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perature better than one made of thick glass, as the heat calabash basin was procured; papa gravely assisted me in frill be diffused more rapidly through thin glass, and the collecting all the glasses and goblets on the table into it, and expansion consequently will be more uniform, which ac
over them I directed him to pour the boiling tea-kettle. He cordingly is found to be the case.
warned me to pause_“I might be wrong.”— Oh, no-nonIt may be as well to notice here a singular instanie of ed. My father looked at me, but I did not now construe his
sense!” He poured away. Crack! crack ! My beart flutter. what appears to be an exception to the law of expansion. looks into admiration. We say appears, because we have no doubt that, if our
The havoc was complete! My eldest sister came in. knowledge of the laws of Nature was more extended, in. my mother's favourite glasses ! ignorant conceited child !" stead of appearing a solitary exception to a general law, we My mother came. “The cut wine goblets, mamma," said my should see in it a connecting link of the great system of the sister, my aunt's present-Jane bas broken them all.” My universe. In cooling, water, according to this law, con. mother looked much displeased. “Jane has just learned that tracts or decreases in volume ; but, when it is cooled down there may be truths beyond her comprehension,” said my to about 40 deg. Fahrenheit, instead of continuing to contract,
father. « I wish she had made her experiment at a cheaper it begins to expand, and continues to expand, till it reaches be too dear for so good a lesson. Jane had learned one of
,” said my mother ; but my father said, Nothing could the 322 degree, when it freezes. Ice is, therefore, bulk for humility and self-distrust, that would, he hoped, last her for bulk, lighter than water, and accordingly it floats on the
life.” surface. Now, this is a very curious fact; and although, My kind parents never said more to their weeping penitent, no doubt, it does appear a complete departure from an esta- though my sisters sometimes, when I was saucy, reminded me blished law, we have in it a beautiful example of the bene- of the broken glasses. It needed not ; for I never forgot that volent care which the Almighty takes of the safety and dreadful, reiterated crack. Several other circumstances occnrcomfort of the various inhabitants of the earth. Let us see red about this time, which made me suspect I was not quite what would have been the consequence had there been no the prodigy I had imagined myself. - Nights of the Roundexception to the law of expansion in this case. Had the Table-First Series. water, on arriving within a few degrees of the freezing
TO THE NEUT RALS. point, continued to contract, the coldest water, instead of I hate and abhor all neutrals. They are a species of here remaining on the surface and freezing there, would have maphrodite for which both sexes blasb. They constitute that fallen to the bottom, where it would have frozen, and, as abominable gender which no French man or Italian can tolerate the surface of the water would be freely exposed to the cold - gender in name only, but not in reality-a thing in um or air, a lake of very considerable depth would have been on, below the dignity of vegetable life. I never could " it” frozen from top to bottom in the course of a very few days. even a child or an idiot The consequence would have been, the destruction of the
" ( thou whom Johoston must abhor, fishes and other inhabitants of the waters; and, instead of List, list, oh list! (I do not mean in my regiment, but to my
And Ralph will soon turn to the door," our beautiful lakes and rivers, we should have huge masses
words.) of ice from January to December, because our warmest For the elective franchise you have struggled, petitioned, summers would be unable to melt them. But, on the speechified, written, published, and all but risen in open rebelother hand, as the Almighty hath decreed that water should lion; and now that, through exertions unparelleled, you ave expand on approaching to the freezing point, the ice, on obtained it, you decline making use of the privilege! With being formed, floats on the surface, and, being a bad con all the fickleness of a lover who has obtained the object of his ductor of heat, it prevents the water undernçath from being heart's wish, you turn from possession, and neglect the object too rapidly cooled, and, consequently, it requires a long and of your former idolatry! intense frost to freeze any considerable depth of water. That Manly it cannot be ; for it is the cowardly offspring of intimi
Is this manly? Is it rational ? Is it right? water expands on freezing may be easily proved :-Fill a
dation—the fruit of a spirit that had rather offend conscience bottle full of water, and, having corked it, place it in a
than a party. freezing mixture of two parts of snow or ice to one of salt, Rational it is not; for our reason teaches us to prize objects in or expose it to the open air in a frosty night, as soon as the
proportion to the price of labour and exertion which they water freezes, the bottle will burst. Country people well
have cost. know the beneficial influence which frost has on rough Right it is not ; for it can never be right to yield on private cloddy land. The water which the clods contain is frozen, grouods that which conscience tells us should be exercised and, in freezing, it expands, and thus forces the different for the public good. parts to fall asunder, like a lime shell when we pour water
What is it, then? on it. We shall stop for the present, but by and by we
It is cowardly! mean! despicable! and must ultimately subshall treat of the expansion of fluid and aeriform bodies ; diceans. (Rev. chap. iii. v. 15, 16.)
ject those who have recourse to it to the curse of the L20of the conduction and radiation of heat, and of the different
Is there nothing yet to be done in the great harvest-field of capacities which different bodies have for heat.
abuse, that you remain idle with the sickle in your hand ? CHILDISH CONCEIT CORRECTED.
1. Are there no town-councils to rectify? Is the present I was lelling one evening on my father's knee, waiting to mode of election the very best and fairest mode possible ? receive my usual modicum of three roasted chestnuts, when my 2. Are sinecure offices to be continued, that the minister of mother happened to say, “Pray take care of my beautiful the day may command a majority in the House ? goblet, Mr. Harding,- water so bot will break it I fear.” My 3. Is the pension list still to be ornamented with Graces and father was mixing his wine with hot water, and he set down Right Honourables in petticoats ? the jug till the water would get cooler.
4. Are the poor to pay taxes, that hundreds of thousands Such nonsense, mamma, said I, pertly,“ how can water, may be squandered in building up and pulling down-in inakwhich is soft, break glass ?” My mother was going away, and ing sand-hills, in short, with gold dust? did not hear me, but my father looked closely, and, as I fancied, 5. Are we to pay 6s. 6d. for a pound of tea, when we might admiringly, at his “clever little Jane."
have it for eighteen pence? "Do you think hot water cannot break glass, Jane ?"
6. Is the chain never, and under no circumstances, to be struck Sarely not, papa, -how should it stand to reason, that from the neck of the slave? water, which is soft, ' -and I triumphantly repeated my former 7. Are the laws of the land, civil and criminal, never to be sertion, or, as I thought, rational argument. We were now amended ? alone at table. “ So I find little Jane does not take things on 8. Is one English or Irish non-resident Bishop to be paid hearsay,~quite right that,” said my father, “ she grows a L.20,000 per annum for doing nothing, whilst fifty efficient Feinserwiser than her mother."_Oh, no, papa, don't say curates are starving on a thousandth part of the sum ? Simmonly I am sure water which is soft,” &c. &c.
"Sappose we try,” said my father ; and as I knew my English Malt.-Thirty millions of bushels of barley are Dother was very careful of those richly-cut goblets, which she annually converted into malt by the breweries of Great Britain, bad lately got in a present from my Aunt Ellen, and often and upwards of eight millions of barrels of beer (of which washed and put them away herself, I said would wash more iban four-fifths are strong) are brewed annually. This them up for her. Sally, the housemaid, had secretly al- enormous consumption attests the fondoess of the people for the lowed me to wash china cups, on trial, before now. My own beverage of their forefathers.
ELEMENTS OF THOUGHT.
wood ashes and tallow, and there were two kinds of it, hard
and soft, (spissus et liquidus ;) and that the best kind was made RELIGIOUS TOLERATION.
of the ashes of the beech and the fat of goats. Among the The argument we have to state is contained in an ap- It is curious that no allusion whatever is made by Pling to the
Germans it was more employed by the men than the somen. peal made by William Penn, the Quaker, the founder of use of soap as a detergent ; shall we conclude from this that Pensylvania, to the King of Holland :
the most important of all the uses of soap was unknown to the « Now, oh prince! give a poor Christian leave to expos- and during the early part of the government of the emperona,
ancients? It was employed by the ancients as a pomatum; tulate with thee. Did Christ Jesus, or his holy followers, it was imported into Rome from Germany, as a pomatum for endeavour, by precept or example, to set up religion with a the young Roman beaux, Beckmann is of opinion that the carnal sword ? Called he any troops of men or angels to word still employed by the common people of Scotland. It is
Latin word sapo is derived from the old German word sepe, a defend him ? Did he encourage Peter to dispute his right well known that the state of soap depends upon the alkali emwith the sword? But did he not say, Put it up? Or did ployed in making it. Soda constitutes a hard soap, and potası he countenance his over. zealous disciples, when they would a soft soap. The ancients being ignorant of the difference be.
tween the two alkalies, and using wood ashes iu the preparation have had fire from heaven, to destroy those that were not of it, doubtless formed soft soap. The addition of some coluof their mind ? No. But did not Christ rebuke them mon salt, during the boiling of the soap, would convert the soft saying, “ Ye know not what spirit ye are of ?" And if it acquaiuted both with hard and soft soap, it is clear that they
into hard soap. As Pliny informs us that the ancients were was neither Christ's spirit, nor their own spirit, that could must have followed some such process. have fire from heaven, oh! what is that spirit that would THE USE OF THE Berries of THE ELDER-TREE IN MAkindle fire on earth, to destroy such as peaceably dissent found, by a series of experiments, that the berries of the elder
NUFACTURING Spirits -M. Alors Wehrle, of Vienna, has upon the account of conscience. Oh king! when did true
tree produce a much greater quantity of spirit than the best religion persecute? When did the true church offer vio- wheat. The spirit is obtained by pressing the berries, and the lence for religion-were not her weapons prayers, tears, afterwards distilled. If the results obtained by M. Webtle
juice is treated in the same way as the must of the grape, and and patience ?"
are confirmed, it will be an additional motive for cultivating a RESPECT.—It is sometimes unreasonable to look after plant which possesses many other useful qualities. respect and reverence from servants and inferiors.
GARDENERS' CALENDAR, &c. for OCTOBER.-In this ad lord and a gentleman talking together, there came a boy the three follo ring months dig and trench all vacant ground. by leading a calf. “ You shall see me make that boy let Plant early cabbages, where they are intended to come to pergo his calf,” thinking the boy would take off his hat; but fection. About the end of the month plant gooseberry, carrast, ihe lad took no notice of him, “Sirrah,” says the great man; The stage polyauthuses and auriculas should by this time be
and raspberry bushes, and the greater part of delicious shrubs “ do you know me, that you use no reverence ?”-“Yes," properly serured from the inclemency of the weather. says the boy, "if your lordship will hold my calf, I will put off my hat."-Selden.
THE EVENING WIND.
Spirit that breathest through my lattice-thou
That cool'st the twilight of the sultry day
Gratefully flows thy freshness round my brow, DISEASES OF TRADESMEN.-Schultz and Co., tailors Thou hast been out upon the deep at play, of London, employ 334 men. Of these six are above sixty Riding all day the wild blue wave till now, years of age; fourteen about fifty; and the greater number Roughening their crests, and scattering high their spray, of the remainder about forty ; three men of the above six And swelling the white sail. I welcome thee above sixty have distorted spines. They are so subject to
To the scorch'd land, thou wanderer of the sea ! anal fistula, that they have a “fistula club." Their most
Nor I alone : a thousand bosoms round common affections are difficulty of breathing, and dull Inhale thee in the fulness of delight, headache, with giddiness, especially during summer. They And languid forms rise up, and pulses bound attribute their complaints to two causes-one of which is Livelier, at coming of the wind of night; the posture, the body bent for thirteen hours a-day; the And, languishing to hear thy grateful sound, other the heat of the shop.— The Doctor.
Lies the vast island, stretched beyond the sight. There is, at present, an artist of the Louvre, an eminent Go forth into the gathering shadehistorical painter, of the name of Ducornet, who paints with
God's blessing breathed upon the fainting eartb! his feet. He was born without arms, of poor parents, at Go, rock the little wood-bird in his nest, Lille. There are also about the French metropolis a num Curl the still waters, bright with stars, and rou se ber of beggars, twelve or thirteen of them, at least, all de
The wide old wood from his majestic rest; formed in various ways, and all born at Lille, in certain Summoning from the innumerable boughs dark caverns, under the fortifications. The effect of these The strange, deep harmonies that haunt his breast. places, from their want of light, producing malformed
Pleasant shall be thy way where ineekly bows births, is so notorious, that the magistrates of Lille have
The shutting flower, and darkling waters pass, issued strict orders to prohibit the poor from taking up
And 'twixt the o'ershadowing branches and the grass. their abode in them. It is added, by our correspondent,
The faint old man shall lcan his silver head that he had a conversation with Mr. Edwards on the sub
To feel thee; thou shalt kiss the child asleep, ject, and that gentleman was greatly struck with the cou
And dry the moistened curls that overspread firmation which the above circumstances afford to his views,
His temples, while his breathing grows more deep ; stated in his work,“ Sur l'Influence des Agens Physiques
And they who stand about the sick 'man's bed
Shall joy to listen to the distant sweep, sur la Vie.” Mr. Edwards' experiments of detaining tad
And softly part his curtains to allow poles in darkness, and thus causing them to grow into gi. Thy visit, grateful to his burning brow. gantic and monstrous tadpoles, instead of being transformed into frogs, are well known.- Medical Gazette.
Go; but the circle of eternal chanye,
Which is the life of nature, sliall" restore,
With sounds and scents from all thy range,
Thee to thy birth-place of the deep once more ;
Sweet odours in the sea-air, sweet and strange, SOAP. The word soap (sapo) occurs first in Pliny. He Shall tell the home-sick mariner of the shore; informis us that it was an invention of the Gauls, who employed And, listening to thy murmer, he shall deem it to render their hair shining ; that it was a compound of He hears the rustling leaf and rushing stream.
- go forth,
into the hands of the French. In consequence of these JOHN KIERNANDER;
events, every prospect of his restoration was at an end, and
Kiernander turned his attention toward Bengal.
He left Tranquebar, furnished with ample means by the JOHN KJERNANDER was born in 1711, at Akstad, in munificence of the Danes, and arrived in Calcutta, where Sweden. He here received the first rudiments of learning, the celebrated Clive, Aushed with his recent victory of but completed his education at the university of Upsal. In Plassey, was pleased with the intention of establishing a his twenty-fourth year he became desirous of visiting for mission in the city. It was a strange design for Clive to eign universities ; letters of recommendation and a passport approve of; but the truth was, Kiernander was a man of being obtained by the influence of his friends in Stockholm, polite and insinuating address, and handsome countenance ; he journeyed to Halle, in Saxony. He was well received alike fitted to make his way at the court of a nabob, or in by Professor Angustus Francke, who conferred upon him the hamlet of the Hindoo. His portrait, in the old Gerseveral appointments. He spent four years ; and, having man volume, as well as the painting still preserved in the satisfied his youthful curiosity, began to think of returning vestry room of the Calcutta church, by Garbrand, gives a to Sweden. A circumstance, however, occurred at this time, faithful idea of the spirit and character of the man. They which changed his purpose, and took him away from his are thus sketched by an able hand : “ At this period he apnatire country, never to return. The Society, instituted peared a man of ardent zeal, of great integrity, with a in London, for Promoting Christian Knowledge, wrote to dauntless courage, and decision of mind.” This is a high Professor Francke, requesting him to recommend a proper character, but it is a just one ; for his heart was now full person to be sent out as a missionary to Cuddalore. The of devotion to his cause, and pursued it with fervour and latter made the proposal to Kiernander, who, after some de- sincerity; his talents and attainments, such as seldom fall liberation, consented. There was evidently a struggle in to the lot of the missionary, were various and brilliant. his mind; for he was an ambitious man; conscious, also, He opened his cause in a dwelling given him by the goof endowments, both of mind and person, that justified his vernment. The birth, soon after, of a son, may afford a ambition. The only alternative was to return to his native criterion of the estimation in which he was held at CalAkstad, and push his fortune at the university of Upsal. cutta ; for Clive and Watts, the chief members of the goTite office of a missionary was, at this time, held in farvernment, stood sponsors, with their ladies, to the infant. less estimation than at present; and the influence of reli. In the following year, 175 children were taught in his gion on the mind could not be feeble, when he decided to school, of which number forty were maintained at his own choose the former as his portion for life. He was ordained expense. In addition to his many engagements, he preached to the ministry, and went to London, whence he sailed for occasionally at Serampore, where the Danish settlement, the East.
then in its infancy, had no chaplain. Three years after. At Cuddalore he found a congregation, left by Sartorius, wards he lost his wife, a loss that exercised a dark influnot removed to Madras, and he was appointed to be the ence on all his subsequent career. It had been a marriage successor. He was treated with the most polite attention of affection, not impaired by the bitter vicissitudes of life. by Admiral Boscawen, and the English settlement of Fort Wendela Fischer was a woman of piety, and devoted to her St. David, who having judged it necessary, as a measure of husband ; she had borne the wreck of her fortune without policy, to expel all Popish priests from this part of the complaining, and had journeyed from her home, first to Company's territories, put Kiernander into possession of the Tranquebar, then to Calcutta, with a mind armed for yet Portuguese Church. It was solemnly dedicated anew, and greater reverses. She lived to see her husband admired and from this time the mission at Cuddalore prospered under his esteemed by all, while his religion was stedfast in the midst care. He seems to have been delighted with the situation of many snares. Had she lived, Kiernander had served and climate, so different from those of his native Akstad; God with fidelity, and man with usefulness; but when she whose barren hills and rocks, and eternal snows, were ex- sunk into a early grave, it was as if his guardian angel had changed for a noble plain, amidst whose wild and glowing passed away from him. vegetation rose the city of Cuddalore. In the first letter to With such an exterior and manner, the popular preacher the Society, he writes, “ that his prospects were good ; need not long remain companionless. About a year afterthat he went out into the villages several times a-week, to wards, he married a wealthy widow of Calcutta, a Mrs. make known to the people the truths of Christianity ; that Ann Wolley. Now came the love of the world, iu full his congregation in the town was increased. In the year tide, on his heart; the obscure and well-educated Swede, 1745, its number amounted to near 200 persons, including who had tasted of affluence for a short time at Cuddalore, those who were left by Sartorius, and, in the following but to be utterly stripped of it again, now saw himself seyear, it received an increase of a hundred and sixty con cure. Poverty, like an armed man, would no more claim verts." In more than one place, he speaks of the happi- him for a prey. Is it any wonder that, in the exultation nese he felt ; he had reason to be satisfied; for no mission of his heart, he fell into some errors ? He raised a handin India prospered so rapidly at this time as that of Cudda- some tomb over his first wife, in the burial ground to which lore. But the hour of trial had not yet come.
he had given his own name. And now he mingled with He now united himself in marriage to a Miss Wendela wealthy and well-descended associates; was a favourite guest Fischer, a lady of some property. Hitherto Augustus beneath the roof of the conqueror of Plassey. To his own Prancke had sent him preseuts—at one time of L.150 : the table numbers came ;—were they such as the poor and deCouncil of Fort St. David had also been generous and kind : voted student of Akstad, the messenger of God to the Hinhe needed no benefactions now; nor would he receive any. doo, should have loved ? He knew that they were not; but In 1758, the celebrated Count Lally appeared with his he was carried away by the torrent of example, by the inforces before the city; it was quickly compelled to surren- Auence of his wife also, who was a young and luxurious der, and a general confiscation took place. Kiernander woman, and cared little for the souls of the heathen. waited on this officer on behalf of the mission, and entreated The love of one so dowered, so attractive, who lived in to be allowed to remain in peace, and continue his office. splendour, and was courted by the first society in Calcutta, It was answered that no Protestant minister was required was a subtle and fearful thing. He first assumed great exthere ; that he must instantly leave the city and the church, ternal state in his equipage and mode of living; and disin the same summary way that he had ejected the Romish played the vanity of driving a carriage-and-four through minister a few years before. It was a measure of retalia- the city. He thus created many enemies, and drew on tion ; Lally spoke politely, but decidedly; yet at the same himself much censure. He now sought some assistance in time offered him a passport to the Danish settlement of his ministry, and chose for that purpose two persons, Bento Tranquebar. The offer was accepted, and the latter set out de Silvestre and Manuel da Costa, who had been priests of on his journey to this city, where he arrived in safety, strip- the church of Rome, but, on their arrival at Calcutta, ha Md of all his property, except a few articles of wearing ap- made a public abjuration of the errors of Popery. Parel. In the following month, Fort St. David also fell Manuel da Costa was a Dominican friar, who, after
spending seven years at Goa, proceeded to Diu, on the a few years before, the ground on which it stood was cor. coast of Guzerat, invested with the dignity of an inquisitor. ered with jungle, where the tiger made his lair. Even now Here Da Costa dwelt in sole and absolute authority, and the cry of the jackal, suddenly breaking forth in the night, found its exercise sweet. At last he appears to have recoiled was heard in the silent streets. Spacious and elegant from some of the tests, as well as cases of heresy which he houses, shrubberies, and lawns, already rose in the subwas called upon to examine. Being afterwards sent to urbs. People of talent, as well as distinction, were perpeSiam, he there became acquainted with Antonio Rodriguez, tually arriving from Europe; the successes of Clive had a father of the Jesuits, whose mind had for some time been opened a field of ambition and wealth, which was believed troubled with doubts as to his own faith. He lent Da to be boundless. The levees of this man were splendidly Costa a solitary copy of the Bible in Latin ; the latter read attended: native princes dethroned, or candidates for thrones, it with great attention and interest; and after some time Mahratta warriors, and the ambassadors of the Emperor procured, among other books, a catechism, published at Shah Allum, were mingled with civilians, statesmen, and Tranquebar, which afforded him much light relative to adventurers from England. Into these circles Kiernander the agreement of the doctrines of the Reformation with sometimes found his way, for Clive was personally attached the word of God, The two fathers held frequent and to him. To a man so well skilled in the Eastern languafervent conferences together, and balanced, with the keen- ges, and devoted to their study, Calcutta presented other ness and research of a ble Jesuits, the warring points of the attractions, in the number of strangers to be met with from two faiths, till both the reason and the beart yielded. Ro- all parts of Asia ; Chinese, Arabs, Persians, inhabitants of driguez was at last so convinced of the errors of the church the Eastern Isles, and Jewish merchants
. Many of these of Rome, that he withdrew from her communion, and men found a welcome in the home of the missionary, wha placed himself under the protection of the Dutch, who at passed much of his time, at least all he could spare from that time had a factory at Siam. He was in consequence his labours, in study with his two companions, De Silvesexcommunicated by his brethren, and an order was received tre and Da Costa. The Arabic, as well as the Hindoo from Goa to deliver him up to the inquisition. This com- literature, offered an inexhaustible store to his inquiring mission, which was addressed to Da Costa, placed him in a mind; the priests had passed their whole lives in the com. very singular position; as an inquisitor, he was commanded try, and were well versed in its manners and customs. Had to arrest the man who had enlightened his own mind, and Kiernander written a detail of his own life, with the fremts deliver him up to a cruel fate. The mandate was peremp- of his observations and acquirements, few pieces of biogratory, and he remembered how often and how pitilessly he phy would have been so instructive, few so full of strange had condemned many to the torture, or the dungeon, for vicissitudes. heresies less light than those of Antonio.
This was the golden period of his life : the society He refused to be the executioner of his friend, and in ex learned men that he loved ; admired as a minister, not only cuse pleaded the power of the Dutch. Rodriguez soon after by his converts, but by great, distinguished, and intelligent fell sick; in his dying moments, the Jesuits visited him, men ; a tasteful and luxurious home; a circle of agree and promised the removal of the sentence of excommunica- able friends—what had he more to wish for ? tion, and complete absolution and favour, if he would yet He did not at any time neglect the interests of his mission, return to the bosom of the Church of Rome, and submit to nor does he appear ever to have deserted its duties; but the extreme unction. This offer he rejected : the Jesuits, how- subtle influence of his associates had long been fatally ever, buried him with great pomp. Da Costa had now a playing its part. The Society at home, as well as the misdifficult part to play : he was surrounded with enemies ; sionaries in India, began to see the decline of his fidelity, he strove to conceal the change in his own sentiments; in his letters, as well as the reports which reached them. but in spite of all his caution, it was discovered by his bre- The former foresaw the fall, at no distant period, of their thren. One day, as he lay sick in bed, a friar of the Domi- able minister : from the latter he sometimes received afternican order, secretly opening his writing table, found a pa- tionate, as well as warning letters. But he believed in no per, in which were noted many of the errors of the Church fall, and listened to no warning. of Rome. This manuscript he took with him, together So large had been the fortune of his wife, that he was with some of the heretical books. With such evidence in reckoned one of the richest men in Bengal : he was genetheir hands against Da Costa, the Jesuits instantly seized, rous to excess, and the poor blessed his charities. He built and sent him on board a vessel bound to Goa Dreadful a dwelling-house for two of his assistants, and another for fears arose in his mind, for he was no ordinary criminal : the education of the natives. he believed in the faith for which he had condemned others In the pauses of his mission, after painfully teaching the to the flames. Rich would be the vengeance, fierce the tor native children, going forth to the distant hamlets, or detures, which the inquisitors thirsted to exact.
bating with the Brahmins or Moors, he would return to the He watched for an opportunity to escape, and one night, city, to his aflluent dwelling, and take the cool air of the when the vessel was becalmed off the shore, contrived, shore in his beautiful equipage. The decline of his religion either by bribing some of the crew, or by his own address was perhaps gradual, it might be almost imperceptible, such to get to land. He made his way along the coast of Coro was the influence of his situation on the soul as well as on the mandel to Tranquebar, where he remained a short time. senses ; one day holding forth the gospel in some mountain He next came to Calcutta, and formed an intimacy with village, where he no doubt spoke sincerely and feelingly, and Kiernander, whose conversation, full of talent and power- loved to see the tear flow, and hear the words of conviction ; ful reasoning, soon decided his choice. He broke through on the following day, preaching before the victor of Plassey, every remaining scruple, and publicly embraced Protestan now his intimate friend, and the chief people of the city. tism. The inquisition soon after sent a Romish priest to Well and eloquently did he speak, for such a minister was Calcutta to menace him, and, if possible, get him once rare on the shores of India, and praises quickly followed ; more into their power-well aware that the secrets of their sweet, delicious praises, from beautiful lips. His carriage prison-house had been laid open ; and that, if he chose, he waited at the door of the church ; as did many a welcome could make a fearful revelation. But the protection of and invitation, for every home was open to him. They the English was too powerful to violate: the anathemas of loved the man and he forgot his love to God ! the priest of Goa fell harmless. Kiernander behaved with About this period the court of the Emperor Shah Allum, the kindness of a friend, and took Da Costa and De Silves- having heard of his reputation, requested from him some tre under his own roof. They were of great
use to him in copies of the Psalter and New Testament, in the Arabic his mission, for they were eminently learned men, skilled language. He complied, and had afterwards the satisfacin many languages, and he delighted in their company. tion to hear they were so well received by his majesty's Mul. His residence at Calcutta
had strong and various attrac- lahs, that he was induced to transmit to Allahabad, where tions; the assemblage of English in the city was, at this the court was then held, all the Arabic Psalters and Testar period, less numerous and more select than at present
. The ments in his possession. He now resolved to build a church city had sprung up with a quick and wanton growth : but' at his own expense ; and, in the month of May, 1767, tag
foundation of the present mission church at Calcutta was fully on them, and thought how it had been with him in laid. By his unremitting exertions and diligence, it was former days. Where, now, was the world of admirers and completed in little more than two years, though the archi. Aatterers -passed away like the moth, when they saw tect died during its progress. In December it was conse- that his resources were at an end. His home, his equipage, crated, and named Beth Tephillah, that is, the house of his many servants, were all gone. Still he was kindly reprayer. The building cost the founder above L.8000 ster- ceived at some tables ; there were those who felt that they ling, of which sum, only L.250 had been presented in bene- could not utterly forsake the man to whose eloquence they factions. So that after a lapse of the many years from the had listened, whom they had loved as a companion, at capture of Calcutta by the English, the first national church whose table they had feasted. But he rarely made him. was completed at the expense of a stranger and wanderer self a guest, for he felt that the world was no longer the from Akstad in Sweden. His other buildings for the mis- same to him; that his words were not now listened to sion cost L.4000 more. Two years after, Kiernander lost with the attention and the applause they were wont to be. his second wife. She bequeathed her jewels for the benefit He confined himself to a small and retired dwelling. There of Beth Tephillah, and with the amount their sale produced, was a circumstance yet more hard to bear. Another mishe founded a mission school in his own ground behind the sionary came, entered into his labours, and was chosen to church, capable of holding 250 children. It was evident supply his church ; and this, Kiernander felt exquisitely. that his wealth was beginning to melt away, or he would Soon after this church was enlarged, and he was invited hardly have sold the jewels of his wife; yet, it is greatly to open the new chancel, in which he administered the sato his credit, that the object of the sale was so disinte-crament. His authority was passed away; but he said it rested.
was a moment of great happiness to his mind. All who He was now again left alone: he had not loved her like were present did not think so; one who had known him his first wife; they had not passed through the vicissitudes in other times, said, “I cannot but lament his destitution of affluence and poverty together, or proved the scenes of in this his hour of sorrow.” It was an affecting picturedanger and excitement which so cement domestic affection. the declining, grey, and stricken man, giving the holy comYet he deeply felt her loss : she had been ardently attached munion in the chancel of the edifice that he had raised in to him, even to the last ; had done the honours of his the hour of his splendour. Around him knelt many of home, so as to make it attractive to all, for she was a wo- those who had first flattered, and then deserted him ; the man of refined mammers, and had welcomed him with smiles false friends of his brighter life! And now he resolved to when he came wearied from the hamlet and the wild. He quit a scene that was become too bitter to his memory : he had seen his table surrounded almost every day by guests, left Calcutta, to offer his services to the Dutch at Chinsura. for his style of living was profuse and hospitable.
The sum of forty pounds had been transmitted to him as a It is uncertain how long the veil would have rested on present from the Society in England, and enough remained his soul; but it was suddenly and rudely torn away. He to support him yet longer. But ere he went, he entered was seized with blindness; and soon he sat almost solitary the burying-ground called by his own name, to visit once in his spacious chambers : his conversation, his vivacity, more the graves of his wives; they slept side by side. In were no longer the same; nor were his table and wines. the first was the wife of his youth, and his only child ; and A few came to sooth and comfort, but the greater part did near her was Anne, his second bride, the proud and richlynot seek the afflicted man. The pleasures of study and learn- dowered woman who had first drawn his heart from God. He ing were also taken from him; all was taken, save the sat down beside the graves, and wept bitterly; every object converse of Da Costa and Hanson, but he no longer saw around made the past rush back upon his heart : the their faces. He at last remembered how far he had wan-church of Beth Tephillah, where his words once fell in dered from God: 0! how welcome would now have been power, and his state was glorious ; the trees, that stood si. his lost feelings of fervour, of hope, and joy ; but they did lent in the evening calm, he had planted till they grew in not come at his call. His sorrow was inexpressibly great, beauty. And now what had earth for him ? had it a for if there be any situation in which the visitations of home, a friend, a loved one? He went forth, in the mercy and peace are precious, it is amidst the agony of eightieth year of his age, to dwell among strangers. If his blindness, when the soul is left to struggle alone. It was little girl, who slept with Wendela, had but lived, what a more than he could bear ; and he lifted his humble spirit comfort, what a blessing, he thought, would she now be to eagerly to God, resolved to know no rest till “ the lost him: he knelt beside the grave with strong emotion, for he should be found again.” His deep repentance, his tears, felt so helpless and forsaken, that he clung to each broken his unceasing prayers, could not be in vain ; and ere long, reed. 01 if that dear, that only child, had lived, she would Kiernander blessed the hand that had chastened him.
now have screened her father from the sorrows of the world, His blindness continued four years; at last he consented and been the companion of his way. He offered up his to submit to the painful operation of couching, which suc vows anew to God, and then for ever quitted the scene ceeded so well, that he was soon afterwards able to write where he had called others to mercy, and pointed their way to the Society in England.
The strain of his first letter to heaven. shew's that a stern and decided change had passed on the He arrived at Chinsura, where his services were instantly mind of the once fortunate man. Adversity gathered fast accepted, and he was appointed chaplain to that settlement, around him. His fortune was now ruined, partly by his by the Hon. Mr. Fitsing. His duties as a chaplain were former extravagance in living, his generosity of temper, and far less laborious than as a missionary. The situation was still more by the neglect of his affairs during his long blind-suited to his age and prospects. The scenery around was Dess. He looked abroad on his recovery, as if to begin the of a rich and tranquil character; the Dutch town had quite world anew with a purer hope and resolve, but found him- a national appearance,-small neat houses, with green doors self impoverished. "The seal of the sheriff of Calcutta was and windows, a pretty little square with grass plots, and affixed to the gates of Beth Tephillah, as a part of the per- promenades shaded by trees. There was a fortified factory' sonal estate of the ill-fated and bankrupt missionary. The and a gloomy and ancient government-house. The people edifice, however, was redeemed from the desecration which were in character with the dwellings: mild, plodding, conotherwise awaited it, by the munificence of an individual, templative; they loved, after the business of the day was who paid for it the sum at which it had been appraised, over, to sit beneath the rows of trees, and smoke and con. namely, 10,000 rupees. This individual was the late
The noble river, Hoogly, flowed in front of the Charles Grant, Esq., the East India director, whose power- dwellings; its banks were lofty and precipitous, and the ful support to Indian missions was ever generously given.
sight of the many barks passing to and fro, as well as the The founder of the edifice, from whatever cause, no incessant bustle and ardour of enterprise, made it pleasant longer officiated within its walls. Was it because he was
to sit and watch the scene. His duties were confined to poor-or bad lived extravagantly ? It was a harsh and the settlement, where their trade made the Dutch reside pitiless deed. His health soon after became infirm, and together : there were no villages or hamlets, where he had be sometimes wandered round the walls, and looked wist. I to seek the scattered people. The little Lutheran church,