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country surgeon icad promise himself one night of qgiet. This information only whetted, the curiosity of the young Thus the only difference between him and the song of the cirele, and Norman was urged to proceed to using, farmers, who laboured in thitir own fields, was the immea.' surable ens of knowledge, hourly increasing, activity of in- scientific attainments than many of his tank. He was an

The Duke of Argyle of that time was a man of gtcatet tellect and superior delicacy and propriety of manners, whick naturally flow from the cultivation of literary taste.

eager agricultural iinprover, and for this, among other reaa In the course of the next season, the young Doctor's sons, he was fond of the study of chemistry, in which the nag might be seen fastened to the door-latch of many a Hall- dabbled in a gentlemanly was. I have told you that this honze and even; posted near the dwelling of a laird or two part of Lanarkshire was beginning to be and more in the Upper Ward. No one partakes more frequently of mining district. The extensive estates of the Duke in the

faral hospitality than that ill-paid fag, the country surgeon Highlands were known to abound in minerals ; an Englogo of Scotlands bravel-worn or belated in his attendance at the lish Company was then either eatablished, or about to com. Es couch of other miserable and poverty-stricken sufferer,

-mence the Iron Works at Bupawe. He was at Kirk of * nor does any one halfso well deserve the attentions of hos. Shotts, as he said, looking about him, and required some

pitality, Many arnight must he be knocked up to ride a apparatus, or an acid or alkali, which it was not thought, - dozen miles in storónand darkness, to attend a poor sufferer possible to obtain nearer than Glasgow, till a lady-and la:

all the night, and then return home to his breakfast. In this plain hardy fashion, did our. Willian live for liam; and her husband allowed that he was a clever, steady

dies have quick, as well as kind memories-recollected Wil. about threessyears, working hard, and recreating himself - with study, doing good to many, and rising in favour with and knew something more of the world than the run of

sort of chap, who had made a voyage or two to the Islands, all, when an accident occurred which some will call fortn. nate ; but I beg of you not rashly so to name what to an

country doctors, though there was little hope that he could onlinary man could have been attended with no advantage

serve the present turn. A servant on horseback summoned phateror, nor to any man, except one who, like our wil the Doctor, and his apparatus to attend his Grace, who at liana stas prepared, by a long course of diligent acquisition,

once understood his man. . With so much propriety and *s to profit by the good fortune cast in his way. Had he been modesty did Wiliam acquit himself in this interview,

liko niny-zling youths ont of a hundred, into his way it that the Duke requested he might be asked to repeat his

had never fallen. William's reputation had now travelled visits An invitation to dinner followed, and i William, by - » lar abroad, and had even descended to the rich and more

the knowledge and ability he displayed on those mining populous valley of the Under Ward. He had been heard subjects in which his Grace was interested, created for him. 3 ..0at Lanark, was personally known at Dalserf, and named self a powerful and generous friend. The approbation of saa title respect even so far off as Hamilton, as an ingenious, the Duke at once stamped his value, and gave him our1 ss actite, steady, obliging, young fellow, who, some of the rency, and the prospect of a higher order of friends and pa

"zaff wires" began to allow, wns skilly for his years and tients than he had yet obtained. After this,' he remarked thoz etery body said, 'Et would get on." This was, indeed, that the mother of Miss Johnston received him on his first the unfailing impression of every one whose opinion was call at the Mansc rather more graciously. His calls there had worth minding, received from his steady character, his frank not, of late, been frequent; but from about this time the it. manners, and agreeable conversation. There was the air, timacy increased, for William began to find patients'down the eartest of success about him. He was felt to be a man in the richer country, which led him into that "neighbourwho trist visezu who must, by the force of a natural law, hood, two or three times a-week. `About two years after the

malle his way aronnd and upwards: but who among them purchase of his first nag at Hamilton, he was led to think : all, and who less than himself, coald have guessed how high of establishing his head quarters in that pretty town. "Se

in name; how eminent in science and in station, our Wil- veral of the more respectable of his patients had recomLiana was destined to become !--[ ought to say was to make mended, and solicited this change. His friends at the himself, for he was the subject of no miracle. But I must Manse approved, so, after proper consideration, William, conue to William's first great adventure. The Duke of seeing he had not much to lose in leaving Kirk of Shotts, Apyle of that period.

and had a fair, and more fertile field before him, moved "0, 1 guess it all now," cried Sophia Herbert.

westward, according to the natural progress of the Arts and "The Duke was thrown from his horse, I daresay, on bese toors, broke his collar bone, and William was called Sciences, at the Martinmas term, exactly a century ago, in, atifcured him, and his Grace took charge of the Docs and took up his abode in a better house, in which was one lor's fortune.

compartment called “the shop," and another, “the study." "Quite wrong, Miss Sophia.“ returned the reader ; & His There was besides a stable, and a kail-yardi. Grace did not give him one sixpence. The Duke of that This new establishment might even accommodate a wife

- and in spring a wife was brought home to it. Even this of that time,!"

exclaimed Sophia, “That Duke must step, was maturely considered. William's professional enbate, been Jeanie Dean's Duke-our Dukem that we all gagements

, bad rapidly increased during the winter and

spring, and his fees were higher. He now pumbered lairds, And so he xras, Sophia," said Mrs. Herbert; “ and it and ladies among his patients, and had accounts amounting. As most agreeable to fall in with an old friend on the moorsco Lotos, and even to L.2, where cases were desperate and Hof Lanarkshire when we least expect it; especially with tedious. He knew that he often lost money and customers, Bat tank, good-hearted Scotch, nobleman, known to us as from having no one save a heedless lad at howie to note the the friend of Jeanie Deans ; but you must bear in mind. orders and calls which came in, while he was galloping thao-tho-Scotch Williams, are no fictitions beings--they throngh the country. Upon this: last prudential argu. Pere real living men, of flesh and blood." &

merit, the good old people of the Manse yielded; the old

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lady sighing, and remarking, that “since it must be, it was gow University, he was boarded in a genteeler style than as well soon as syne.” So our William obtained the crown. our William, his weekly expenses amounting to almost 62., ing blessing of his life. His wife's little fortune was use besides getting his clean linen, and many little helps from ful also. It enabled him to add to his means, and increase Lang Cawderwude. He had some relatives in a thriving the comforts of his family, by farming a small piece of way in Glasgow, and, as a “ laird's” son, visited both pros ground; while her connexions brought new friends and new perous citizens and learned professors. When he had at. patients. William was now a happy man. He had the tended Glasgow College for five years, his friends were morneatest, if not the largest house, the handsomest wife, and tified to find that he had no inclination to come out in the the highest medical reputation in Hamilton and seven miles Church, and preferred the profession of medicine. Idlene round it. At the following Michaelmas, as a mark of re in such a family was out of the question; and when he ess spect for his character, he was chosen a member of the coun- pressed a wish to become the partner and assistant of our cil of the burgh, and at the next again, the Provost, though William at Hamilton, they gladly acquiesced, so well esta. he was still a very young man to have attained such honours. blished was the character of “ The new Doctor," for ability, And now respectable neighbours, farmers, and proprietors, integrity, and prudence. Similar tastes and pursuits bad pressed their sons upon him as apprentices in surgery and thrown the young men much together of late ; and they pharmacy. His hands were full of employment, his friends promised themselves both pleasure and advantage in a closer and patients still increasing; and his fame, extending connexion. And now, mark the conditions of the compact of through a wider circle, had now reached Glasgow, where these obscure surgeons; the younger William was to be rehis old master in the Candleriggs, boasted of his former ap-ceived into the home of the elder to acquire, in the first plaas, prentice.

a general knowledge of the routine of actual practice, for it If you suppose that, with this accession of wealth, and was only by books he yet knew any thing of medicine. The honour, and domestic happiness, William was to close his partnership was otherwise entered into with no hope or books, and sit down contented, you mistake his charac- gain, no speculation of profit-nothing beyond the fruga! ter. To increase his knowledge, to excel in his profession, means of an independent livelihood, and the power of protwas still, as ever, his fondest ambition. It might have been cuting their profession in turns, by going alternately to thought, that with his wife, and children, and friends about London or Edinburgh in the winter, to attend the medial him, and with numerous duties, both public and private, his classes and the hospitals—a singular principle of partner. time was fully filled up, and that the social or peaceful ship for two young men to form. Our William's turn, as night should now have succeeded the busy day. And so it

of right, came first. He left his wife and children, and has did; and yet William found time to keep pace with the ra

practice, to the care of his friend, and in the winter of 1739 pidly improving spirit of the age in many things, but espe- repaired to Edinburgh, which at the time boasted of sevecially in all that related to medical science, and his favour-ral eminent medical professors Need I tell you with what ite pursuit of chemistry, While every one admired his attainments, he alone was dissatisfied, conscious of the de-assiduity an opportunity was improved, so long waited for, fects of his early medical education, and how much remains and purchased at so anxious a price, with so many efforts of ed to the physician who would press onward in his profes- him for deserting his practice in this wild way; but, as

self-denial. Some of his friends did not scruple to blame sion. The smiles of his wife and children could not shake his purposes, or lull him in the dream that he had done he had the approbation of the person chiefly interested,

The enough, while so much lay before him. It would, however, his wife, he did not much mind any oue else. have been most opposite to his character to have neglected second William, left to himself from November till Mareb, his increasing business, and his present duties. His small worked double tides to keep all right in Hamilton, to attend practice was the means of respectability, and of domestic the shop, and hold the patients together; and he also had happiness, and he stuck sedulously to it; looking, mean

his reward, for in the winter of 1740 his turn of study while, cautiously and prudently round, and waiting for the

He attended the medical classes of Edinburgh : and favourable moment no one better knew how to seize and in spring, with the consent of his partner, went to London improve. Near William's native parish had lived and to attend such lectures and demonstrations as were fitted to flourished, for time immemorial, the family of Long Caw- advance his professional knowledge. I mentioned before derwude, a race of Lanarkshire dignitaries, who had not, at that he had studied in Glasgow with the reputation of gosi that time, been much heard of, beyond their own corner of scholarship. At that time there were in Glasgow to the county, though there, or at least in the parish of Kil | learned printers, brothers, of the name of Foulis, who were bride, they could be traced far beyond the Persecuting Times, connected with scientific and learned men all over Europe. and back to the wars of Bruce and Wallace. Though only They printed the classics, and all the young students were 6 small lairds,” the Lang Cawderwude family were great invited to visit their office, to exercise their critical skill ua folks compared with our William's stock, though I have

corrections. For this purpose, it is said, they used to hans made the very most that is possible of his ancestry. But

up their proof-sheets in the hall of the College, and offer education and good conduct level still higher distinctions.

rewards for the discovery of errors. From the se gentlers The laird of Lang Cawderwude, among a family of ten sons and daughters, had also a William, -our second Scotch William of Lang Cawderwude, the Scottish student, oh William, who was a few years younger than the first. The tained a letter of introduction to a very eminent, and also value of his father's estate might, in those days, be from

a very rich physician in London. After a trial of lista L.70 to L.80 a-year; and, as was usual, he farmed it him- lents and principles, this gentleman received William into self, and supported his large family on its produce. His his own family, as a professional assistant, and as the intufather being in the rank of lairds, the second William was

of his son. These were brilliant prospects; and our W.. not subjected to the indignity of an apprenticeship. He liam at Hamilton was too high-minded and too generous to was intended for the Church ; and while attending the Glas- throw any obstacle in the way of his friend's advancetarst.


The connexion was amicably dissolved, and to their dying struggle with difficulties, and with what may be called poday they continued to regard and respect each other, though verty; and his sympathies ever flowed freely towards young they never again met. Our London William, so fortunate men of superior talents, placed as he had been in early life. in his early establishment, we must leave for the present, He loved to distinguish them, and to encourage and aid and keep by our first and favourite hero. He was still their efforts. He lectured till within a few months of his provost of his little burgh, and farmer, and surgeon, and death, which took place when he had attained the ad. student ; husband, and father, and friend ; and he might vanced age of seventy-seven, full of years and honours. have lived and died in the narrow circle of Hamilton a re On his coffin was read the illustrious name of WILLIAM spected man: but a brighter career lay before him, nor was CULLEN. it less happy. Already he had reaped the fruits of his own early planting ; but as he had never relaxed in diligent and

Having thus disposed of one William, the fortunes of the useful culture, there was still much to gather in.

second may be more rapidly traced. WILLIAM HUNTER His grandee neighbour the Duke, who seldom resided at

of Long Calderwood was the brother of John Hunter, and Hamilton Palace, happened once, when there, to be taken the uncle of Dr. Matthew Baillie. suddenly ill; and, on this emergency, the country doctor

“ Eminent names these in medical annals" said Mr. was sent for, his Grace feeling no reluctance to intrust

Dodsley. himself to a practitioner of whom every one spoke so well;

“Brave eaglets from the Scotch nest of Long Calderand who, instead of the usual conceit of ignorance, had the wood,” cried Miss Harding. good sense to attend Monro, even after he was married and

« And Joanna, too !” whispered Sophia. “Ay, Joanna in full practice. It is told that William, whose general Baillie, too_and Mrs. John Hunter. You remember talents were hardly yet appreciated, not only benefited the your favourite canzonet in days of Ancient Melodies, Mrs. Duke as a physician, but delighted him, as a companion

Herbert ?" full of knowledge and vivacity, as a philosopher and a man

6 My mother bids me bind my hair,'—to be sure I do :of the world, prized the more for being thus found in ob- such a constellation of northern stars ! and all clustering scurity. In this year William took out his medical degree about one eminent name—for 1 derive them all from the at Glasgow, and became entitled to the dignified name long little apothecary's shop, and the apprentice in the Candlebefore gratuitously bestowed. He was once more ripe for riggs, in preference to the Hall-house of Long Calderwood an access of good fortune and it came. The lectureship

William the first became the intellectual father of William of chemistry in Glasgow was vacant ; at the suggestion of the second, who again became the parent of John and the Duke he solicited and obtained a situation which his

Matthew. But proceed, Mr. Norman, with the second previons studies had fitted him to fill with honour to him. Hamilton surgeon.” self and advantage to his pupils. He now removed his

As you know the close of his history already, there can family to Glasgow. Here he was placed in a light in which be little interest in following it farther. I shut my book, he could at last be fairly seen and truly judged.

He stood and tell you, that, after qualifying himself by several years every test, surpassed every expectation, obtained a large and of diligent study and preparation, he commenced a course lucrative city practice, eclipsed all his predecessors in the of lectures on some limited branch of anatomy, with which chemical chair, and became, what he always continued to

he was thoroughly acquainted, and succeeded so well, that be, the idol of his numerous pupils. He had not held this he was solicited by his pupils to extend his range. He betitaation above three years, when a higher became vacant :

came, as is well known, by slow but sure degrees, the most and without solicitation, William was appointed by the eminent anatomical lecturer of his time. It is related by a Crown, Regius Professor of Medicine. Universities were

friend, that when, after the first lecture of his second course, nov emulous which should obtain so eminent a teacher, so

he carried home seventy guineas of fees beneath his cloak, popular a lecturer, so admired a man; and his next step he remarked that he never had possessed nearly so much was the Chemical Professorship of Edinburgh, which, from money before ; yet he lived to bequeath a museum to the kis still increasing reputation for science, he was solicited University at which he had studied, which cost L.70,000! to fill. In the metropolis of his native country his numer

with a further donation of J..8000 to keep it up and in or0uB patients were of the highest classes, and it was said der ; and obtained the highest honours, if not the highest truly, that all his patients became his friends. Step by step fame, in his profession. Hunter possessed, in an eminent he rose to the proudest distinctions in the University. Stu: degree, the virtues usually ascribed to his country. He was dents flocked from all parts of Europe to his lectures; and economical, cautious, persevering—the same plain, fruhis name was now as familiarly known in the colleges, and gal man while associating with the first nobility in Eng. among the men of science in France and Germany, as it had land, as he had been in the small shop at Hamilton. He ever been in the Upper and Lower Wards of Lanarkshire accumulated an immense fortune ; but he made noble use of -and how differently appreciated!

it, in collecting the means of advancing science and perfectOf his merits as a writer on medicine, a lecturer, and ing art. I may finish my tale by telling you, that, in his prattising physician, I am not qualified to speak ; but he

most splendid days, the wealthy, learned, admired, and en. was the most distinguished man in the University, which vied old bachelor always said that the happiest hours of his was upheld by the lustre of his name. It is understood,

life had been spent in Hamilton, in the family of Wil. that even in this advanced age of discovery and improve

LIAM CULLEN. menit, kris reputation still ranks high, nor' is it likely to be Hooni eclipsed. One trait of his character falls within the reach of every understanding-his amiable and generous conduct to his pupils. He had known what it was to

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ora DAN, DONNELLY'S TRIP TO PARIS. an emeralds, un bunches of rubies; and all round about W! {Alas ! pror Yorick.".

her was stanin heaps of fine ladies and gintlemin. So I

whipped off my own caubeen, and made her a low box; IRELAND's fisty champion, Dan Donnelly, as all our read.thin wiping my face wid the skirt of my coat- for bad luck ers well know, has beeu feeding the woring for a few years to my hankachur, I forgot it at Dover.-- God sare all back, upon those very thews and sinews with which he had here,' sis 1, in raal quality form." And immediately her so pugnaciously snatched the wreath of victory from John Majesty called up one of her educonigs-some great curbelor Bull for the Emerald Isle. Many of his whims and oddities, giniral, you may be sure__an seys sho to him, in a pigia however, live in tlie recollection of his admirers; and oc- | whisper, wid a mighty knowing wink, Wbat handsome casionally they serve to dispel the gloomy hour at the young fellow, curnel, jewel

, is that at the door wiping his face « Fives Club," when told in Dan's own nate style. Indeed wid tail of his coat ? --Och, thin, sure," sis Tom, makin luult there is only one member of the club, at present, who can because he understood the Frinch-och, thin, sure, ma'an do justice to « Dan's visit to the Prince Raigint;” but sis he, it's Dan Donnelly, the famous prize thampion of there are many who venture to recount his “ Trip to both England and Ireland, so renowned in history books." Paris,” with various shades of success, The following - Whithin, by the hoky farmer,' sis the Queen, but he's a version of it is from the notes of one who assures us that man that's beyant the common !' So wid that she axed sa he took it down verbatim from Dan's own lips, the last be introduced to myself in raal quality style an by coors time he told it, which might be about a fortnight before he 1 couldn't have the heart to refuse her. To tell the truth was finally floored by death's unlucky mauley :-“ Well, of her, she was mighty polite, intirely, an made myself an boys, I see that you must have from me the full and true Tom stay to dinner wid her; an in the evenin she axed a account of what came across me the last time I wint to power of quality to make up a dance for 18,' an she led off France; so here goes. Now, you don't want to know how the first set wid myself. But what bet the world was, that I got from this to Dover, nor from Dover to Calis, bekeys she axed me to dance the Kerry jig upon a trencher - which, ye couldn't be so uncommon ignorant as not to know that by coorse, I couldn't refuse ; and she tuck such a likin to it i, Dan Donnelly, the re-al champion of ould Ireland, could that she wanted to make me a ballel-master, as I think they not be in France without getting there somehow or other, called it, to the coort, but I refused the offer, becaise none barin I wasn't in it at-all-at-all; so becourse, I'll begin of the ballets I could remimber war dacint enough to taich with my journey from Calis, which, by the hoky, I took the young ladies. Then agin, she med me stan up and take upon an ould garron of a mare that you wouldn't pick out a small twist of handy-gripes wid herself; an very lucky of the gutter, bad luck to the bit; for, bad cess to the eye, for her I had the gloves in my pocket, and put them on, but one she had in her head, and that same was stone or, be the hoky, the first douse I ger her in the bread-canis blind; and in regard to her legs, there war only three of ter would have knocked a few of her ivories down her them worth mentioning, the fourth bein an idle vagabone throath : Stop ! stop! Dan Donnelly, my jewel,' she of a leg that hung flappin about the poor baste, an doing roared out, that's quite enough!' The poor ould woman more harın nor good. As you may suppose, she had a was so struck wid my performance that she wanted to make mighty diverting way of hoppin the road, much like a kan. a duke of me, but I axed laive to go home first an fight a garoo. Howsomdever, 'twas myself that made the crather few battles more, afore I'd give up the BELT) Och lat spin along as if she was starting for the plate, tal we thershin ! but it's yourself, Dan Donnelly, that might hare kem to the big city of Paris, for she never cried stop or med your forthin af you had only staid in France an his stay, tal she had me on the tip-top of a place they called moured the ould dotiu Qneen of Paris !" the point of a knife, as well as I can remembir.

« Och! blur-an-agers' cried myself, openin wide my two peepers,

HEAT as if I was roused out of a doze by a bottle-houlder,-'blur.

(Continued from page 214642 an-agers,' sis I, Dan Donnelly, avick, where is it you

BODIEs not only expend on the application of heat, but are, at-all-at-all? Arrah, where shud ye be, Dan, my contract on its withdrawal, froin which it is evident that darlint,' sis a chap comin up and givin me a polthouge out iv pure love, from a nate bit of shillclagh as thick as the they must all, in a natural state, contain a quantity of test, rowler of a mangle, that made the heart leap in my body, and that their whole form and appearance must depend on

where else shud ye be, Dan, my darlint, sis he, but that quantity. Were heat completely withdrawn from pe in the quarest place in the wide world, and that is world, its bulk would decrease to an enormous, exteny the City of Paris, my jewel.'— Why, thin, is that Some have even fancied that the reduction in its size would yourself

, Tom Mulligan, ma bouchelaun, or is it your be so great that it might be placed in a nut shell! On the own brother Jim that's in it?' sis I. sis he, "for Jim is gone to Botany.' --Glory be to God, other hand, were the heat suficientlyincreased, the earth and sis 1. Amen, sis he. But Dan, aroon," sis he again, all it contains would be converted into an invisible Huid, • what the dhoul brought you here among the mounseers ?' and its bulk inconceivably expanded. If we apply heat to -Is it, what brought me here, Tom, avick,' sis 1, that a solid body, it expands, and continues to expand till it ar. you're after axin ?-look at that poor lame baste of a rives at a certain temperature, when it undergoes a changes. crather,' sis I, and you'll see what brought me here, God help her, this blessed night.'—- Arah, biur-an-ounty, sis by which its form and properties are totally altered; it Tom," is that a raal Irish baste ??— Introth she is, every takes the fluid form, and the change is called ligafaction. bone in her skin,' sis 1; so wid that, Tom made no more Different bodies require different quantities of heat to efekt ado, but he runs and claps his two arms round the poor, this change, crathur's neck, and hugged her and kissed her, as if she

When a body changes from the - solid to the Anid siatri was a natural Christian born, tal myself got ashamed of

à remarkable circumstance takes place. An enormous the dacent people passing by, to be seeing the likes. Well, there's no use in talkin about all that passed tal next day, quantity of heat is absorbed, which does not increase its when Tom hoiks me off to see the Queen of Paris, at a

sensible temperature in the smallest degree: the heat which place he called the Pally Royal. Now this same Pally is thus absorbed, is therefore called latent or concealed heat. Royal is a big ould building, wid as many windys as New- For example, if we take two basins, and b1 one with icegate, where people go to see an ould baste, they call the cold water, and the other with ice and water, and add equal myself warn't long scrugeing our way up the stairs into quantities of hot water to cach, the temperature of that

containing water only will be found to increase try every the presence-chamber ; -, whin, looking straight forninst me, what shud I see but a big ould woman, sitting upon a bit addition of hot water, but in that containing ice suid watet, of red carpet, wid a most beautiful crown upon her sconce, a pårt of the ice will be melted, but the temperatur will an she all covered over from lop to toe wid raal diamonds not be increased in the sniallest degree : 'not will it increase

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as the required heat is received from the fire. Tu Tulk


The pro

e sëriforin state, But for this law we would in vain at.

till the mbole of the icesis melted. The heat which we add boiling point, the whole would immediately be converted enters the fee, and added it to melt; but being absorbed in, into steam with a tremendous explosion. But from the the pricess, it does not increase the warmth of the water. ) quantity of heat absorbed, the process must on gradually, As soon, however, as the ice is all melted, every addition of hot water will cause an increase of temperature. When their apartments. The rooms are sprinkled with water,

they take advantage of this law for the purpose of cooling the fajd agaiu psumes the solid state, as when water be which evaporating, absorbs such a quantity of heat as causés comes does the heat which it had absorbed in passing from a reduction of temperature to the extent of 10 or 15 degrees.

This ab- When aëriform bodies become fluid, they again give out sorption of heat conversion of a solid into a fluid

, the heat absorbeds while passing from the vibrid torine netiis being again set free on the conversion of a fluid into a

at 212 degrees, we do so with impunity ; but if we place olish, secres some important purposes in the economy of na

them among steam at the same temperature, they are im. fure From this, ive perceive the cause why ice and snow mediately scalded. The reason is, that the coldness of our take so long to mektu: As in the conversion of a solid into hands causes the steam to condense, or become fluid, and a Brid, a great quantity of heat is absorbed, a considerable its latent heat being set free, it scalds our hands. That time bust elapse ere the requisite quantity of heat can be aëriform bodies expand on the application of heat, may supplied, to enable ice or snow to become water.

proved by filling a bladder half full of air, and holding it cesa of melting must therefore go on gradually. Were it bladder will be quite filled.

near the fire ; the air will soon be so expanded that the sex for this, the whole of the ice and snow existing at any oss time tould immediately be melted in the change from

HINTS FOR FARMERS.' frast to fresh, and the most dreadful deluges would sweep FEAR OF OVER-CULTIVATION.Our excellent friends the gret the earth, carrying every thing along with them. On farmers must allow us to say, that, 'like every other class, the contrary, But for this law, water, on cooling to the they are subject to a good many vagaries, which materially lizezing point, would instantaneously congeal, to the great affect alike their own prosperity and that of the country at licou renience and destruction of man and other animals, large; and we know that they will feel obliged by an at. dat as fluids in their conversion into solids give out the heat points, the results of his own pretty wide experience and

tempt of their well-wisher to lay before them, on sundry ehich they had absorbed in passing from the solid to the tolerably serious meditation. There is not, we venture to Inid state, water, in being converted into ice, gives out allege, one practical mistake productive of so unfortunate #at, which lessens the cold, and retards the freezing of the consequences to the country in general, and of course espeof the water; the process of freezing, therefore, goes on

cially to the agriculturist, as the prevalent disinclination to padually.

cultivate good land to the full extent of its productive

powers, from the vague fear of over-cultivating it. There That luids expand on the application of beat, may be is never much difficulty in compelling a good farm to reeils proved Put some water into a glass tube, marking turn three or four times the usual crop; and we have often te beight at which the water stands ; place it amongst hot seen it accomplished, but when the farmer sees it, he ter, and the water in the tube will be immediitely ob-" shakes his head, and prophesies that it will not pay. Now, served to rise. The most useful purpose to which this law as this is an important question, and one which may be

as been applied is that for measuring the temperature or easily resolved, we request attention to it for a moment. reistire quantities of heat existing in bodies

. For this pur- Suppose the farmer has under his cultivation, land of vapose what is called a thermometer is used, which is merely rious qualities from land which, for an outlay of L.10,

plase tube with a bulb blown at one end, and which is produces a return of 10 quarters, to land which, for the setly hilled with some fluid ; mercury or quicksilver is same outlay, produces only 3—the intermediate qualities proBerally, used., When this instrument is brought in con- ducing returns of 8, 7, 6, 5, &c. In regard of the treatwith a warm body, the mercury, being heated, expands ment of this best field, we all know that double the care

tube. If, on the contrary, it is brought into and expense, or an outlay of L.20, will not produce a recolder situation, the mercury parts with some of its turn of 20; but if it produces a return of 18, it is plain * and consequently contracts and falls in the tube. that the farmer will be as well off by laying it out upon sales are attached to the instruthent to tell as the exact this field, as if he laid out upon it only L.10, and the other steht at which the fluid stands in the tube, and the varia: L.10 upon the next lowest field capable of returning only 8, in which it nudergoes. The thermometer principally L.20 being in both cases laid out, and the return of 18 ved in this country is that recommended by Fahrenheit, a being the same. What then is the limit of prudent expense Thutchiman, Conceiving, erroneously however, that the upon this best field ? Plainly this :-the farmer ought to reast cold is that produced by two parts of ice and one go on laying out money in its cultivation--applying to it, Crit, he comnienced his scale at that point, calling it de as it were, fresh doses of expense, until the last L.10 laid pre No. Di The freezing of water takes place, accord-out produced only the additional crop of 3. We have al. si lo his sale at the 32d, and the boiling of water at the ready supposed, that he had land under cultivation capable,

on account of its barrenness, of producing only this last auf we apply heat to a fluid body, it likewise expands, and return; and as this return "must therefore pay, his best a bright; in the case of water to 212, when a second has so dosed' it, that the last outlay shall be compensated hage or for and properties takes place.” It assumes the by only this same 3. A field of this excellent land may en af sapouts, which change is called

evaporation. We thus be made to produce as much as a whole line of fields e already mentioned that a solid, in its conversion into from the highest to the lowest degree, were each cultivated kuid absorbe a great quantity of heat, which does not but superficially a field which returns 8 in the first inMen paret into the seriform state. A pint of steam, cend to the

lowest cultivated field which produces 3. These jta sensible temperature : and the same occurs when stance, as much as all below it; and so on until we des L'it mixeil with six pints of cold water, raise the tem- thought will make them understood. To say that they Itatate of the whole to 212, or the boling point ; thus are generally acted upon, were to say that we have no

moring that an immense quantity of latent or concealed eyes," for the spots are indeed rare where one-third of erst hare existed in the singie piat, of steam, and that capital is laid out upon a farm, which might be buch as been absorbed while pa ising from the fluid to laid out with the ordinary profit. Even at the present

rate of profit to the agriculturist, the country might

ad rises in the

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