people, not of England and Ireland tage to a class, who, as mere landlords, contri- only, but those of Scotland also, should early, pebute little or nothing to the exigencies of the tition for the total ABOLITION OF Tithes. The state. Such an impost, if moderate in its rate, say Scottish children of the Covenant, the followers of siderable degree, enhance the price of grain
, and institutions of Presbytery, have no interest nor would ensure a handsome addition to the
revenue; inducement to uphold the prelatic pride, the plu: and thus the taxes on knowledge might be wholly ralities, pompous mummeries, or euld
A BOLITION OF TITHES.
formalities, of the proud daughter of the scarlet terest of the particular order or class to which dame of Babylon; nor are they under any special they belong. On such,men, however plausible their bligation to submit to the enhancing of the price professions, let no reliauce be placed ; and, there. of their food, merely that Right Reverend Fathers, fore, let the people be ever watchful of the conVenerables, and Reverends, may continue to trouble duct of their representatives, and openly and man. and annoy the cultivator of the land, and add to fully expose every demonstration of political ini. the expense of every man's subsistence. If the fox- quity. And let them never cease to petition and hunting interest of England will maintain a par- remonstrate, until they have achieved the destrucroting priesthood, to perpetuate flimsy ceremonial tion of sinecures and monopolies of every descripobservances, and to keep their boors in ignorant tion, the removal of all checks and fetters on honest subservient dependence, let the clergy be paid industry, and the blessing of a cheap and efficient more Scotice ; but let not the evils of the tithing government. To ensure the attainment of these system be maintained to impoverish the intelligent ends, every individual ought to afford to every able and industrious body of dissenters, as well as the and honest journalist, labouring in the people's beadmirers of Episcopacy.
half, as much encouragement as his circumstance EQUAL TAXATION.
allow. 6. As it is notorious and undeniable that the January, 1833. A NORTHERN Truru SPEAKER. greater part of the national burdens is levied from the labourers and industrious portion of the com
ON THE STATE OF FEELING IN A munity, and that, in the ratio of their abilities,
MANUFACTURING TOWN. they pay a great deal more to the Exchequer than
[This is part of a letter on a subject of urgent import, the landlords and wealthy fundholders, the people addressed, by the author of the “ Corn Law Rhynes,” to should immediately petition for a fair and thorough the Editor of the New Monthly Magasine.) revision of the fiscal code, and for the repeal or of the workman is lifted against his master, and not in
There is war in the city of soot. [Sheffield.] The hand alleviation of the duties on articles of ordinary vain, if his intention be to close the butcher's shop. Yet, and general consumption, such as tea, sugar, malt, alas! if the master defeat the work man, the same result and soap, and for the imposition, on a gradualls is probable ; for, while they are injuring each other, a ascending scale, of a tax on Property and Ino ne.
third party, resisted by neither of them, is devouring the
substance of both. 7. The PeoPLE OUGHT NOT TO PetitioN FOR A RE “ As I am undersold by foreigners," says the employer PEAL OF THE Assessed Taxes, excepting those on to the employed, “ instead of raising your wages, you houses and windows, which should be put on a just should lower them, or you will give my trade to the Ger. and rational footing. It would be greatly for the mans.” “I can but starve, then,” replies the workman: public advantage that all taxes were directly asses
“ the question is not whether you will lose your trade, for
that catastrophe is certain, if we are to pay sevenpence per sed. The assessed taxes do not injure the people, pound for beef, while our rivals pay only twopence-halfotherwise than by their own amount, and the expenny. If I would work for nothing, and give you all my pense of collection; and it is an advantage that the wages, you would tamely suffer the money to be taken from because it draws attention to the financial arrange- shall starve after you lose your trade, or before ? payment must always be perceived and attended to, you by the basest of mankind, and be poor still. The real
question at issue between us two seems to be, whether I
Yet ments of government, and leads the payers to check why should I starve even then? If your trade go to Gerand prevent all unnecessary expenditure. The in- many, I will follow it thither; and in the meantime, no direct taxes, on the other hand, cost, in reality, a
matter by what means, I will get as high wages as I can, great deal more than their own amount, and the that I may be able to pay for my passage over the her.
ring-pool. cost of their collection. Their imposition renders
« The Germans," continues the master, “ can undersel! it necessary, that, in every trade affected by them, me forty per cent., and yet obtain twice my profits.” “ 'Then a much greater amount of capital should be invest- they can give twice your wages," answers the workman ; ed than would otherwise be required ; and the pro
“ and the sooner you remove your capital to Germany, and fits of the portion of such capital, assigned for the 1 my skill and labour, the better for us both. It is plain,
from your own showing, that if the German workmen are Payment of duty, must be added to the price which not better paid than I am, the fault rests with themselves ; the consumer has to pay; and this capital, besides, for their masters can at least afford to give higher wages ; is locked up, and prevented from being, as it other. but if there is any truth in your assertions, you will soon ise might be, usefully employed in the production be unable to pay any wages at all.” of national wealth. Taxes on consumable com- the master, “ my work shall be done by apprentices."
“ If you will not work for reasonable wages," resumes modities are paid without the observation of the
“ But," replies the workman, “I will not suffer you to consumer. The public expenditure is therefore less take another apprentice; no, not one.” “ Then you are a. regarded than if imposts were directly levied; and tyrant,” exclaims the master. “ The world is full of them," Faste and profuse expenditure of the public re
retorts the gervant : “ it is not the fault of our masters if sources are the natural consequences.
we have not been brought down to potatoes. How long is
it since you sent me to York Castle, merely because I did CONCLUSION, my best to obtain the fair price for my labour? And do
Curses Let the people never forget that many of their you now blame ine for following your example ?
“ Yes," says the master, representatives have gone to Parliament, not for always come home 10 roost.”
“ you will find it so." the purpose of promoting the general good, but
Now there is no misrepresentation in the statements to scramble for place, power, and title, and for the master manufacturer. Every word is true. promoting their own private advantage, or the in. The silver-platers of the Continent undersell us twenty
per cent. in price, and fifty in pattern. Still the blind will press law, from our Mechanics' Library ? Such, however,
is the fact; the wisest and the best have had their own way, In another year, perhaps, the merchants of Sheffield will and we are now reaping the consequences. But'if our first import cutlery from Germany, the German scissors being merchants themselves have yet to learn the alphabet of already fifty per cent. cheaper than ours; for the cutlers of political economy, can we wonder that rich and poor alike Modlin pay only fifteenpence per stone for bread, while we are quarrelling about effects, when they ought to be remov. pay three shillings. Still the blind will not sec.
ing causes ? The cutlers of Belgium make and sell, for twentypence, Nor is it less horribly amusing and instructive to ob. a complete set of steel knives and forks, consisting of serve, how completely the aristocratic leaven has leavened twenty-four pieces ; and the saw-makers of Belgium make the whole mass of society here. Even our beggary has its and sell, for one shilling and sixpence each, saws equal to
All try to seem rich, that they may not be thought ours at nearly twice the price. But then the Belgian arti- | poor ; and all, but the tax-fed, are in danger of poverty. sans and capitalists are not impoverished by act of Parlia. Perhaps the most frightful symptom of our social disease Still the blind will not see.
is exhibited by the masters who have been workmen, and The Russians, in the market of New York, undersell who exceed in arrogance and insolence, by many degrees, John Barber's razors thirty per cent., Joseph Rodgers and the cab-driving sons of the sons of the dunghill sprung. Sons' cutlery forty per cent., and cast cutlery, in general, Next to them, in their vituperation of the poor, are the infifty per cent.; for the Russian workmen, when they buy solvent and their name Legion. There must be some two pecks of corn, do not lose, or throw away, the price of reason why Calamity, like an old woman, lives for ever. one peck; in other words, they are not compelled by law Hanging by a hair over the grave dug for Hope, do they to give a shilling for eighteenpence. Still the blind will vilify the all-plundered poor to conciliate the rich. If so,
the flattered and the flatterer are worthy of each other. « Oh, but we shall soon have our bread as cheap as our “ Well, Mister What's-your-name, I hear you still think neighbours." Yes, when our manufactures have left the we must have a free trade or a revolution." “ Yes, I do." kingdom,—when we have neither edge-tools, nor saws, nor « But if we have a free trade, what will become of the knives, nor scissors, nor money to give in exchange for landlords ?" « They never ask what will become of you, bread, we shall have it as cheap as our neighbours have it; if we are not to have a free trade. Why care for people for capital will not stay here, for potato-profits, if it can who care for nobody but themselves. Your wheel-barrow get roast-beef profits elsewhere. But the blind will then is not a coach-and-four; it is the grapery that is in danger
, see. Instead of obtaining, permanently, as they might have not your grand epergne, plated with sham silver.” “Well, done, the fair average price of Europe for their wheat, say but Mr. What's-your-name, how is your trade now ?" forty shillings per quarter, at their doors, they must then “ Very bad.” “ Pshaw we never prospered better than at be satisfieil with two-thirds of that price, say about twenty- | present.
Look at that new street! what an income is four shillings per quarter, at Hamburgh or Amsterdam. rising there !" “ That income is not rising but sinking. Hey, then-but not for a miracle !-let the blind see when More than one-half of the capital expended there, is al. it is too late; if they are to be a fate unto themselves ; and ready lost for ever, in taxes on wood, bricks, and bread." it is written that they shall break stones on the high roads “ Bread ! come, that is a droll joke! what has bread to for subsistence! But how horrifying to our souls, to our do with building ? The money, however, must have come bones in the grave, will be the music of their gruntle, when, from somewhere." “ True ; but do you know that the after receiving eighteenpence for twelve hours' hard labour, poor-rates of England and Wales last year increased eight they visit the paradise of the market, and there, with their per cent. on the average?. There is not one county upon miserable earnings, buy bread—not at thirty-six pence per which to hang a quibble; not one was stationary; in not stone, as their victims do, but at fifteen! « Good bye, fine one was there a decrease ; and the increase was greatest in fellow !"
6 Who is that vagabond ?” “ Lord, sir, he those counties on which depends the prosperity of all the was once a great gentleman, who kept a parson of his rest. In Warwickshire, the increase was sixteen per cent. own.” Well, if the enemy thank God for crime and car- -in Lancashire, twenty-two. Does this look like prose nage, may not we thank him, if he make themselves his perity? A little more such prosperity will close the ma. instruments in ridding us of á nuisance—these suicides of nufactories from one end of the kingdom to the other; and their own prosperity, who toil not, neither do they spin ? then your favourite Wetherell will see the difference beHave they not wickedly and foolishly destroyed more ca tween a mob that chooses to do evil, and one that cannot pital, in the memory of one generation, than all the lands avoid doing it." “ Well, but Mister What's-your-name, of England would sell for at the bread-tax price ; and in you should not be ungrateful. You see, God has sent his less than twenty years produced more crime and misery scourge, the cholera among us." A few months since, a than all other causes in a hundred? This is a subject on very big man, in a certain great house, blamed his Mawhich the press has basely, and almost universally, shrunk jesty's Ministers for the precautions they took against that from the performance of its duty, to the infinite injury of disease. Shortly afterwards it arrived at his own door, but the people, and the now probably inevitable and hopeless it passed on, and entered not; how, then, can it be of God.?" ruin of their oppressors, who seem doomed to open their “ Are tamine and bad government's your gods ?” “Well, eyes on the edge of a precipice, over which they must plunge you are a queer fellow, Mr. What's-your-name. But what headlong. But of all the treason against all, in this mat do you think of your Radicals now?
The men are mas. ter, that of the Philosophers of Useful Knowledge has the ters." “Yes, sir; but instead of trying to establish low most brass in it. They calmly ask, what the workmen wages, which signify low profits, had you not better try to would say if a conspiracy existed to raise the price of beef, raise profits by joining with your men, heart and hand, to butter, bread, and ale ? As if that conspiracy were not effect the removal of the great cause of contention?" the cause of all our heart-burnings, our agonies, and our “ What! submit to the beggars?
I wonld starve first." despair!
“ Now, Mr. Sneak-for-nought, if you were weigbed, are It is frightfully amusing, dismally instructive, to observe you worth three-halfpence? First, let it be possible for the deep hatred, the blasting scorn, with which the work you to become rich in England, and then, perhaps you may ing classes of this town, and their betters, as they are called, despise the poor without being ridiculous." regard each other. They are all deplorably ignorant on There is one subject on which the great vulgar of this the subjects which most nearly concern them all ; but the town are nearly unanimous in opinion-I mean the neces. workmen, I think, are less ignorant than their employers, sity of an issue of small notes. They know nothing about in spite of the pains which have been, and are taken, by the the laws of currency; on the contrary, if pnt to their ultra-pious and intellectual , to keep them in ignorance
. choice, they would, 1 verily believe, choose Pitt's incom: Will your readers believe, that the Westminster Review, vertible ones. We have, however, a few reasoning mani, the book most likely to teach our workmen what they cs, who pretend to know something of the matter, and most need to know-has been, and is excluded, by an ex ko presume to doubt whether Pitt's Bill or Peel's Bill fias
done most aischief. They audaciously inquire, how it who was in the habit of letting summer lodgings. After happened that a ministry, advocating the principles of free- the ordinary inquiries—_“Your new lodger seems a quiet trade, interfered with the natural laws of currency, and man ?" “ So he seemed at first, Sir, but we're grown consequently with the freedom of trade in money? They doubtfu' that he's no richt."_" No richt, John; not behavactually impugn the wisdom of encouraging a huge and | ing himself, or not paying his accounts?” “ Ou no, lie's mischievous banking establishment, to the injury of all the weel aneugh that way-no richt in his mind, I mean. useful banks in the nation. They stupidly imagine that My wife and me notice that he tak's out a hammer wi' there is no difference, in principle, between a one-pound him ilka day to the hill, and aye brings hame at night a note and a five-pound note; and they wonder, with the bit poky fu' o' broken stanes ; he bigs them up in an out simplicity of idiocy, why we are compelled to have the note o' the way corner o' his room, and tak's as muckle care o' which we do not want, and prevented from having the note a wheen chucky stanes as if they were something o' use. which we do want. They innocently ask, why bankers Now I was thinking that he's may-be been no richt, and should not be allowed to issue one-pound notes, payable in gotten escaped frae his frien's; so the night, when he was gold at the counter, and with no other restraint than the sitting in his room quietly, I just gae the key a thraw that mutual watchfulness and jealousy of the respective issuers ! he might nae rin aff, and so cam down to see if you thought When told that if one-pound notes reappear, the gold coins we might keep him lockit up till he was cried at all the will disappear, they reply, that if so, very few gold coins kirks. Or may-be ye might help us to adverteese him in can be wanted ; and that, by an issue of small notes, con the papers, to let his friends ken.” It is needless to add, trolled by no law but the natural law of the case, that the clergyman advised them just to leave the suspected pound might indeed be made to do the work of five.” philosopher to himself, so long as he lived quietly, and paid When reminded of the crisis of 1825, they ridiculously as
his bills. sert, that the law alone was the cause of the crisis-that law which sagaciously made one over-grown bank liable
REV. WILLIAM MUIR, D.D. to furnish specie for the whole realm, and furnish it in
MINISTER OF ST. STEPHEN'S CHURCH. greatest abundance, when directly interested in furnishing DR. Muir is a native of the west of Scotland ; and imnone at all. For, they say, if the thousand banks of the mediately after being licensed in 1812, while but a very empire had each been liable to provide gold (not bank pa- young man, he was at once presented to a city church, the per) for the payment of its own notes, all the gold wanted magistrates of Glasgow appointing him to the new parish would have been found, and no inconvenience whatever of St. George's, in the most fashionable part of that city. would have been sustained by them or the community. He was considered at that time decidedly the best and most When told that theory is but theory, they sneeringly an elegant preacher in Glasgow, though then quite moderate swer, that Watt's steam engine was theory fifty years ago. in his religious views. The arrival of Dr. Chalmers of These fellows, I have little doubt, would rather give a shil course eclipsed his fame in the public estimation, though ling for a peck of good foreign wheat, than thrice that sum not the least with his own congregation, who continued arfor the same quantity and quality grown in their own dently attached to him till deprived of his ministrations by country. If I were in authority, I would hang every man
his translation to Edinburgh. of them to-morrow. I know, Gentiemen, you do not agree
In 1822, Dr. Muir was presented to the parish and church with me on the Currency Question-and perhaps not alto- of New Greyfriars, in Edinburgh. Here he greatly surgether upon other points—but you will be glad, perhaps, passed all the expectations that had been formed of him, to give insertion to these opinions of the inhabitants of a and drew a crowded audience. He continued minister of great manufacturing town. The people to be governed this parish till the year 1829, when the magistrates, havWell
, must be known well.— I have the honour to be, your ing erected another handsome church and extensive parish most obedient servant,
in the New Town, after a good deal of anxious deliberation EBENEZER ELLIOT. regarding who was the best minister to appoint to so im
portant and influential a parish, fixed on Dr. Muir, who POPULAR ESTIMATION OF GEOLOGY. was accordingly translated to be minister of St. Stephen's. St. Fond relates that in Mull, the son of his hospitable This change was a fortunate one in many res cts. Dr. landlord, could not make out at all what he might be after Muir had before this period been severely tried in the fur" in the hill,” whither he carried a small hammer, but de- sunk under it; but here he was a changed man; he was
nace of domestic affliction, and his spirits had considerably clined taking a gun. About twenty years back the late roused to a new and more extended sphere of duty and use
visiting at Donibristle, took a chaise from fulness, and his animal spirits, as well as mental energy, the North Ferry. On the short drive of three or four miles, his were greatly improved by the change. Those severe doconduct appeared so suspicious to the sapient driver, that he mestic bereavements, which are so heart-rending to our thought it incumbent upon him, as a duty he owed to his lord- nature, had already proved to him, as they have often
proved to thousands, blessings in disguise, sent as it were ship, and to a house to which he took so many fares, and direct from the hand of Providence; and the fruits of them from which he received so many horns of ale, to impart were a meek and sanctified spirit, and a double excitement his apprehensions to the servants. “ I kenna what sort of to the diligent performance of all duty. Whatever his dis
courses might have been in the earlier part of his career, chap I have brought you the day,” said James, as soon as during his ministry in the parishes of Greyfriars and St. he had got rid of the professor and his portmanteau, “but Stephen's they have been decidedly orthodox and evangelical: I ne'er thought to have got him this length. Ye'll need to they are strictly practical and useful; and, from a strong keep an e'e ower him. We never travelled a quarter of a sense of the paramount importance of the labours of the mile, but I bud stop the chaise, and set him down, when Christian pastor, he evidently bestows the utmost diligence he out wi' a bit little hammer he keeps, and paps at a
and industry in their preparation. He has been most suc
cessful with his congregation : while, on the other hand, stane on this side o' the road, and a stane on that side o' they, aware of his great anxiety for their religious welfare, the road, and puts them in his pouch !—but at Mr. are reciprocally attached to him, though, creditably to dyke, I thought he wou'd hae riested a thegither.
He themselves, not with that blind devotedness which some. Canna be richt-and he's a decent-like, well-put-on man,
times leads many well-meaning, but weak-minded people,
in too." Nor does geology appear to be extending rapidly forgetting that, excellent though he may be, he is still but
a congregation, to make an idol of a favourite minister, northward. The subjoined anecdote, which reminds us of
a frail and fallible being like themselves. the professor's adventure, is given in a late Dundee news Dr. Muir's style of composition is very correct and elepaper. “ Nearly the following dialogue took place between gant, it abounds in antithesis. His sermons are distina clergyman, in a remote part of Angus, and a parishioner, guished by clearnesss and perspicuity; at th: same time his