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USEFUL KNOWLEDGE.

classes, if we would give them better habits, as well the producers, the many, sunk, or kept in abject as make them better workmen, we ought to endea- poverty, while the few are luxuriously accommo. vour to make them acquainted with the principles dated, presents a very different state of things,that must determine their condition in life. The and the shrewd artisans laugh, bitterly laugh, in poor ought to be taught that they are in a great the faces of those who gravely tell them they measure the architects of their own fortune'; that ought to rejoice over their condition ; for that the what others can do for them is trifling indeed com- great Earl of Northumberland, three hundred pared with what they can do for themselves; that years ago, ate off pewter or wooden trenchers, they are infinitely more interested in the preser- whereas they have all more or less of crockeryration of the public tranquillity than any other ware and some glass vessels—while the real quesclass of society; that mechanical inventions and tion with them is, how any kind or quality of vesdiscoveries are always supremely advantageous to sel of theirs is to be filled ; and not that their barthem; and that their real interests can only be barous ancestors had fresh meat only in summer, effectually promoted by their displaying greater and were condemned to salted wild hog’s flesh all prudence and forethought.”—Ought to be su- winter. How would the families of Almondbury premely advantageous," M'Culloch should have have rejoiced over those coarse commons ! The said--and will yet be so, we fervently trust; though, nobility were rather scanty of linen, and had no in the meantime, the inmates of the wretched glass to their windows, and the Scotch soldiers at abodes described by Dr. Kay, instead of laying to Bannockburn were nearly naked. The change now heart the, to them, somewhat abstract truth, that may be a happy one for the nobility and the mili. " they are infinitely more interested in the pre- tary, but the labourers at Manchester, in their servation of the public tranquillity than any other quantity of linen, and completeness of glazing and class of society," are more likely, in their desperate accoutrements, are still in much the old state. circumstances, to join the Highland reaver's prayer, These unhappy ancestors of ours had no turnip or " Lord turn the world upside down, that honest cabbage to eat to their meat, but the complaint of folk may make bread out of it!"

their modern descendants is, that they have no

meat to eat to their cabbage. They were liable to BOOKS OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF periodical visitations of the plague, occasioned, we

are told by filth and want; but to what are Typhus It was fondly expected that the labours of this and Cholera now attributed ? The former plague Society were to regenerate the operative classes, lurking among the manufacturing poor, at all times, enlighten their dark minds, teach them their duty, peculiar to them, or nearly so--the latter in all and purify and strengthen their moral natures. probability about to establish itself among them. Disappointment has hitherto attended the Society's We shall quote a few pertinent remarks on the efforts, and latterly grumbling. Under the sanction Working Man’s Companion ; though from a hardof the Society there came out lately a well-writ. ship unknown to the 14th century, and to the 15th, ten small volume, entitled the WORKMAN's Com- and 16th, and 17th centuries, we are not at liberty PANION—— Rights of Industry, which has strongly to tell their origin :moved the spleen of the better-informed of the “ If the poor of the reigns of the Edwardses slept on straw, artisans, from the ingenious, but, as they think, the rich did little better. There was, in fact, not so great

a disparity then as now." Fortescue, however, a writer of specious, attempt made to persuade them that their the 15th century, spoke highly of the actual comforts of the condition, from improvements in machinery, and labourers ; comforts which even now, would well deserve the extension of commerce, is so much better than the name. Colquhoun, in 1812, stated that the sum of they feel it to be,—that they are far happier men L.430,000,000 sterling was annually produced by the than their barbarous ancestors of the fourteenth working classes of this country, or L.54 per annum for and fifteenth centuries. They readily acknowledge of these producers did not receive, on average, so much as

each man, woman, or child ; while in fact each individual that the country has improved immensely—that 1.11 annually, or one-fifth of his share. Was this equitavast accumulations of capital have been made ; but ble? The author also declared that “capital was always they add, that'they, the producers, have no portion, ready to be exchanged for labour.” On the contrary, Mr. or avery small one in these good things. The author of persons were confined in-Bedford jail, who were known as

P. M Queen has stated not long ago, that a large number of the Rights of Industry, they say, in his elabo- men of general good character, but who were actually forced rate comparison of the state of this island five and driven to crime by the pressure of want. Such statehundred years ago and now, forgets entirely to ments, then, were either errors of ignorance, or cruel enter the hovels of the woollen manufacturers, often-cited phrase - Become Capitalists. Labourers now

Again, to quote once more the the cellars of the hand-loom weavers of Manches could not become Capitalists.'t. Neither would a reducter ; and completely overlooks that in those barbar- tion of taxation, a revision of the Corn Laws, and the conous times the condition of one class, in domestic sequent fall of prices, really serve the working classes for accommodation, was nearly that of every class. at each such reduction—or what was the same thing at When the nobility lay on flock beds, the labourer A striking observation was made in Parliament by Mr. R. Grant had no great cause to complain of his bag of rushes. stance was, that ihe higher and lower classes were every day approach When Lochiel's pillow was not even a snow-ball

, ing closer in intellect, in power of thinking, and talling wore widely the clansman would have been a whining poltroon + Certainly those of Dr. Kay's districts of Manchester and the manu. who had grumbled at a couch in the heather ; but facturers of Alm onivury, to wlium we shall auvert next week, could

We cannot recollect his apt words, but the sub

to pass

each reduction of comforts which the labourers had con. any thing of the kind more magnificent; the exsented to, the master had pounced upon them to claim a re- treme height of the houses, which are for the most duction in wages ; and such was the over-supply of labour part built of stone, and well sashed; the breadth that they always succeeded. But there was nothing of this and length of the street, and (it being dry weain the Society's books. The working men of the 15th century ther) a cleanness made by the high winds might be badly off, but they were not Sold by Auction, as at present ; they did not wheel sand 22 miles a-day for Being a stranger, I was invited to sup in fourteen-pence. They were not forbidden to marry, nor a tavern. The cook was too filthy an object to be driven to emigration.'

described ; only another English gentleman whis The country might be full of glory, and its prosperity pered me, and said, he believed if the fellow were might be ever so well displayed by the Society, but this display was of little use to the starving population. The to be thrown against the wall he would stick. way really to serve such persons, was to show them how Twisting round and round his hand a greasy towel, to obtain and secure a competence.

he stood waiting to know what we would have for

supper, and mentioned several things himself; The following eloquent description of the state of the among the rest, a duke, a fool, a meer fool.labouring classes in England, at the time the Society com. Burt's modern editor notices “ that had it been menced its labours, will show how much need there was for their instruction, and the Ulility of that which has been dinner, he might also have recommended a offered them :

bubbly-jock, a pully, a bawd.(hare) and rabbits, un“ Consider the condition, mental and physical, of a la- der names which might have led a gay young bouring weaver in 1826. Remember that he knew of scho- militaire completely astray ; with a tappet-hen of lastic education little more than reading and writing ; perhaps he was able to add a few figures together, and that ale (or claret ?) to wash all down." In fact, Burt formed the sum total of his arithmetic. This man, re- and his friends after faring in substantials as duced to distress, seeks for the means of relief; he con- well as they could do to-day in Gibb's or Steventon's templates the various circumstances around him, and en- at five times the cost, “ drank good French claret, deavours to learn what of those circumstances have an in- and were very merry till the clock struck ten, the fluence on his well-being, what of those circumstances he can control, so that his well-being may be secured. Rude, hour when every body is at liberty by beat of the ignorant, seeing only a few, a very few, of the many intri- city drum to throw their filth out at the windows, cate workings of society, he mistakes (Is it wonderful?) the * “ Being in my retreat,” he says, real cause of his misery. Driven to desperation, he cla- through a long narrow wynde or alley, to go to mours against the existence of machinery, he accuses the government of creating his distress. In the midst of his my new lodgings, a guide was assigned me, who doubts and his misery, he hears that a society of really went before me to prevent my disgrace, crying benevolent men have combined together, for the purpose out all the way with a loud voice, hud your not of conveying to him immediate relief, but of enlighten- haunde.The throwing up a sash, or otherwise ing his mind, of giving him forethought and useful know; opening a window made me tremble. ledge_knowledge by which he will eventually be enabled to set a guardupon his well-being, and ward off the attacks Eight, ten, and even twelve stories have each a of poverty, and its long train of miseries. He, with his particular family, and perhaps a separate propriefriends, subscribes a sixpence, and buys the Society's first tor; and there, any thing so expensive as a conTreatise. He finds it headed — Hydrostatics !"

veyance from the uppermost floor could never be EDINBURGH A CENTURY AGO-GOLD.

agreed on." SMITH THE POET.

To the disgrace of the successive civic rulers of

Edinburgh, this fine street remains, in point of the THE LETTERS FROM THE NORTH OF SCOTLAND TO means of domestic cleanliness, much where Captain A FRIEND IN LONDON have lately acquired consid- Burt left it in 1726. Even then it seems the New erable celebrity, from the frequent reference made Town had been contemplated ; but was discounto them by Sir Walter Scott, in elucidating the tenanced for jobbing reasons. -Captain Burt manners and customs of the Highlanders. Their commemorates the ingenuity of our cannie ancestors author was a Captain Burt, an officer of engineers, in guarding against cabbaging. The cloth was who, exactly a century back, was sent to Scotland weighed out to the tailor, and the clothes when by Government for surveys, and public business. brought home weighed again with all the odd bits The letters are highly amusing and interesting, and clippings. His account of the ladies is more particularly those from Inverness, where the Cap- gratifying, “ The plaid is the undress of the ladies ; tain long had his head quarters. Like Pennant, and to a genteel woman, who adjusts it with a good he was struck with the height of the Edinburgh air, is a becoming veil. But as I am pretty sure houses. “ At a distance” says Pennant, “ they you never saw one of them in England, I shall strike with wonder; their own loftiness, improved employ a few words to describe it to you. It is by their almost aerial situation, gives them a look made of silk or fine worsted, chequered with vari. of magnificence not to be found in any other part ous lively colours, two breadths wide, and three of Great Britain.” Captain Burt, though not ad- yards in length; it is brought over the head, and dicted to flatter; and in truth a very “ pock-pud- may hide or discover the face according to the woding” stuffed full of cockney notions, and English man's fancy or occasion. It reaches to the waist prejudice, and measuring, and comparing every behind :-one corner falls as low as the ancle on object he beheld by the standard of England, one side, and the other part in folds hangs down says—" When I first came into the High from the opposite arm. I have been told that the Street of the City, I thought I had never seen ladies in Edinburgh distinguish their political

principles, whether Whig or Tory, by the manner | concludes our assembly. I told a Scotch gentleman that of wearing their plaids : that is, one of them re- such profound silence resembled the ancient procession of verses the old fashion, but which it is I do not re- gentleman told me (and faith I believe he was right) that

the Roman matrons in honour of Ceres ; and the Scotch member [the Whigs no doubt.] I assure you we i was a very great pedant for my pains. Now I am come have here (Inverness) among the better sort, a to the ladies; and to show that I love Scotland, and every full proportion of pretty women, as indeed there is thing that belongs to so charming a country, I insist on it, all over Scotland. The men have more regard to and will give him leave to break my head that denies it, the comeliness of their posterity, than in those and finer than the Irish.—To be sure, now, I see your sis

that the Scotch ladies are ten thousand times handsomer countries where a large fortune serves to soften ters Betty and Peggy vastly surprised at my partiality; but the hardest features, and even to make the tell them flatly, I don't value them, or their fine skins, or crooked straight: and indeed their definition of a eyes, or good sense, a potato ; for I say it, and will mainfine woman seems chiefly directed to that purpose ; sion) of which I assert, the Scotch ladies say it themselves.

tain it; and as a convincing proof (I'm in a very great pasfor after speaking of her face they say “She's a But to be less serious, where will you find a language so fine, healthy, straight, strong, strapping lassie.” pretty, become a pretty mouth, as the broad Scotch ?-and I was once commending to a lady of fortune in the women here speak it in its highest purity. For instance, London, the upright, firm, yet easy manner of the were one of your young ladies to pronounce “ Whaur will i ladies walking in Edinburgh ; and when I had done, my life they will wound every hearer. We have no such

gong”—with a becoming wideness of mouth, I'll lay she fluttered her fan; and with a kind of disdain character here as a coquet; but alas! how many envious mixed with jealousy to hear them commended, she prudes! Some days ago, I walked into my Lord Kilcou. said, “Mr. Burt, I do not at all wonder at that bry's* (don't be surprised, my lord is but a glover,) when they are used to walk.

the Duchess of Hamilton (that fair who sacrificed her Among other changes Mr. Burt, could he look gilt equipage) passed by in her chariot ; her battered hus

beauty to her ambition, and her inward peace to a title and up, would now, we fear, find the motives to matri- band, or, more properly, the guardian of her charnis, sat mony considerably changed in Scotland. About by her side. Straight envy began, in the shape of no less twenty years after this, Goldsmith the poet was than three ladies who sat with me, to find faults in her studying medicine in Edinburgh ; and we have his what I always thought, that the Duchess has too much red

“For my part," says the first, “ I think, lively account of the Scotch, and of the ladies of in her complexion." “ Madam, I am of your opinion," our city ; in which, according to him, balls were says the second ; " and I think her face has a palish cast, too conducted in the very same way they are now in much on the delicate order." 6 And let me tell you,' the United States, if we may believe Mrs. Trol- adds the third lady, whose mouth was puckered up to the lope, the last Tory traveller in America. Gold.

size of an issue, “ that the Duchess has fine lips, but she

wants a mouth;”-at this every lady drew up her mouth, smith's letter is otherwise very characteristic. One as if she was going to pronounce the letter P. But how ill, sees in it the germ of some of his best occasional my Bob, does it become me to ridicule women with whom papers in after periods :

I have scarce any correspondence! There are, 'tis certain, “ The Scotchman," he says, (not, dear reader, the news

handsome women here ; and 'tis as certain there are handpaper now so named) is one of the proudest things alive some men to keep them company. An ugly and a poor man the poor have pride ever ready to relieve them--if mankind is society for himself; and such society the world lets me should happen to despise them they are masters of their enjoy in great abundance. Fortune has given you circum. own admiration, and that they can plentifully bestow on stances, and nature a person, to look charming in the eyes themselves. From their pride and poverty, as I take it, of the fair world. Nor do I envy, my dear Bob, such bles. results one advantage this country enjoys, namely the gen- sings, while I may sit down and laugh at the world, and tlemen are much better bred than amongst us.

No such at myself, the most ridiculous object in it-but I begin to character here as our fox-hunters ; and they have expressed grow splenetic; and perhaps the fit may continue till I regreat surprise when I informed them that some men in Ireceive an answer to this. I know you can't send news from land of a thousand pounds a-year spend their whole lives in B. Mahon, but, such as it is, send it all ; everything you running after a hare, drinking to be drunk, and getting write will be agreeable and entertaining to me. Has every girl that will let them with child; and truly, if such George Conway put up a sign yet ; or John Finecly left off a being, equipped in his hunting dress, came among a cir- drinking drams; or Tom Allan got a new wig? But I cle of Scotch gentry, they would behold him with the same leave to your own choice what to write. While Oliver astonishment that a countryman would King George on

Goldsmish lives, know you have a friend ! horseback. The men have generally high cheek bones, and

P.S.—Give my sincerest regards (not compliments, do are lean and swarthy, fond of action, and dancing in par- you mind) to your agreeable family'; and give my service ticular. Though now I have mentioned dancing, let me

to my mother, if you see her; for, as you express it in Iresay something of their balls, which are very frequent here. land, I have a sneaking kindness for her still. When a stranger enters the dancing-hall, he sees one end

Direct to me_Student in Physic, in Edinburgh. of the room taken up with the ladies, who sit, dismally, in a group by themselves; on the other end stand their pen

Two went up to pray. Oh, rather say, hve partners, that are to be ; but no more intercourse be

One went to brag, the other to pray ; tween the sexes than there is between two countries at war.

One stands up close, and treads on high, The ladies, indeed may ogle and the gentlemen sigh, but Where the other dares not send his eye ; an embargo is laid on any closer commerce. At length, to

One nearer to God's altar trode, interrupt hostilities, the lady-directress, or intendant, or The other to the altar's God. what you will, pitches on a gentleman and lady to walk a minuet, which they perform with a formality that ap • This lord, the glover, is Mrs. Trollope or Captain Basil Hall all

over; save that they are serious, and Goldsmith in jest. The Duchess proaches despondence. After five or six couple have thus

was his fair countrywoman Elizabeth, the elder of the beautiful Miss walked the gauntlet, all stand up to country dances, each Gunnings, who afterwards married the Duke of Argyle; and who, in gentleman furnished with a partner from the aforesaid lady- Charlotte Bury--and the present Duke of Argyle. At the time when directress ; so they dance much, and say nothing, and thus poor Goldy" wrote there was a Mr. Maclellan a claimant for the tite

of Lord Kirkcudbright, who may have sold gloves.-Louis Phillipe

taught Mathematics. His son twenty years afterwards established his • This must have been the rooms in THE OLD Assembly Close! claim, and enjoyed the title.

TWO WENT UP INTO THE TEMPLE.

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THE SPINNING-WHEEL.

glass also in the window. The rest of her furniture is in Burns has dedicated one of his sweetest songs the table, and in the window a Bibie, a comb, and a piece

the garret, where you may find a good looking-glass on “ to Bessie and her spinning wheel ;" the author of soap. Here stands also, under stout lock and key, the of Anster Fair, one of his liveliest poems to the mighty mystery—the box,-containing among other things same romantic implement. A philosophic poet, her clothes, two or three song-books, consisting of nineteen Wordsworth, has taken the same view of the value for the penny; sundry tragedies at a halfpenny the sheet ;

the Whole Nature of Dreams laid Open ;' together with of the wheel to the cottage maid or matron, that the Fortune-Teller," and the Account of the Ghost of the lady whom we quoted last week, did of hem. Mrs. Veal;' « the Story of the beautiful Zoa, who was ming pocket-handkerchiefs, which, of course, in cast away on a desert island, showing how,' &c. ; some eludes netting purses, working collars, and twist.

half-crowns in a purse, including pieces of country money, ing tape into garnishing for petticoats. Not to naked on the horse ; a silver penny wrapped up in cotton

with the good Countess of Coventry on one of them riding mention the cheerful looks of the blithe lass driv. by itself; a crooked sixpence, given her before she came to ing at her small wheel, there was something stately town, and the giver of which has either forgotten her or and imposing in the matron pacing with solemn, been forgotten by her, she is not sure which ; two little measured steps before that more respectable ma

enamel boxes, with looking-glass in the lids, one of them chine, whose very size gave her labour an air of

a fairing, the other (a trifle from Glasgow ;' and lastly,

various letters, square and ragged, and directed in all sorts dignity. We give Wordsworth's sonnet, as less of spelling, chiefly with little letters for capitals. One of generally accessible than the songs of our coun- them, written by a girl who went to a day-school with trynien.

her, is directed miss.' In her manners, the maid-servant Grief, thou hast lost an ever ready friend,

sometimes imitates her young mistress ; she puts her hair Now that the cottage spinning-wheel is mute,

in papers, cultivates a shape, and occasionally contrives to

be out of spirits. But her own character and condition And care a comforter, that best could suit

overcome all sophistications of this sort ; her shape, forti. Her froward mood, and softliest reprehend;

fied by the mop and scrubbing-brush, will make its way; And love, a charmer's voice, that used to lend,

and exercise keeps her healthy and cheerful. From the More efficaciously than ought that flows From harp or lute, kind influence to compose

same cause her temper is good ; though she gets into little

heats when a stranger is over saucy, or when she is told The throbbing pulse,-else troubled without end ;

not to go so heavily down stairs, or when some unthink, Even joy could tell, joy craving truce and rest From her own overflow, what power sedate

ing person goes up her wet stairs with dirty shoes, or when

she is called away often from dinner; neither does she On those revolving motions did await

much like to be seen scrubbing the street-door steps of a Assiduously, to sooth her aching breast;

morning; and sometimes she catches herself saying, 'drat And to a point of just relief-abate

that butcher,' but immediately adds, 'God forgive me." The mantling triumphs of a day too blest.

Thus pass the mornings between working, and singing, It will be worth while to inquire whether the and giggling, and grumbling, and being flattered. If she

takes any pleasure unconnected with her office before the catastrophe of poisoning or drowning for love be afternoon, it is when she runs up the area-steps, or to the on the increase among young women, since the door to hear and purchase a new song, or to see a troop of wheel became obsolete. We turn now to a sketch soldiers go by; or when she happens to thrust her head by a master-hand-the modern Servant-Lass,

out of a chamber window at the same time with a servant at the next house, when a dialogue infallibly ensues, sti.

mulated by the imaginary obstacles between. If the maid. The maid-servant, in her apparel, is either slovenly or servant is wise, the best part of her work is done by dinfine by turns, and dirty always; or she is at all times snug ner-time, and nothing else is necessary to give perfect zest and neat, and dressed according to her station. In the lat to the meal. She tells us what she thinks of it, when she ter case, her ordinary dress is black stockings, a stuff gown, calls it a bit o' dinner.' There is the same sort of eloa cap, and neck-handkerchief pinned corner-wise behind. quence in her other phrase, a cup o' tea;' but the old If you want a pin, she just feels about her, and has always ones, and the washerwomen, beat her at that. After tea one to give you. On Sundays and holydays, and perhaps in great houses, she goes with the other servants to hot of afternoons, she changes her black stockings for white, cockles, or What-are-my-thoughts like, and tells Mr. John puts on a gown of a better texture and fine pattern, sets to have done then ;' or if there is a ball given that night, her cap and her curls jauntily, and lays aside the neck- they throw open all the doors, and make use of the music handkerchief for a high body, which, by the way, is not up stairs to dance by. In smaller houses, she receives the half so pretty. There is something very warm and latent visit of her country cousin; and sits down alone, or with in the handkerchief,—something easy, vital, and genial. a fellow maid-servant, to work; talks of her young master, A woman in a high-bodied gown, made to fit her like a or mistress, Mr. Ivins (Evans); or else she calls to mind case, is by no means more modest, and is much less tempt. her own friends in the country, where she thinks the cows ing. She looks like a figure at the head of a ship. We and all that' beautiful, now she is away. Meanwhile, could almost see her ehucked out of doors into a cart with if she is lazy, she snuffs the candle with her scissars; or if as little remorse as a couple of sugar-loaves. The tucker she has eaten more heartily than usual, she sighs double is much better, as well as the handkerchief, and is to the the usual number of times, and thinks that tender hearts other what the young lady is to the servant. The one al were born to be unhappy. Such being the maid-servant's ways reminds us of the Sparkler in the Guardian ;' the life in-doors, she scorns, when abroad, to be any thing but other of Fanny in Joseph Andrews.' But to return : a creature of sheer enjoyment. The maid-servant, the The general furniture of her ordinary room, the kitchen, sailor, and the schoolboy, are the three beings that enjoy a is not so much her own as her master's and mistress's, and holyday beyond all the rest of the world ; and all for the need not be described ; but in a drawer of the dresser of the same reason_because their inexperience, peculiarity of table, in company with a duster and a pair of snuffers, may life, and habit of being with persons, or circumstances, or be found some of her property, such as a brass thimble, a thoughts above them, give them all, in their way, a cast of pair of scissars, a thread.case, a piece of wax candle much the romantic. The most active of money-getters is a veget. wrinkled with the thread, an odd volume of "Pamela,' able compared with them. The maid-servant, when she first and perhaps a sixpenny play, such as George Barnewell,' goes to the play-house, thinks she is in heaven. A theatre is or Mrs. Belin's Oroonoko.' There is a piece of looking- all pleasurç to her, whatever is going forward, whether the

THE MAID-SERVANT.

of misty winds are also proverbially hurtful, and the in. jurious effects seem to arise from the moisture continually getting into debt. It is giving unto gnats the fangs of deposited by them on the body, which is evaporated by vipers. the natural heat, and causes in that process an unusual and hurtful degree of cold, or diminution of the animal temJany in A man had his pocket handkerchief stolen in the I beat accurately. The following story was lately told in a large com- lar time; and if any are at rest, set a going those which

play, or the music, or the waiting which makes others im- street. He seized the thief; and, beiug the stronger, held patient, or the munching of apples and gingerbread nuts, him fast, though not without receiving many violent which she and her party commence almost as soon as they blows; and at length gave him into the charge of a police have seated themselves. She prefers tragedy to comedy, officer who came up. The transaction was perfectly clear, because it is grander, and less like what she meets with in and passed in the presence of many witnesses ; and the degeneral; and because she thinks it more in earnest also, linquent, if prosecuted, would have been transported. His especially in the love scenes. Her favourite play is “ Alex- wife went to the gentleman, and begged for mercy on her ander the Great, or the Rival Queens.' Another great de- knees ; the thief himself, who was not an uneducated man, light is in going a-shopping. She loves to look at the pat- wrote the most moving letters ;-and who will wonder that terns in the windows, and the fine things labelled with he at length found pity ? On the appointed day the prothose corpulent numerals of only 7s.'- only 6s. 6d.' secutor staid away, and the criminal was accordingly acShe has also, unless born and bred in London, been to see quitted. The gentleman paid dearly enough for his ill. My Lord Mayor, the fine people coming out of court, and timed compassion. A fortnight after this transaction, he the beasties in the Tower ; and at all events she has been was prosecuted by the very man that picked his pocket, for to Astley's and the Circus, from which she comes away an assault, which was proved by the testimony of several equally smitten with the rider, and sore with laughing at witnesses. The defendant replied that it was certainly true the clown. But it is difficult to say what pleasure she en- that he had seized the man, but that he had done so only joys most. One of the completest of all is the fair, where because he had caught him in the act of picking his pocket. she walks through an endless round of noise, and toys, and But as the criminal had already been acquitted of this, and gallant apprentices, and wonders. Here she is invited in no man can be tried twice for the same offence, no notice was by courteous, well-dressed people, as if she were the mis taken of the justification. In short, it cost the too genertress. Here also is the conjuror's booth, where the opera- ous sufferer about a hundred pounds, which he had to pay tor himself, a most stately and genteel person, all in white, partly to the man who robbed him, and partly to the Court." calls her ma'am ;' and says to John by her side, in spite | The whole company thought this sort of justice monstrous ; of his laced hat, · Be good enough, sir, to hand the card to but an old Englishman defended it with great warmth and the lady.? Ahmay her cousin turn out as true as he says pertinacity. I think,' exclaimed he earnestly, that the he is; or may she get home soon enough, and smiling incident just related, exactly goes to illustrate the wisdom enough, to be as happy again next time."

of our laws in the most striking manner. All laws and

judicial authorities are instituted for the sole purpose of CAUSES OF THE BAD EFFECTS OF THE EAST WINDS. preventing crime. This is also the sole end of punishment.

THERE never were so many persons in this locality af. The receiver of stolen goods is, therefore, in the eye of the fected with colds, hoarseness, rheumatism, &c. &c., from law, nearly as guilty as the thief ; and he who knowingly the east winds, in the month of August, as last week. We tries to rescue a criminal from the grasp of the law, is find the following theory of these troublesome effects of this almost as pernicious to the community as the criminal detested wind, in our Commonplace Book, but cannot at himself. That man who, perhaps, began his career in present refer to the author :- The ill effects of the east wind crime with the stealing of this pocket-handkerchief, and on health have always been noticed. It is well known that therefore ought to have been withdrawn from society for air, as it grows warmer, becomes capable of holding in penitence and amendment, now, emboldened by success, solution (or drinking up) a greater quantity of moisture ; is probably planning a larger theft,--perhaps a murder.a current of cold air rushing into a place which is warmer, who ought to bear the blame? This very gentleman,will therefore dry up a great deal of wet. For this rea- who has been deservedly punished for his illegal pity. He son damp clothes in winter, placed in the open window of who thrusts his hand uncalled for and inconsiderately be. a warm room, dry uncommonly fast. Now it is well tween the wheels of a useful machine, must not wonder if known that nothing is more pernicious to the health than he break his fingers.' a sudden drying up of the perspiration. Whether this be owing merely to the cold caused on the skin by the evapo SAGE CHEESE.. This is made by steeping one night, in ration of so much moisture, or to the derangement of some a proper quantity of milk, two parts of sage, one part of other link in the animal economy, need not be asked; it marigold leaves, and a little parsley, after they have been is sufficient that the fact is so. For this reason, exposure bruised. On the following morning the greened milk is to any current of air which is acquiring heat, and is strained off

, and mixed with about one-third of the whole therefore becoming drier, is uncommonly prejudicial. quantity intended to be run or coagulated. The green and Every one has observed how disagreeable are currents of white milks are run separately, the two curds being kept air in warm rooms : in fact, the warmer the room, and the apart until they be ready for vatting ; these may be mixed nearer we are to the fire place, so much the more annoy- either evenly and intimately, or irregularly and fancifully, ing is a draught from any of its crannies. Such a current, according to the pleasure of the manufacturer. increasing in heat as it passes from the cold of the external STILTON CHEESE.-This delicious cheese may be made air to the warmth of a room, will absorb double its former by the

following simple process :-To the new milk of the moisture

, and of course will dry the perspiration on the cheese-making morning add the cream from that of the body faster than it can be supplied, causing, by that means, preceding evening, together with the rennet, watching the Theumatism in all its forms, toothach, headach, &c. full separation of the curd, which must be removed from Now it is evident that the same reason which causes a

a draught from the open air into a room to be disagreeable, of such consistence as to bear being lifted

up and placed in will cause any wind blowing from a cold region into one a hoop that will receive it without much pressure.

The that is warmer

, to have exactly the same effects. The cheese, as it dries, will shrink up, and must, therefore, be Cast wind is in this predicament ; it blows from a colder placed from time to time in a tighter hoop, and turned coletinent, which retains the cold of winter longer than | daily, until it acquires the proper degree of consistence for the marine tract on which we are situated, the temperature use or keeping. of which is more equal, and at such times warmer

. Damp

DEBT.-- If you boast of a contempt for the world, avoid SYMPATHY IN WATCHES.-It has been found that in a watchmaker's shop the time-pieces or clocks, connected

with the same wall or shelf, have such a sympathetic effect ENGLISH JUSTICE.

in keeping time, that they stop those which beat in irregu.

perature,

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