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merely white but livid. Her figure, which was slight, and ge. verified in the person his more innocent, and no less frienitnerally somewhat drooping, was unnaturally stiff and erect. Her less child. eyes were wider open than usual, and seemed quite glassy ; in a The boy died as the ship crngsed the line, and from that hour word, she looked exactly like an untended corpse placed up- Mary's head was never right again. It would have broken any right.

body's heart, sir, to hear her talk continually of her boy, and of « Lord have mercy on us, Mary!" said I, starting and drop- going to Newcastle to find him ; for in ber rambling fits she ping my spectacles, " when did you arrive?”

confounded her own first unhappy vovage and his last together, «i Where is Mr. Mandeville ?" said she, in the same hurried and nothing could persuade her that he was not there. and frightful tone as before, without taking her eyes off me, or As to Mr. Mandeville, he lives on in a miserahle way; in. the smallest potice of my question.

firm of body, and very sick I believe, in mind. The tide of “ Why, what signifies where he is ?" replied I, much alarm- public opinion had changed before he left Weymouth; and I ed, though I did not exactly know at what.

am told that, great and rich as he is, he ton, in advanced life, “ Where is Mr. Mandeville ?" again repeated she with great knows what it is to want a character-for respectability at violence, and with a gesture as though she would have seized least. He has been wounded by cold looks and private whishold of me.

pers; nor, while suffering under the double penalty inflicted by “ I do not know I cannot tell," cried I, holding back in a reproaching world and a reproaching conscience, has he even prodigious perturbation." William, where is your master ?" the same poor consolation which Mary finds, when she fancies, I added, to a servant who was passing the door.

in her rambling fits, that Bob is a great man, and lives in a “ In the drawing-room, madam, playing with the Major." palace. Alas! poor Mary !+

“ Tell him, Mary Lawson must see him this moment," said she, addressing herself to the man in the same extraordinary What he thought of her, I know not; but he seemert

HENRY OF NAVARRE. startled; so without farther delay he rao up stairs, and opened

BY MR. MACAULAY, M. P. FOR CALNE. the drawing-room door. Sure enough we heard the rattle of Now glory to the Lord of osts, from whom all glories are ! the dice, and the two gentlemen laughing: Mr. Mandeville in And glory to our Sovereign Liege, King Henry of Navarre ! particular; for he had a loud and noisy laugh that one could Now let there be the merry sound of music and of dance, not mistake: it was his last, however, for many a long day !. Through thy com-fields green, and sunny vines, O pleasant land of I suppose the man delivered his message exactly, for the laugh France! ter ceared as it were all at once.

And thou, Rochelle, our own Rochelle, proud city of the waters, “ Mary Lawson !" exclaimed Mr. Mandeville with great Again let rapture light the eyes of all thy mourning daughters. vehemence," and where the devil does she come from?"

As thou wert constant in our ills, be joyous in our joy, He had no time to say a word more: for Mary, who had For cold, and stiff, and still are they who wrought thy walls annoy. run like a wild thing up stairs, in spite of all my efforts to pre

Hurrah ! hurrah ! a single field hath turn'd the chance of war, vent her, heard his voice, aod burst into the room.

Hurrah ! hurrah! for Ivry, and Henry of Navarre. “ Your child-your own child, Mr. Mandeville, save your

O! how our hearts were beating, when, at the dawn of day, child !” was all she could say.

We saw the army of the League drawn out in long array; He shook her off roughly, for she had snatched hold of the And Appenzel's

stout infantry, and Egmont's Flemish spears.

With all its priest-led citizens, and all its rebel peers, sleeve of his coat: but he changed colour, and looked very ear.

There rode the brood of false Lorraine, the curses of our land; nestly in her face.

And dark Mayenne was in the midst, a truncheon in his hand : " I call God to witness," said she, in a faltering, but very And, as we looked on them, we thought of Seine's empurpled flool, distinct voice, “ that Robert Innis is your own lawful son. He And good Coligni's hoary hair all dabbled with his blood; is Robert Mandeville." A pistol bullet could not have taken And we cried unto the living God, who rules the fate of war, a more rudden effect than these few words ; it was a frightful To fight for his own holy name, and Henry of Navarre. sight, sir, to see this great strong man drop dead like a stone at the king is come to marshal us, in all his armour drest, her feet :'it was because he was so strong that the surprise thus And he has bound a snow-white plume upon his gallant crest. acted upon him.

He looked upon his people, and a tear was in his eye ; A surgeon came, sent for by the major of the regiment, a par He looked upon the traitors, and his glance was stern and high. ticular friend of Mr. Mandeville's. The major shortly after Right graciously he smiled on us, as roll'd from wing to wing, came in search of Mary, whom he sternly questioned, “but he Down all our line, a deafening shout, “ God save our Lord the King." had no need," said Mrs. Dixon, “ for out at once came the “* And if my standard-bearer fall, as fall full well he may, whole tale."

For never saw I promise yet of such a bloody fray, “ Woman," said he, resentfully, when she had finished, Press where ye see my white plume shine, amidst the ranks of war, "you have ruined Mr. Mandeville!"_Mary looked up at him, and be your Oriflamme to-day the helmet of Navarre." but not a word did she utter.

Hurrah ! the foes are moving. Hark to the mingled din “ You have robbed him of what was as dear to him as his of fife, and steed, and trump, and drum, and roaring culverin. life !"_Mary looked again; to my thinking they were speaking The fiery Duke is pricking fast across Saint Andre's

plain, looks,

but not a syllable did she say. I thought the Major Now by the lips of those we love, fair gentlemen of France, seemed embarrassed by them, however. “ This cursed connexion," continued he, turning half to me,

Charge for the golden lilies,-upon them with the lance.

A thousand spurs are striking deep, a thousand spears in rest, only, I really believe, to avoid looking at her again,

“ will cost

A thousand knights are pressing close behind the snow-white crest; him both his credit and his happiness.”

And in they burst, and on they rushed, while, like a guiding star, “ It cost me both," said Mary.

Amidst the thickest carnage blazed the helmet of Navarre, “ Circumstances were very different," replied he angrily. “ Very!—for I had nothing else to lose!"

Now, God be praised, the day is ours. Mayenne hath turned his rein.

D'Aumale hath cried for quarter. The Flemish Count is slain. I am sure he was moved, for he was a good-natured man, sir ; Their ranks are breaking like thin clouds before a Biscay gale; but he did not care to show it,-“ The boy--the poor unfortu- The field is heaped with bleeding steeds, and flags, and cloven mail. nate boy," said he to himself. “What has become of him!" And then we thought on vengeance, and, all along our van, This was touching the tender string with Mary; and off she “ Remember St. Bartholomew," was pass'd from man to man. went again, into something between madness and hysterics : But out spake gentle Henry, “No Frenchman is my foe : so that finding he had obtained all the information tha: he could, Down, down, with every foreigner, but let your brethren go." he charged me to keep the girl close from observation, and re Oh! was there ever such a knight, in friendship or in war, turned to his wicked companion.

As our Sovereign Lord, King Henry, the soldier of Navarre. And now, sir, if a ship freighted with gold could have re Ho! maidens of Vienna ; ho! matrons of Lucerne ; deemed the poor lad, his father would have thought it too Weep, weep, and rend your hair for those who never shall return. little.

Ho! Philip, send, for charity, thy Mexican pistoles, Poor Bob ! little did he think how many great folks who would That Antwerp monks may sing a mass for thy poor spearmen's souls. not once have looked at him, were busy for him now_his father Ho! gallant pobles of the League, look that your arins be bright; racked between hopes and fears counting the hours. To increase Ho! burghers of Saint Genevieve, keep watch and ward to-night. his chagrin, the business could not be kept so quiet but that For our God hath crush'd the tyrant, our God hath rais'd the slave, all his own friends, and great numbers besides, talked of it and mocked the counsel of the wise, and the valour of the brave. openly; and various falsehoods were circalated, of the early Then glory to his Holy name, from whom all glories are ; wickedness and bad disposition of the boy; so that it seemed as

And glory to our Sovereign Lord, King Henry of Navarre. if that cruel speech of Mr. Mandeville's, which drove Mary to + A Cheap handsome edition of the Canterbury Tales was lately prut. desperation, "Where will you find a character?" was now to be lished by Colburn and Co.

PERMANENT ADVANTAGES OF MACHINERY. the printers as a body, were to resolve to perform their work

in a difficult instead of an easy way--if they were to resolve, NEEDLES are not so cheap as pins, because the material that the labour employed in printing were desirable to be of which they are made is more expensive, and the processes oubled, they might effect their unwise resolution by the cannot be executed so completely hý machinery. But with simplest proceeding in the world. They might refuse to out machinery, how could that most beautiful article, a fine work upon types which had any nicks. In that case two needle, be sold at the rate of six for a penny ? As in the compositors would certainly be required to do the work of case of pins, machinery is at work at the first formation of one ; and the price of printing would consequently be greatthe material. Without the tilt hammer, which beats out ly raised, if the compositors were pai at the present rate The bar of steel, first at the rate of 10 strokes a minute, and for their time. But would the compositors, who thus relastly at that of 500, how could that bar be prepared for jected one of the most obvious natural aids to their peculiar needle making at any thing like a reasonable price? In all labour, be benefited by this course? No. For the price of the processes of needle making, labour is saved by contri. books would rise in the same proportion that the labour vance and machinery. What human touch would be exqui- required to produce them was doubled in its quantity, by site enough to make the eye of the finest needle, through being lessened one-half in its efficiency. And the price which the most delicate silk is with difficulty passed ? of books rising, and that rise lessening purchasers, thouNeedles are made in large quantities, so that it is even im- sands of families would be deprived of a livelihood ;- not portant to save the time of the child who lays them all one only those of compositors, but those of paper-makers, typeFay when they are completed. Mr. Babbage, who is founders, and many other trades connected with books. equally distinguished for his profound science, and his mechanical ingenuity, has described this process as an example of one of the simplest contrivances which can come under

COLUMN FOR THE LADIES, the denomination of a tool. « It is necessary to separate the needles into two parcels, in order that their points may

LADY MORGAN AND HER NIECES. be all in one direction. This is usually done by women

“ I spent a very pleasant evening to-day at Lady M-'s. and children. The needles are placed sideways in a heap The company was small, but amusing, and enlivened by on a table, in front of each operator. From five to ten are the presence of two very pretty friends of our hostess, who rolled towards this person by the fore-finger of the left sang in the best Italian style. I talked a great deal with band; this separates them a very small space from each Lady M on various subjects, and she has talent and other, and each in its turn is pushed lengthways to the feeling enough always tó excite a lively interest in her conright or to the left hand, according as its eye is on the versation. On the whole, I think I did not say enough in right or the left hand. This is the usual process, and her favour in my former letter; at any rate, I did not then in it every needle passes individually under the finger of know one of her most charming qualities that of possessthe operator.

A small alteration expedites the processing two such pretty relatives. considerably; the child puts on the fore-finger of its right « But in Heaven's name,' replied I, how can a woman hand a small cap or finger-stall, and rolling from the heap of sense, like you,-forgive me,-utter such nonsense ?' from 6 to 12 needles, it keeps them down by the fore-finger - Ah, I know well enough all that you can say on that of the left hand; whilst it presses the fore-finger of the subject,' said she ; certainty no man can give me.' This right hand gently against the ends of the needles, those obscurity in a most acute mind was unintelligible to ine, which have their points towards the right hand stick into even in a woman. ( Ne vous en fachez pas, Julie l') the finger-stall; and the child removing the finger of the “ My last and longest visit this morning was to the left hand, allows the needles sticking into the cloth to be sweet girls I met at Lady M's. I took them some slightly raised, and then pushes them towards the left side. Italian music, which they sang like nightingales, and with Those needles which had their eyes on the right hand do a total absence of all pretension and all affectation. Their not stick into the finger cover, and are pushed to the heap father is a distinguished physician ; and like most of the on the right side previous to the repetition of this process. doctors' of eminence here, a · Baronet' or "Knight,' a By means of this simple contriyance, each movement of the title which is not esteemed a mark of nobility in England, finger, from one side to the other, carries five or six needles although some families of great antiquity and consideration to their proper heap ; whereas, in the former method, fre- bear it. There are, however, Creti and Pleti, as among our quently only one was moved, and rarely more than two or lower nobility. A Baronet is generally called not by his three were transported at one movement to their place."

family, but by his Christian, name; as Sir Charles, Sir We have selected this description of a particular process Anthony: as in Vienna they say, Graf Tinterle, Kurst in needle making, to show that great saving of labour may Muckerle, and so on. The medical Knight of whom I now be effected by what is not popularly called machinery. In speak, received his title in consequence of the establishment modern times, whatever work is carried on upon a large of excellent baths, and is a very interesting man. His scale, the division of labour is applied, by which one man wife seemed to me still more remarkable for talent. She attending to one thing, learns to perform that one thing more is very superior to her celebrated relative in accurate tact perfectly tban if he had attended to many things. He thus and judgment, and possesses an extraordinary power of mi. sares a considerable portion of the whole amount of labour. micry, whose comic bent does not always spare her own Every skilful workman has some mode of working peculiar family. The daughters, though perfectly different, are both to himself, by which he lessens his labour. An expert black very original ; the one in the gentle, the other in the wild smith, for instance, will not strike one more blow upon the genre. I always call her Lady M's' wild Irish girl.'. anvil than is necessary to produce the effect he desires. A All three have a characteristic nationality, and indeed have compositor or printer, who arranges the types, is a swift work. never quitted Ireland. man when he makes no unnecessary movement of his arm “ I spend a great deal of my time with the little night, or fingers in lifting a single type into what is called his com- ingales, see Lady M-frequently, and avoid general 80posing stick, where the types are arranged in lines. There is ciety as much as I can. The young ladies keep a burlesque a very simple contrivance to lessen the labour of the composi- journal, in which they write a chronicle of their daily tor, by preventing him putting the type into his composing fata,' illustrated with the most extravagant drawings, stick the wrong side outwards. It is a nick or two nicks, which is infinitely diverting. After that, we sing, talk, or on the side of the type which corresponds with the lower act pictures, in which the mother, with her talent for the side of the face of the letter. By this nick or nicks he is drama, contrives admirable dresses out of the most hetero. enabled to see by one glance of his eye on which side the geneous materials. You would have laughed if you had letter is first to be grasped, and then to be arranged. If seen the wild Irish girl,' with moustaches and whiskers

niek were not there he would have to look at the face marked with charcoal, pocket-handkerchief and stick in wery letter before he could properly place it. Now, if her band, come in as my caricature. These girls have an

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inexhaustible fund of grace and vivacity, extremely un.

THE JUBILEE GLEE. English, but' truly Irish. « The eldest, who is eighteen, has brown eyes, and hair

FOR THE SCHOOLMASTER." of a most singular kind and expression : the latter has a sort of deep golden hue without being red, and in the for Come, boys, sit jollily round the can, mer is a tranquil humid glow, over which comes at times Let each take a pull, till he's twice a man, a perfectly red light like that of fire ; but yet it always Drink till his heart and his brains are clear, remains only an intense glow, not a lightning-flash, like Draughts of bluff Berwick's stout brown beer! that which often glances from the eyes of the little wild Leave griping claret, and French champagne girl. With her, all is flame; and under her maidenly To fellows who try to be men in vain ; blushes there often breaks out the determination and high And take your turns at the tankard warm, spirit of a boy. Indiscreet, and carried away by the im. Draining it dry “To the great Reform!” pulse of the moment, she sometimes gives way to too great

What care we, who boldly think, vivacity, which however, from her sweet simplicity and

What the Clerks, the Melvilles, or Buccleuchs drink; inimitable grace, does but enhance the charm which dis

Jolly boys, what care we a jot tinguishes her. To-day, when my carriage was announced,

Whether Blair's professions are false or not :I exclaimed with a sigh, 'Ah, que cette voiture vient mal

So that the tankard is foaming full, à propos !' " Eh bien,' cried she, with the perfect air of a

And that we are able to take a pulllittle hussar (she was still in male costume), · envoyez la

So that our hearts are stout and warm au diable.' À very severe and reproving look from her

To the cause of “ An honest and just Reform ! " mamma, and one of terror from her gentle sister, covered all of her little face, that was not concealed by her disguise,

We don't want to demolish the State, over and over with scarlet ; she cast down her eyes asham

Nor to steal their tags from the “ titled great,"

Garter nor ribbon, nor sash nor cord ;ed, and looked indescribably pretty. « Lady M— received me to-day in her authoress-bon

The Devil for us may be dubbed “a lord." doir, where I found her writing, not without some view to

The jobber may swallow the gold he's got, effect, elegantly dressed, and with a mother-of-pearl and

We want but enough to boil the pot ; gold pen in her hand. She was employed on a new book,

And to keep out the cold, and the starving storm, for which she had invented a very good title, “Memoirs of And quietly live 'neath “ A true Reform." Myself and for Myself.' She asked me whether she should Let us have friends who may tell our tale, put of myself' or ' for myself' first. I decided for the And argue it out with the Tories palem former as the more natural order; for I observed she must Our free chosen Members to represent urite, before she can have written. Upon this we fell into Our rights and our wrongs in Parliament. a sportive contest, in which she reproached me with my Then will we readily meet and bear, German pedantry, and maintained that hitherto Lonnet Hardships, taxes, toil, and care, blanc' and blanc bonnet' had been the same; the justice Taking our chance for the sun and storm, of which I was obliged to admit. The motto she had chosen So it be under "A true Reform!” was from Montaigne, ‘Je n'enseigne pas, je raconte.' She Here's a health to MURRAY and ABERCROMBY! read me some passages, which I thought very good. This May they both do double the good they say :woman, who appears so superficial, is quite another being To fine little Jeffrey-He's not bigwhen she takes the pen in her hand.

But he'll batter down Croker, and Peel the prig ; « She told me that she intended to go next winter to

To the School MASTER Brongham ! when he begins, Paris, and wished to go on into Germany, but that she had

He'll palmie the Tories, and crack their shins : a great dread of the Austrian police. 1 advised her to go

And flog in the Bishops (a terrible swarm,) to Berlin. Shall not I be persecuted there?' said she.

Yea give Sugden a brush till he bawl “ Reform !** God forbid !' rejoined I; ' in Berlin talent is worshipped : only I advise you to take at least one of your pretty young

RULES FOR CHESS. friends, who is fond of dancing and dances well, so that

Alas--that it should be my fate to sing you may be invited to the balls at court, and may thus

The small dominion of the wretched King! have an opportunity of becoming acquainted with our

One single move from left to BIGHT he makes, amiable and accomplished young military men : they are

Another then from RIGIT to LEFT be takes : well worth knowing, and you may not find any other way One single move; and can he do no more? of being introduced to them.' At this moment her husband Ah no! tis true, the sov'reign pow'r is o'er.

Not so his consort; mark ber gen'ral sway, entered, and begged me to get his philosophical work tran

She-unrestrained, can move in every way, slated into German, that he might not figure there only as

The sex's softness banish'd from the sceneaid-de-camp to his wife, but fly with his own wings. I

She aims at all : oh, blush, presumptuous Qures! promised all he wished ; but observed that a new prayer. The MITRED heroes next must join the throng; book would have a better chance of success at the present Diagonally-suits but ill with song, day than a new system of philosophy, of which we had Else would I tell thee_thus each move they make,

Just entre nous-for opposition sake. enough already.

“ I dined at Lady M—'s. She had invited me by a Holyday Rambles Round Edinburgh, No. II.-The Roman note, such as I have received a dozen of during my stay Camp, by the Railway

Maid Servants...

19 here :-I must mention them as characteristic, for I never

Canvassing-An Old Fashioned Member of Parliament....... in my life saw worse calligraphy, or a more negligent style

Fundamental Principles of the British Constitution,... from a lady's pen. The aim of the great authoress was

COLUMN FOR YOUTH-What Men have done- The Giraffe manifest ;-to announce the most perfect insouciance,' The Gazelle.. the most entire abandon,' in the affairs of ordinary life; ELEMENTS OF THOIGHT-The People-Equality of Condi. just as the great solo dancers in Paris affect to walk with tions—ROUSSEAU. Equality among Citizens-HUME........ 24

THE STORY TELLER-MARY LAWSON : Story for Young Women 25 their toes turned in, that they may not betray the dancer

Henry of Navarre-A Poem, by Mr. Macaulay, M.P..... by profession. At table Lady M-, with her aid-de

Permanent Advantages of Machinery.... camp K. CI-'faisoient les frais d'esprit obligé.' Mr.

COLUMN FOR THE LADIES-Lady Morgan and her Nieces...... 31 Shiel, too, appeared in the character of an agreeable man THE JUBILEE GLEE. of the world. The most amusing part of the entertainment, however, was the acting of proverbs by Lady Mand EDINBURGH : Printed by and for John JOHNSTONË, 19, St. James's her sister, who both extemporized admirably in French. Square.-Published by JOHN ANDERSON, Jun., Bookseller, 55, North

Bridge Street, Edinburgh ; by JOHN MacLeon, and ATKINSON & Co Among others, they performed Love me, love my dog.'

Book sellers, Glasgow, and sold by all Booksellers and Venders or Tour of a German Prince.

Cheap Periodicals




30 31



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CONDITION OF OPERATIVE MANUFAC. mulate the many to inquiry, and to set them on TURERS

looking for redress where alone it may be obtain

ed, in the exertion of their own physical and in“ God sends meat, but the Devil sends cooks,” | tellectual energies; and also to show the few the says the adage ; and the saying is applicable to dangers of the crater, on the brink of which they many things besides boiling and roasting. The are lulling themselves into a selfish and stupid reraan that should sit down at this time of day, to pose. We are enabled to do this effectually from doubt of the immense advantages society ought a little work by Dr. Kay of Manchester, which, in permanently to gain from the late great improve a few pages, gives us a sketch of the wretched ments in machinery, and the application of the circumstances of an immense body of the peodiscoveries of science to manufactures and agri- ple of Britain; for Glasgow, Paisley, and many culture, must, if not actually mad, be strangely of the populous manufacturing towns differ, in prejudiced; but equally prejudiced, and more mad few respects, from Manchester, which he demust he be, who, looking stedfastly at the actual scribes. It is a heart-breaking, and to many it condition of the mass of the manufacturing popu- will be a repulsive exhibition, this of the helots lation, does not confess, that · All is not gold that of our wealthy commercial society; and yet, Thou glisters,'—that the cooks are somehow spoiling the Most Gracious and Benevolent Being! who callest. good meat which Heaven sends us. Instead of all of us into existence, and who, gifting each with marching, hand in hand, mutually aiding each other, like capacities, lookest upon all alike, these, our Labour and Capital are too often seen running an degraded, suffering, fellow-creatures, number antagonist race, in which the latter, always the hundreds for the tens of the comfortable and stronger party, enjoys fearful odds. A struggle is well-sustained in this favoured land.After some continually going on, of man against machine, till general preliminary observations, Dr. Kay enters that which should be the staff in the hands of the early on that great admitted evil, and standing human being is converted into the instrument of his reproach of artisans, the Gin Shop, and those degradation and torture. In the words of Mr.Combe, habits of improvidence which act at once as cause in our first number, “ Has man been permitted to and effect in aggravating the miseries of the madiscover the steam-engine, and apply it in propelnufacturing poor.--And who are the manufacling ships on the ocean and carriages on railways, turing poor? Nearly every one, it appears, in spinning, weaving, and forging iron; and has he connected with manufacturing operations, is now been gifted with intellect to discover the astonish- included in this sweeping phrase. All are the poor, ing power of physical agents, such as are revealed and most the wretchedly poor. After considerby chemistry and mechanics, only that he may be ing the actual circumstances of this numerous enabled to build more houses, weave more webs, and class, the writer has the humanity to make generforge more iron utensils, without any direct regard ous allowance for even their worst faults. « No to his moral and intellectual improvement ?" And wonder,” he says, “ that the wretched victim, ina. Mr. Combe might have added—- In the employment vited by those haunts of misery and crime—the of those newly-revealed agencies, must he lead a gin-shop and the tavern—as he passes to his daily more degraded and wretched life, than before these labour, should endeavour to cheat his suffering of powers of science and mechanism were ever heard a few moments, by the false excitement procured of spending his strength for that which is not by ardent spirits; or that the exhausted artisan, bread, and his labour for that which satisfieth driven by ennui and discomfort from his squalid

home, should strive, in the delirious dreams of a To ascertain the nature and full extent of an continued debarch, to forget the remembrance of wil is the first sure step towards the remedy. The his reckless improvidence of the destitution, * strong facts we have to state do not compre- hunger, and uninterrupted toil, which threaten to bend half the evil; but they are sufficient to sti- destroy the remaining energies of his enfeebled

constitution." This is a faithful picture of the suffice to refer generally to the wretched state of gaunt, famine-struck, ragged man, whom more in the habitations of the poor, especially throughout sorrow than in anger one meets at the turning of the whole of the districts, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4: the every crowded thoroughfare of a manufacturing houses, too, generally built back to back, having, town. Let us now look into his home. « The therefore, only one outlet-no yard, no privyhouses, in such situations, (in Manchester,) are and no receptacle for refuse. Consequently, the uncleanly, ill-provided with furniture; an air of narrow, unpaved streets, in which mud and water discomfort, if not of squalid and loathsome wretch- stagnate, become the common receptacles of offal edness, pervades them; they are often dilapi- and ordure ; often low, damp, ill-ventilated cellars dated, badly drained, and damp; and the habits exist beneath the houses. The streets in the disof their tenants are gross. They are ill-fed, illtricts where the poor reside are generally unclothed, and uneconomical; at once spendthrifts sewered, and the drainage is consequently superand destitute; denying themselves the comforts ficial. of life, in order that they may wallow in the un “ Much less can we obtain satisfactory statisti. restrained licence of animal appetite. An intimate cal results concerning the want of furniture, esconnexion subsists among the poor, between the pecially of bedding, and of food, clothing, and cleanliness of the street and that of the house and fuel. In these respects, the habitations of the person. Uneconomical habits and dissipation are Irish are most destitute :—they can scarcely be almost inseparably allied: and they are so fre- said to be furnished. They contain one or two quently connected with uncleanliness, that we chairs, a mean table, the most scanty culinary cannot consider their concomitance as altogether apparatus, and one or two beds loathsome with accidental. The first step to recklessness may filth. A whole family is often accommodated on a often be traced in a neglect of that self-respect, single bed ; and sometimes a heap of filthy straw, and of the love of domestic enjoyments, which and a covering of old sacking, hide them in one unare indicated by personal slovenliness, and discom- distinguished heap, debased alike by penury, want fort of the habitation-hence the importance of of economy, and dissolute habits. A family are often providing, by police regulations or general enact- crowded into one room, or damp cellar, in whose ment, against those fertile sources, alike of disease pestilential atmosphere from twelve to sixteen perand demoralization, presented by the gross neglect sons are huddled.” Dr. Kay gives a rather more of the streets and habitations of the poor." favourable account of the condition, and consePolice regulations are, however, but

quently of the character, of the cotton-spinners, “ The hangman's whip to haud the wretch in order ;" than of the hand-loom weavers; they may earn, he and nothing should ever reconcile any class of the says, from 9s. to 128. a-week. From the evidence British people to the regular domiciliary visits of of Mr. Foster, an intelligent practical man, we police in their habitations, nor justify such an en- learn, that in Glasgow and Paisley, there are, even croachment on personal rights, save the direst ne- in moderately good times, about 11,000 handcessity. They are at best a painful palliative of a loom weavers, toiling at all times for fourteen small part of the evil ; no remedy which can hours a day, at a rate of wages of which the average ever have a lasting, sanative operation even against may be 58. 6d. a-week! Dr. Kay makes the rate uncleanliness. Take this other picture of the human vary from 5s. to 88., which gives a higher average. ant-hill, where a few grow to enormous wealth on In Manchester the hand-loom weavers are chiefly the toils, and amid the miseries of the many. “ In Irish ; the poorest, wherever they are found, and Manchester, in the divisions numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, in every way the most wretched of the manu7, 10, 13, and 14, which contain a large propor- facturing population. The Doctor forgets his own tion of the poor, we find 579 streets, 243 of which apology for these heirs of toil and misery, and are altogether unpaved ; and 307 containing heaps again returns to the gin-shops and the beer-houses, of refuse, deep ruts, stagnant pools, &c. Replies --now converting into a cause what he had almost to the tabular inquiries relating to dwellings, admitted to be a consequence.

« Some idea may afford equally remarkable, if not more disgusting be formed of the influence of these establishments results : suffice it to say, that out of 6951 houses on the health and morals of the people," says Dr. examined, 2565 wanted whitewashing, 1435 were Kay, “from the following statement, drawn up by reported as damp, and 2221 entirely wanting ne- Mr. Braidley, the boroughreeve:—He observed cessary conveniences. In one street, called Par- the number of persons entering a gin-shop in five liament Street, there appears only one for 380 minutes, during eight successive Saturday ereninhabitants, and this built in a narrow passage, ings, and at various periods, from seven o'clock which must, consequently, prove a fertile source of until ten. The average result was 112 men and contagion and disease.” Such is the accommoda- 163 women, or 275 in forty minutes, which is tion of thousands on thousands in the great inetro- equal to 412 per hour.” This is bad enough. polis of the commercial system. Nor have we yet Dr. Kay concludes with Mr. M'Culloch's preseen the worst. In the miseries of a manufactur- scription, which has been written out at least some ing town there are lower deeps. “ Unwilling,"

ten thousand times now. Full time some attempt says Dr. Kay, “ to weary the patience of the rea were made to administer it. “ If," says M‘Culloch, der by extending these disgusting details, it may “we would really improve the condition of the lower

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