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The extreme poverty, and dense population of come till it was crowded, to which they might be the Old Town parishes, place á gulf between the attracted by talent and character, of how much be. people and the clergyman, which nothing but the nefit it might be ? Let us have but one stich church, zeal of a primitive apostle, or of a modern Catholic together with a half-dozen small auxiliary chapriest—if we dare mention so obnoxious a per- pels, placed in the heart of the poor crowded disson—could overleap. Now what we would propose tricts, and the fruits of benevolence, and of true is, that there should be small chapels, halls, or Christian charity, would soon appear. The conschool-rooms, where poor neighbourhoods,—the dition of the sister establishment may make us all communities of our closes and wynds, that would think. Upon her the storm has come neither from shrink from our fine churches, as they are at present the south nor the north, neither from bigoted Cathoconstituted,-might assemble on Sundays, and where lics, nor yet sour Presbyterians. Her deadly and their parish ministers might sometimes meet them, dangerous enemies are those of her own house, the -places of worship which they should have a claim neglected people of her charge, who know nothing to enter, where the seats would be their own, of about their higher clergy save as wealthy pluralists right,-connected with their lodging-rooms, for or sinecurists, and greedy tithe-collectors. Where. example, or attached in some simple way that might ever small meeting-houses have been opened in the be devised. The regular clergyman never could poorest neighbourhoods of Edinburgh, if there was be able to take care of these auxiliary sanctuaries, nothing to pay, save a half-penny at the plate or but he might frequently visit them; and in this not at discretion, with a reasonable seat-rent, little city he could never want curates ; nor would the congregations have been formed and have soon been maintenance of this religious police establishment crowded, even when the preacher was very infecost much to each of the Old Town parishes. And rior to the auxiliaries whom our clergy could find if it did, how could a state or municipality expend among their unprovided young friends. The expart of its revenues to better purpose than in mak-treme care which the Catholic clergy bestow on ing religions and moral discipline what they ought the instruction of children, is a feature in their to be the main object of their sway. It would, discipline deserving of imitation among us. Cathoto be sure, be better that people of all degrees of lics are not so lazy in their worship; their service rank and fortune would meet together under the begins at an earlier hour of the morning, and the same roof of worship. But this, it appears, does afternoon is either principally or wholly devoted to not suit our habits; and what are called gratis the children, who are instructed in presence of sittings in the great churches are reprehensible on their parents ; not by deputy, but by the priest, many accounts. Distinctions,-invidious every We may call his wicked pains. Let us take equal where, when people assemble for a common object, pains to better purpose. are peculiarly so in church. The “ Sit thou there, for I am richer,” is a principle as injurious A SEAT IN Church.—A very genteel-looking to the wealthy man who acts on it, as to the poor young man was seen to enter a church in time of man who is insulted by its display. Flesh and blood service ; he paused at the entrance ; the congrewill rebel, and there is no true
wisdom in rousing gation stared; he advanced a few steps, and detheir corruption, especially in church. Nor do dis-liberately surveying the whole assembly, senting meeting-houses in the least obviate the ne- menced a slow march up the broad aisle ; not a cessity of small places of worship for the very poor. pew was opened ; the audience were too busy for The congregations attending these haveto maintain civility ; he wheeled, and in the same manner per: their own minister ; and though they manage to formed a march, stepping as if to “ Roslin Castle," have their seat-rents much lower than in the Es- or the “ Dead March in Saul," and disappeared. A tablished churches, for which large sums in stipend few moments after he re-entered with a huge block are raised, the rents are generally far higher than upon his shoulders, as heavy as he could well stagrar in country parishes and small towns. At any rate, under ; his countenance was immoveable ; again they are not the resort of the nommade poor popu- the people stared, half-rose from their seats
, with lation, for whose wants it is desirable to provide their books in their hands.—At length he placed by small auxiliary chapels ; nurseries from which, the block in the very centre of the principal på . as they throve, drafts would, from time to time, be sage, and seated himself upon it. Then, for the made to the regular churches. We must not, we first time, the reproach was felt. Every pew fear, presume to cite with approbation Catholic in the church was instantly flung open. But-n cities, where the churches stand ever open—where the stranger was a gentleman ; he came not there all are entitled to enter the wide area. But there is for disturbance ; he moved not ; smiled not ; but a medium between this and our custom of selfish ex-preserved the utmost decorum, until the service clusion, as there is between the Catholic doctrine was concluded, when he shouldered his block, and of Confession, and our system of indifference and walked out. non-interference. Because our clergy are not to confess their flock, are they never to converse with A Frenchman, having a violent pain in the breast and them?
stomach, went to a physician for relief. The doctor inquirIf there were but one of our fine large churches ing where his tronhle lay, the Frenchman, with a dolorous open to the public at large, to which the young, have one very bad pain in my portmanteau,” (meaning his the stranger, all who chose to enter, should be wel.' chest.)
NOTES OF THE MONTH.
tastic tricks" are played with the crocus, and other NOVEMBER.
flowers. The first of the month is All Saints' Day; the
5th that festival of bigotry, the Gunpowder Plot, which, Next was November; the full grown and fat,
however, receives no notice in Scotland, save from Edina As fed with lard, and that right well might seem ;
burgh Castle. Even that would be more honoured in the For he had been a fatting hogs of late,
breach than the observance. The 9th is the Lord Mayor's That his brows with sweat did reek and steam.
Shew, now a good deal shorn of its splendours, and someShepherd's Calendar.
what of its “ wassail.” The 11th, Martinmas term, when Tas gloomy month, “ when Englishmen hang or
the landlord gives a friendly call, and lasses may be seen drown themselves," was named wind-monath by the old skimming about, with a band-box under one arm, the English, and also blod or blot-monath, as in it field fodder other hand keeping their petticoats out of the mud, that and meat for cattle getting scarce, cows, sheep, and pigs they may go feat and trig to their new homes ; a porter or were killed, and salted for winter and spring use. Hence
a friend following with that mystery,” the kist. The 24th in Scotland we have the phrase, “ The winter Mart.” In is remembered in England as the anniversary of the Great England, they had Martinmas beef. A goodly crop of Storm, which commenced on the 24th Nov. 1703, and paddings, sausages, potted meats, and tripes, are still going raged for three days, committing fearful ravages.
The at this season in Ireland, the Highlands, and in the primi- damage in London alone was computed at two millions. tive parts of England. This is one of the most domestic About eight thousand vessels were destroyed, or blown onths of the year; one might call it the fire-side month. away and never more heard of. Innumerable trees were The modern social festivities of the season do not begin for uprooted, in many places. The Eddystone lighthouse was ripor seren weeks after its commencement, and it is in town
overturned into the sea. Many lives were lost. Some of the month of needle-work, reading, and music, in the long the events told of the storm in the island of Barbadoes last Frenings ;—in the cottage, of the wheel, and the knitting year appeared incredible ; still more incredible is the aumedles; hoes, and rakes, and shoes are now mended; bee-thenticated fact, of a stone of four hundred weight, near lives and baskets made. Even the animals now make Shaftesbury, being then torn up and carried seven yards by themselves snug, and retire to their hoards in their winter the force of the wind. Queen Anne ordered a National Fast ba!TO1F3.5repair to their tovon-houses, shall we say. The at the time of this storm. murrel, the dormouse, and the bat, are no longer seen abroad. Mules are busy preparing nests for their young of the
ST. ANDREW'S DAY, 30th Nor.
St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland and of Muse next spring. Planting is still going forward both in garden and woodland. “The cottager, who puts an elm or ash into covy, was one of the Apostles. This day is now observed, ks ksige, or an apple-tree into his garden,” says some one, the rivers of New Holland. It is also a great day at home,
by his Scottish disciples, on the Ganges, the Mississippi, and * is a patriot in his way. It is an increase of the national Fralth, of the best kind.” We forget what English gen
particularly among the free and accepted masons." kenan last year planted trees, with his poor neighbours, in uimmemoration of the Reform Bill. It was a noble idea.
BOOKS OF THE MONTH. Takes have now nearly all shed their leaves. The walnut SARRANS' MEMOIR OF LAFAYETTE, and History of the in the first in succession to drop its foliage; next in order Revolution of the Three Days, is the most important book 1 borsechestnut, sycamore, lime, aslı, elm ; and the apple that has lately appeared. It will be read with great interand peach in the gardens. The oak and beech retain their dry est by those who like to examine the hidden springs which Tae-Cloured leaves till they are pushed off by the young regulate the movements of great events. tage. Birds never leave us : The plover is now often MEMOIRS OF THE DUCHESS OF ABRANTES.-Two word; and green-finches are seen in flocks; field-fares are more volumes have been published ; another volume of bearing, and the robin's plaintive note still comes from the new edition of Byron's works has appeared ; and a voThe cottage gable, or the mossy pales of the garden.
lume of the FAMILY LIBRARY, forming a history of "On the haw.clustered thorn, a motley flock,
PETER THE GREAT. The last month has, however, proOf various plume, and various note,
duced little but a few Annuals; and for Perennials, if Discordant chirp; the linnet and the thrush With spækled breast; the blackbird yellow-beaked,
we are to have any, we must wait till 1833. The goldfinch, field-fare, and the sparrow pert."
OF PERIODICALS, the Foreign Quarterly and Edin.
burgh Review, have appeared. The latter contains several FLITER3.—“ This is the time,” says Mr. Leigh Hunt, ponderous articles, but sensible and useful, nevertheless ; that By has written so charmingly of the months, “ for do on Railroads will be read with interest. Bestie cultivators of flowers to be very busy in prepar
BOOK OF BUTTERFLIES. har those spring and winter ornaments, which used to A very pretty, cheap work, highly embellished with cotought the work of magic. They may plant hyacinths, loured butterflies, and the gaudy moths of tropical regious. basi tulipa, polyanthus-narcissus, or any other moderate- The natural history, or descriptive part, is by Captain
mening bulbous roots, either in water-glasses, or in BROWN. This will make a delightful present to young *** of light dry earth, to flower early in their apartments. people, and is worth a score of the trumpery annuals,
Elasses, the balb should be just in the water. If in MEMOIR OF Sir WALTER SCOTT ; with Critical Notices as just covered with the earth.” This pretty and fanci. of his Writings. By David Vedder. Dundee : Allardice. 4 tkcies of flower-gardening has been much improved Remembering the fate of Swift, Pope, Johnson, Byron
even in the short period elapsed since Mr. we were in tribulation lest the death of Sir Walter Scott had dit wrote. By varying the form of the pot
, twenty - fan- I called forth about triple the number of biographers and
anecdote-mongers. We trust we are quit for our fears; | the sketches and portraits Sir Henry Moncreiff and Dr. the smaller world of letters has maintained a praiseworthy Thomson are included. As a specimen of the work, we
give the following interesting notice of decorum and delicacy on this subject. Very little clish-maclaver has yet been vented—a low word this, we agree with “ Dr. Chalmers, whose name is entitled to be placed a! Dr. Jamieson, but an emphatic one. Of the Notices of Sir the head of the Church of Scotland, was born of respectable Walter Scott which have appeared, we consider Mr. Vedder's parents, at the town of Anstruther, in Fife. He received the most valuable, and for this undeniable reason, that iu- his college education at St. Andrews; and, after having
been licensed as a preacher, he officiated, for some time, as stead of giving us merely the author's opinion, we have the assistant to the late minister of Cavers, a parish lying most acute critiques of the Edinburgh Review, and of some within a few miles of Hawick, in Roxburghshire. He was of our ablest writers, on the works of Scott. The concen- ordained minister of Kilmany on 12th May, 1803, a parish tration of those scattered lights is highly creditable to the beautifully situated amid the 'green hills and smiling judgment and good taste of Mr. Vedder. These opinions, drews. While here, he, for one seasori, assisted the late
valleys' of Fife, and in the immediate vicinity of St. Atintermixed with a Narrative of Sir Walter Scott's literary Professor Vilant in teaching the Mathematical Class at the life, form the subject of this cheap memoir, which those College of St. Andrews, where his talents attracted so much who wish to become acquainted with the history of his pro- celebrity, that when, in a following session, he commenti gress in literature will find a useful acquisition.
a private class of his own, on the same branch of science,
the students all flocked to him. He afterwards deliver. LITERARY GEMS. Selected by A. Thomson, Teacher of ed a course of lectures on chemistry, in which he ala English, Greenock.
excels. Indeed, he had, very early in life, given indication A nice little selection, intended, the selector says, for of those superior talents, and that ardent love of science « the use of his pupils,” from Mrs. Hemans, Follok, Bryant, made his first appearance as an author, in a pamphlet pot
and literature, which have ever marked his career. He &c. &c. &c. with a prose appendix. Unless Mr. Thomson's lished at Cupar-Fife, on the Lęslie Controversy. It was academy is intended for unfledged poets, his prose should written in the form of a letter, addressed to Professor Pissa have borne a larger proportion to his verse.
fair; the brochure abounds in talent, wit and genuine bu RETROSPECTIONS A SEXAGENARIAN; or Latter mour. It was published anonymously; and, to this das Struggles in Life.
is not generally known to have been his production. He
vindicates in it, very powerfully, the divines of the Church We have seen with interest correspondent to our personal of Scotland, from the imputation of a want of mathematical feelings of respect, and to those entertained by those connected talent, a reproach which he thought Professor Playfair with the publishing trade in Scotland, a work announced thrown upon them. Dr. Chalmers had not then adopted under the above title, by Mr. George Miller, late Book- he had no reason to regret this his first publication. A
his subsequent views on the subject of pluralities, otherwis seller in Dunbar. Mr. Miller was, for many years, not the occasion of the vacancy in the Chair of Mathematit only a spirited publisher, but a meritorious writer. All his in the University of Edinburgh, in 1805, Dr. Chalmesi works we have not seen, but from personal knowledge we offered himself as a candidate, and, we believe, was a are enabled to speak with confidence of some of them. His without considerable chance of success : but some of his CHEAP MAGAZINE was the first of the cheap useful works
own nearest relatives felt anxious that he should continet published in Scotland. It appeared about twenty years in order to remain in the bosom of that church, of which
as a minister, and he withdrew his pretensions to the chair, back, and was as much or more for its day than Cham- he was destined one day to be the most distinguished erat. Lens' JOURNAL, or JoursTONE'S SCHOOL MASTER are Mr. Miller's new work is to be published by sub
“ Dr. Chalmers next publication appeared in 1808, s scription, and several of the most eminent of the Edinburgh National Resources."
was entitled, 'An Inquiry into the Extent and Stability o
in it he endeavours to prore te booksellers interest themselves particularly in its success, independence of the country of foreign trade. The wat anxious to show all the attention they can to a worthy displays talent, and is eloquently written ; but his mind no member of their profession, in the evening of life, cruelly embraced those deep convictions of religious truths which le involved in difficulties by the late mischances of the book him to devote himself almost exclusively to his sacred pro trade in London, and through no fault of his own.
fession. The common statement is, that this happy chang
took place when engaged in writing the article Christi believe Messrs. Oliver and Boyd, and Mr. Cadell manage anity, for Brewster's Encyclopædia, which contains a the subscription in Edinburgh; and we cannot doubt but able and original exposition of the evidences of the truth e that every Scotch bookseller and individual connected with our religion, and was afterwards published separately. B the press will do what he can to advance it in their differ- this as it may, the result was happy; his zeal, earnestres ent towns.
and eloquence soon drew on him the public eye, an Independently of personal feelings, we have speedily enthroned him as the first pulpit orator of the art every reason to expect that, from his extent of information Latterly, at Kilmany, the people used to flock from Duud and adventures as a publisher, the RETROSPECTIONs of and St. Andrews on the Sabbaths, to hear him preach. our Scottish Lackington will prove a most amusing work. Church of Glasgow, and his name and excellence conferre
“ In 1815, he was called to be minister of the Tror It will, we understand, contain 400 pages octavo, and be a new literary celebrity on that commercial city. Beside bound in cloth, price eight shillings. It should, we think, the ardent direct pursuit of his profession, Dr. Chalmer have been a half guinca ; but half-crowns are, unhappily, here embarked keenly, and with indefatigable labour, i become objects of great interest in these days.
plans for the improvement of the education of the poor SKETCHES OF THE EDINBURGH CLERGY; with Portraits. ter a vast mass of prejudice, he was eminently successful
and though, in the prosecution of these, he had to encouu This is a handsome volume, got up in the best style, and and accomplished much good for the community of Glas likely to be highly valued by the friends and parishioners gow. His views on these subjects are fully developed, it of the different ministers as a pleasing memorial. On fair a large work he published at this time, entitled the “Chuir grounds, no country is more affectionately attached to its tian and Civic Economy of Large Towns;" which, al ministers than Scotland ; and the Edinburgh clergy are un series of numbers, rather diffuse, and interspersed with a
though, from the circumstance of being brought out in 1 derstood to be the chosen of the Scottish church. Among most intolerable quantity of fooi-notes, very tiresome to
the patience of the reader, abounds with many enlightened my in Connexion with the Moral State and Moral Prosviews, and much valuable matter, regarding the poor laws, pects of Society.” This work displays a mind familiar with
and all the other branches of Christian economics. In ihe elements of political science, and which has thought in 1819, Dr Chalmers was translated to the new church and deeply on the subject; while, in the course of it, he has to
parish of St. John's, where he prosecuted these plans with discuss the most complicated and difficult questions in porenewed vigour, till 1823, when he was elected professor litical economy, the whole structure and process of his of Moral Philosophy in the University of St. Andrews, argument is to prove that to rear a well-educated, prudent, where he imparted a very different character to this course virtuous and religious people, habituated to moral re from the mere worldly cast which it too generally assumes straints, is the true—the only way to accomplish the great in our universities. While here, he also delivered a sepa- objects of political economy. But from this brief notice
rate course of Lectures on Political Economy, as connected of Dr. Chalmers' writings, we must return to discuss his 11. with the Moral Philosophy Chair.
character as a minister. "Dr. Chalmers was, more than once, offered an Edinburgh “ As a preacher, Dr. Chalmers is altogether unrivalled..
church; but he had long conceived that his widest sphere The sermon he delivered before the King's Commissioner, se of usefulness was a Theological Chair. We often used to in the High Church of Edinburgh, in 1816, perhaps first
dread that his valuable life might pass away before an op- widely established his fame. His discourse on that occasion si portunity occurred of his being transferred to the Scottish comprised the essence of his astronomical sermons, and was dis nietropolis; but, at length, in 1828, on the Divinity Chair probably as magnificent a display of eloquence as was ever me in the University of Edinburgh becoming vacant, the Ma- heard from the pulpit. The effect produced on the audi.
gistrates and Council, much to their honour, with one ence will not easily be forgotten by any one who had the le voice, elected Dr. Chalmers. In doing so, they conferred gratification of being present. Tarte a boon of inestimable value on our national Church, from “From that day crowds followed after him wherever he
the ardour, eloquence, and industry he has brought to the went; and, to use his own language, he felt the burden of
important charge, and his deep sense of its great responsi- ' a popularity of stare, and pressure, and animal heat.' lebility
. Seated in this chair, and with all the ardour of When in London, Canning, Lord Castlereagh, Lord Eldon, is his powerful and energetic mind devoted to the rearing of the Duke of Sussex, with several branches of the Royal
the future Christian instructors of the land, he may indeed Family, and many others, whom, the journals remarked,
be styled one of the nursing fathers of our Church, and the they were not accustomed to elbow at a place of public Pri rast quantum of good that he may thus ultimately accom- worship,' were found anxiously waiting to obtain adinis
plish, it is impossible to calculate. His first course more sion to hear this modern Massillon. An observation made olie than realized all that his most zealous friends could expect, by Foster, in one of his powerful and original essays, is
and be rendered his lectures deeply interesting and stimu- peculiarly applicable to the talismanic effect of Chalmers
lating to the students. At one time, the object of the eloquence; he observes, that ' real eloquence strikes on De young men seemed to be to evade attendance on the Divini- your mind with irresistible force, and leaves you not the
ty Lecture, now the difficulty became to get a good place possibility of asking or thinking whether it be eloquence.'
to hear their eloquent instructor. In March, 1832, Dr. “ Dr. Chalmers is indeed such a preacher as rises up only te Chaimers completed, for the first time, one revolution of once in many centuries. Labouring under the disadvan.
his theological cycle, consisting of four different courses of tage of a provincial accent and pronunciation, he soon
lectures. During the last session, he also delivered, during overcomes these, and the stranger hearing him, is speedily Dit one day of the week, a series of valuable Lectures on the made aware that a man of genius and unrivalled eloquence
Itaportance of Church Establishments. He considers the is before him. Even the language of his ordinary prayers sa malue of the parochial system as beautifully exemplified in betrays him; as for example, when he calls us to remembit the greater attendance on a local than on a general Sab- ber, - that every hour that strikes every morning that
bath-school, the process which was first established in Glas- dawns—and every evening that darkens around us,' brings row, and is now pretty widely followed throughout Eng- us nearer to the end of our earthly pilgrimage.—We know land and Ireland. Church establishments he views as no man whose language in prayer is nearly so impressive, founded on the same principle. He considers that each and who so completely lifts the mind from its constant established church throughout the land may be termed a occupation with sublunary things, to the unseen realities tentre of emanation, from which Christianity may, with of an everlasting world.—He, as it were, draws the mind proper real, be made to move, by an aggressive and con- out of its earthliness to purer and holier regions. terting operation, on the wide mass of the people, whilst a “ In passages of solemn religious import, as well as those a dissenting chapel he views as a centre of attraction only of deepest pathos, we never heard the orator who could for those who are already religiously disposed. He thinks approach him ; for though we have had the gratification of
that the population of our large cities has outgrown the hearing the celebrated Robert Hall of Leicester,—and he per provision of ministers and churches, and that the practice of can be held up as a perfect model in writing the English
brusehold cultivation, on the part of the clergy, has fallen language, which Chalmers cannot,—the two, as mere pul. for too much into desuetude.
pit orators, cannot exactly be compared, each was greatest "It has often been alleged that the clergy show on all oc- in his own sphere ; but though brothers in genius, they casions the utmost anxiety to increase their income by any were not so in their style of composition. change of place. Dr. Chalmers is one living refutation of “ Dr. Chalmers is almost the only pulpit orator we ever this
, be having refused the most wealthy living in the heard who could preach upwards of an hour without in the Church of Scotland, the West parish of Greenock, which lest fatiguing the attention of his audience. was proffered him recently by the patron.
“ The frankness of Dr. Chalmers' eloquence, if we may "Dr. Chalmers has published several volumes of sermons, so designate it, is interesting. He speaks from the heart dl of them of a most useful practical tendency. His to the heart. What an ordinary preacher would be afraid * Discourses on the Christain Revelation, viewed in con- to give utterance to, he pours forth with deep and affecretion with the Modern Astronomy,” constitute one of the tionate anxiety to the ears of his audience, and it penePost splendid productions of his genius, and have had an trates to the soul. We can of a truth say of Dr. Chalmers kunense circulation, having gone through eleven editions. sermons and it is the strongest criterion of a practical His “ Serinons on the Application of Christianity to the preacher_that we never heard one of them and we hav. Comercial and Ordinary Affairs of Life,” ought to be in heard not a few—without having our minds possessed of the hands of every person engaged in the business of the an anxious desire to become better and holier than before, world, being of admirable practical utility. Some of his - and this truly is the best effect of eloquence in a preacher. raons preached on public occasions, are brilliant exhibia “ There can be no greater moral and intellectual treat tions of eloqnence and power in pulpit oratory, combined than to hear Dr. Chalmers from the pulpit. His sermons with real usefulness. Dr. Chalmers lately brought out a as far transcend those of the mawkish productions to be very interesting and valuable work, “On Political Econo- frequently met with, as does the genius of Milton or Neva
ton surpass that of the common herd of pocts and philo The great general effect of heat is, that it causes all bodies sophers:
to which it is applied to expand or increase in size. This • Can earth afford
law holds, whether the body exists in the solid, fluid, or aëri. Such genuine state, pre-eminence so free, As when, arrayed in Christ's authority,
form state; but this week we shall confine our attention to He from the pulpit lifts his awful hand;
the expansion of solids. All bodies do not expand in an equa! Conjures, implores, and labours all he can For re-subjecting to divine command
degree by equal additions of heat, but in general seem to The stubborn spirit of rebellious Man.'
do so according to their density. Thus, if we apply equal « Owing to his academical duties, Dr. Chalmers has not additions of heat to equal bulks of iron, water, and air, the preached very frequently since he came to Edinburgh ; but air will expand more than the water, and the water more it is hoped when his different courses of lectures are finally than the iron. This probably arises from the particles of composed, he will more frequently appear in the pulpit. It were to be wished that he would allow himself to become, dense bodies cohering more firmly together, and presenting in Edinburgh, what the famous Kirwan was in Dublin, the greater obstacles to their separation by the heat. We preacher for our public charities. Kirwan worked wonders might easily relate various experiments by which the er. with his audience; but how poor and void of stamina are pansion of solids is proved, but it will probably be better his discourses compared with those of Dr. Chalmers. “Dr. Chalmers has some peculiar but enlightened views understood from examples in which the law is taken ad.
vantage of by artisans and others. A blacksmith, in fixing regarding public charities. These are to be found developed the iron ring on the wheels of carriages, resorts for assist in some able articles on Pauperism he wrote in the Edin
ance to the law of expansion. At first he makes it with burgh Review several years ago, in his Christian and Civic its diameter less than that of the wheel, and then causes it Economy of Large Towns, and in his recent work on Po.
to increase to the proper size by heating it to a red heat; litical Economy; which opinions, however, need not pre- in this state it is placed on the wheel, and is instantly cooled vent him advocating the cause of many valuable institutions by dashing cold water upon it; in cooling it contracts to its that exist in Edinburgh, and this he has occasionally done former size, and thus binds the various parts of the wheel with great success.
so firmly together, that it will run for years without any “ There are two points in Dr. Chalmers' character, which other fastening. A singular example of the uses to which seem chiefly worthy of admiration,—the first is the union
a knowledge of the Creator's laws may be put, was given of the most profound humility, with the highest genius,and the other a deeply affectionate interest in the welfare consideration. The walls of a building were observed to
a few years ago in Paris, in the case of the law now under of the human race. These characterize all his writings bulge out so as to threaten its safety, and it was thought and actions both as a public and private individual. “ The distinction between Dr. Chalmers and Dr. An- tion. The following plan was successfully resorted to: In
necessary to resort to some measures to prevent its dextrliên drew Thomson, two of the most celebrated preachers that various parts of the side walls holes were made opposite to the Church of Scotland has ever produced, is, that Chal, each other, through which strong iron bars were intro mers, along with great talents, is also a man of original duced, so as to connect the two sides of the building; and and inventive genius ; while Thomson, though possessed of on the projecting ends of the bars circular plates of metal powerful talents and indefatigable activity of mind, cannot
were screwed close to the wall. Heat being then applied be designated as a man of genius. The question has to the bars, they expanded, and consequently projected faroften been asked, What is genius? but although it is ther through the walls, which allowed the circular plates ethereal, the question has been well answered :
to be screwed farther in; the bars being allowed to cool • What is genius P'tis a flame
they contracted to their former length, and pulled the wall Kindling all the human frame;
along with them. This was repeated until the walls re "Tis a ray that lights the eye, Soft in love, in battle high.
gained their proper position. 'Tis the lightning of the mind,
The expansion of bodies, from the application of heal Unsubdued and undefined ;
produces effects, in some cases, necessary to be guarded 'Tis the flood that pours along
against. It is a source of considerable inconvenience to The full clear melody of song ;
clock makers. The movements of a clock depending upon 'Tis the sacred boon of Heaven, To its choicest favourites given.
the pendulum, whatever disturbs the regularity of its Dign They who feel can paint it well.
tion, must derange the whole machinery; and as the audie What is genius? Chalmers, tell!
ber of vibrations of the pendulum in a given time depends * There was great truth in the remark made by the pre- —the clock 'is found to go slower in warm than in cold
on its length,the longer it is vibrating the more slowly, Bent Lord Advocate Jeffrey—and there could not be a bet- weather, from the heat causing the pendulum to expand. ter judge of eloquence
when he first heard Dr. Chalmers, Various contrivances have been made, however, to remedy on the occasion of a splendid speech against pluralities
, the evil. One remedy, lately attempted, is to make pene delivered by him in the General Assembly; that he could dulunis of pavement stone taken from Sir John Sinclair's not say what it was, but there was something altogether quarry. The stones may be distinguished in several streets remarkabie about that man ; that the effects produced by of the new town of Edinburgh, being dry when the comma his eloquence, reminded him more of what he had read of pavement is damp, especially after frost. It is their close Cicero and Demosthenes than any thing he had ever grain, apparently, that makes them expand very little by heat, heard."
and contract little by cold, and which thereby fits them for SCIENTIFIC NOTICES.
pendulums. We all know how dangerous it is to heat glass
too suddenly. Heat, as we shall afterwards see, is ditfused HEAT.
through some substances with much greater rapidity than IN No. XI. we intimated to our readers that it is our in- through others. It is slowly diffused through glass, and tention occasionally to devote a column of the Schoolmaster when we pour hot water into a glass vessel, as a tumbler
, to investigation in science, and we shall now, with that view, ately heated, and consequently they expand; but, as glass
the particles of glass contiguous to the water are immuui. proceed to explain a few of the properties of Ileat. The conůncts heat slowly from one part to another, it is some nature or cause of heat, the most extensively diffused and time till the heat is transmitted to the particles which coul. most active agent in nature, is entirely unknown, and pose the glass on the outside of the tumbler; they do not likely to remain so; but with many of its properties we
therefore expand for some time, and offering a resistance to
the expansion of the inner particles, a crack is the cons. are intimately acquainted, and to these only shall we direct
quence. It might be expected from this, that a tumbler the attention of onr readers
made of thin glass would stand sudden alterations of telli