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ment before, considered theinselyes afluent, found they were des not been one penny of profit notwithstaoding the great outlay, titute of all real property, and supk, as if by enchantment, and with and no return from the money expended on the farm. He had out any fault of their own, into the abyss of poverty. The late Mr. received no reduction of rent from his landlord. The farmers Horder

, the accuracy and extent of whose information on such in East Lothian were living on their capital, and great arrears of subjects cannot be called in question, stated in his place in the rent were understood to exist. The prices which he consider. House of Commons, "that the destruction of English country ed necessary to remunerate the farmer were 84s. per quarter for bank paper in 1814 and 1815 had given rise to a universality wheat, and 32s. for oats. The average price in East Lothian of wretchedness and misery, which had never heen equalled, of wheat for 1821 and two preceding years, was only 60s., of except perhaps by the breaking up of the Mississippi scheme in oats, 22s He was of opinion that without paying any rent, France." (Article "Money" 'in Snpp. Encycl. Britt. by wheat could not be produced on the very best land, such as Prof. MacCulloch.) Agricultural produce becaine unsaleable

. brought L.6 per aere during the war, under 36s. a-quarter; on It was not merely that prices fell, but purchasers were not to land worth L.3 at the saine period, the raising of wheat would be foood at any price. Bank paper, which, when compared cost 50s. to 51s ; and on land worth L.. per acre, 70s. He thought with gold, had been, at its greatest depreciation, upwards of 25 the best land would require a reduction of rent of 20 or 25 per per cent in 1814, rose very nearly to par before the end of 1816. cent; middling land, 30 or 35; inferior soils fully 50 per cent. In October of that year the discount was only, L.1, 8s. 70. Mr. Jobo Brodie of West Fenton concurred with the former Such were the consequences of the Bink Restriction Act, a witness in most particulars. His farm having been taken in measure for which Mr. Pitt is now lauded by some writers, and 1801, had not been a losing concern for the preceding five or held up as the benefactor of his country! It may safely be as- six years; but loss would have been sustained, had not a great perted that there never was a more pernicious scheme adopted deal of capital been laid out on it. For one article, he had in any country. Admitting that the measure was necessary in brought from Leith and Edinburgh upwards of L.3000 worth 1797, and without inquiring whether that necessity was not of manure, and he estimated the carriage at L.1000 more. The calexed by the improper management of the affairs of the bank, tenantry in East Lothian, though they had not suffered so much why were not means devised to prevent the degradation of the as in other districts, had for some years been paying their rents currency by over issues of paper, and where was the necessity of out of their capital. continuing the Restriction for so long a period ?

Now it will be found that the average prices of British grain The Scotch Banks, resting on a more stable basis than the for the six years 1815-1820 were, wheat, 769. 3d. ; barley, Esglish Provincial Banks, and avoiding the speculations in 40s. 11d. ; oats, 278. 8d. per Winchester quarter; while the stich the latter so often and so improperly engaged, withstood average of the ten years since 1821-1830 per imperial quarter, the storm, but were under the necessity of greatly limiting the which is about two per cent larger than the Winchester, are konmodation they had hitherto afforded. °From the successes only for wheat, 593. 4.d. ; barley, 32s. 6d. ; oats, 23s. 6.; which had hitherto attended their exertions, and the ease with being a fall of about 20 per cent." If the witnesses examined which money was to be had, many agriculturists had engaged in before the committee were, therefore, correct in estimating peculations more extensive than their capital warranted, and the reduction on rents, which ought generally to have been being called on by the banks for payment of the loans, necessarily made to enable the tenantry to cultivate their farms at 30 per became bankrupt. In a few years, the profits which had been cent, it is obvious that a still greater reduction from the rents made during the war were lost, and in many instances the ori- paid during the war would now be necessary to attain the pizal capital besides. In proportion generally as a fariner had same object. But it is well known that in very few instances, beco fortunate, were his speculations extensive ; and the more indeed, have reductions to the amount of 30 per cent been patensive his concerns, the greater and more rapid his loss. made. Indeed, in most cases, reductions have not been given Honey could not be had at the legal rate of interest. Any so long as it was possible to recover the rent from the tevant. amount might have been lent out in Edinburgh in 1816, 1817, In this manner his capital has been exhausted, bis meaus for and IS19, on the best landed security at 12 and 15 per cent, and the proper cultivation of his farm diminished, and the soil higher interest even was paid. The money had of course to be greatly deteriorated. When the reduction of rent was, thereberoved on aanuity to avoid the laws against usury, and many fore, given, it has very generally turned out inadequate, for in justaneas could be pointed out in which the creditor received io the period which had elapsed between the demand and the per cent clear, and the debtor had also to pay 4 or 5 per cent complying with the request, the farm had decreased greatly in acre, as the annual premium to secure the creditor in re-pay- value by the deterioration of the soil

, and the exhausted cirPeat of the principal sum, at the death of the person on whose cumstances of the tenant, did not enable him

to bring his farm Se the annuity was payable. In 1817 wheat rose in England to its proper state of fertility, to I4s, and in 1915 it was 843. per quarter ; but the crops

The outgoings of the farmer have not diminished in a prowete deficient, foreign grain, to the enormous amount of 14 portional degree since 1813. Their servants are paid their milies and a half in value, having been entered for home con- wages in grain, and the quantity, given to them has not been temption in these two years. The average price of wheat in diminished, while the charges of the saddler, blacksmith, and Scotland, for the years 1819, 1820, and 1821, was under 60s. wright are not much lower than they were during the war. et quarter. The proceedings before the Committee of the These tradesınen contead that there is no room for lessening Hease of Commons, on the depression of agriculture in 1821, their charges, as they allege that their charges did not rise prefarbishes us with much valuable information. It appears from viously, in any proportion, to the increase of the price of food. the evidence then adduced, that the fall upon all the

produce of On sheep farms, again, there has been no saving whatever in the cit, and on sheep and wool, as compared with the prices the outgoings, as the shepherds are, it is bulieved, universally from 1800 to 1813, amounted to 31 per cent, and those on paid in stock. which the farmer has most to depend on to 40 per cent, while In Scotland, pastoral districts are of more than usual imin England, the taxes bad increased 75 per cent, the poor's portance. The total extent of the kingdom is nineteen millions size, 82 per cent, and the price of labour' had fallen only 123 of English acres, of which little more than five are under cultipe best It further appeared that in England the soil had yation, and of these, one half is estimated to be in pasture or bera mach deteriorated by over-cropping since 1818,

by the hay. In the Committee of the House of Commons on the qwering of stock kept in farms being greatly diminished. The wool trade in 1828, it was said that more than one half of Scotfreest distress prevailed among the tenantry, and the rents of land was occupied in the rearing of Cheviot and black-faced preceding year, where not in arrear, had been generally sheep, but the proportion is probably much more considerable. paid from the capital of the tenantry: Only two Scotch farmers The distress in such districts can easily be unlerstood. On were examined, both from East Lothian. Their evidence is of sheep farins, it is expected that the wool should pay the rent, epistance even at present, because it will be shown that leaving the carcase to discharge the other expenses, and for riculture must necesarily be more depressed now than it was profit on the

capital employed ; but between the years 1813 and faz time, as the price of agricultural produce is lower in the 1827, Cheviot tarred wool had fallen fully one half in value, Hoyers since that investigation, than it was between 1813 and and other wool in nearly the same proportion. The value of e Nr: John Brodie of Scoughall

, stated that he had taken sheep and lambs had also fallen nearly to the same extent. 1.990, that rent being more than double what the preceding he inanaged for many years himself,

and he stated in his evicon it, and L.3000 more in buildings, his lease being for farna which, on the average from 1806 to 1817, yielded L. 490 in pan. Since 1814 his lusses has been very considerable, though per annum, only brought L.240 in 1827. 'He was asked bod tu not so great as on that of inferior quality. There had that the produce of at least half of Scotland, and from which The cosacre is a fnh larger than the English

half of the rent is paid, has fallen 50 per cent in value?"-
• Certainly." The value of black cattle fell also considerably,

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Square. ---Published by Joux ANDERSON, Juu., Bookseller, 55, North
Bridge Street, Edinburgh; by JOUN MACLEOD, and ATKINSON & Co,

Booksellers, Glasgow ; and sold by all Booksellers and Venders of

but never reached so great a depression as the produce of sheep DRINKING “ BY INFERENCE." _Of Mirza Abu Taleb farms, the average price of the last 15 years compared

with the Khan, the well-known Persian Ambassador, Sinclair rewar prices, shewing a fall of about 30 per cent. Since 1827 lates : _" At one of the dinners I gave to the Mira, the or 1829, the value

of sheep and wool has risen considerably, and celebrated Dr. Watson, Bishop of Llanda ti, wns present. now approaches within 30 per cent of the war prices. Next week we shall give the present state of Scotch Agriculture. The Bishop observed that the Persian took sviue very free. SCRAPS.

ly; upon which he said to him, “ Mirza, how comes this? ORIGINAL AND SELECTED.

Is not drinking wine prohibited by the Koran ?" Upon Edinburgh has been often praised, but seldom 80 success. Koran it is said that we may take whatever is good for our

which the Persian said, “ I take it by inference. In the fully as in the following sonnet, translated from the Latin health. I am informed, that taking wine in this country of Arthur Johnstone: Install'd on Hills, her Head near starrye bowres,

is good for the health, therefore, I infer, that I may take Shines Edinburgh, proud of protecting powers :

it consistently with the precepts of the Koran." Justice defendes her heart; Religion east

Mr. Locke was asked how he had contrived to accumuWith temples ; Mars with towres doth guard the west :

late a mine of knowledge so rich, yet so extensive and deep. Fresh Nymphes and Ceres seruing, waite upon her, He replied, that he attributed what little he knew, to the And Thetis, tributarie, doth her honour.

not having been ashamed to ask for information ; and to The Sea doth Venice shake, Rome Tiber beates,

the rule he had laid down, of conversing with all descripWhilst she bot scornes her vassall watteres threats.

tions of men, on those topics chiefly that formed their own For scepters no where standes a Towne more fitt,

peculiar professions or pursuits. Nor place where Toune, World's Queene, may fairer sitt.

An Irishman, some years ago, when he was studying at Bot this thy praise is, aboue all, most braue, No man did e're diffame thee bot a slave.

Edinburgh, asked a celebrated teacher of the German flute TRIBUTES.* _It would require a volume to describe all

on what terms he would give him a few lessons. The the curiosities, ancient and modern, living and dead, which and one guinea for the second.”_" Then, by my soul," said

answer was, “I charge two guineas for the first month, are here gathered together. I say living, because a mena- the Hibernian, “ I'll come the second month first.”. gerie might be formed out of birds and beasts, sent as presents from distant lands. A friend told me he was at Ab- and was greatly lamented by a contemporary, though they

A very old lady died lately in a certain country town, botsford one evening, when a servant announced, “ A pre- had not been the best of friends

before. “Why do you lz. sent from”-I forget what chieftain in the North.“. Bring ment her so grievously ?" said a friend. it in," said the poet. The sound of strange feet were know ?_was she not the only person left between me and

« Don't you soon heard, and in came two beautiful Shetland ponies,

death?" with long manes and uncut tails, and so small, that they might have been sent to Elfand to the Queen of the Faries

TO CORRESPONDENTS. herself. One poor Scotsman, to show his gratitude for

Various poetical tributes to the memory of Sir Walter Scott are re. some kindness Scott, as Sheriff, had shown him, sent two ceived for the Schoolmaster and the Chronicle. As we cannot alor kangaroos from New Holland ; and Washington Irving them all, we must resolve on omitting all, as it is unfair to make iuri. lately told me, that some Spaniard or other, having caught dious distinctions. two young wild Andalusian boars, consulted him how he Do Our good friend in Forfarshire appears entirely to misundermight have them sent to the Author of “ The Vision of stand the gist of Dr. Kidd's argument, His reply is, besides, far too long Don Roderick."

We gave the theory of the East Wind, mentioning that we did het

recollect whence we obtained it. If not satisfactory, and we admit it is LONDON SPARROWS.-At a late lecture on animal and not, let our polite pupil send the Schoolmaster a better if he can, an vegetable life in London, delivered by Dr. J. Mitchell at we shall be glad to give his exercises publicity. the London Literary and Scientific Institution, he stated We feel deeply obliged by the amiable letter of T. & M. that the London sparrows were often as sooty and black as The weather may henceforth be unfavourable for rambling till the chimney-sweepers. Their favourite abode for building their return of spring; though we may before then resume our excursions

, d. nests is within the foliage of the capitals of Corinthian recting them to favourite portions of the rich store of' scenery" to which columns and pilasters. He stated that they also build he alludes. In the meanwhile, we shall be glad if he, or ang one of within the mouth of the lion on the top front of Northum congenial tastes, shall indicate their own peculiar paths to those

“ Fresh fields and pastures new." berland-house. The benevolence of some, and the cruelty of others, placed pots on the sides of houses for their recep Besides appearing in Weekly NUMBERS, the SCHOOLMASTER tion. Dr. Johnson marks with his abhorrence one man is published in MONTHLY PARTS, which stitched in a neat cover, who did this. The sparrows, not knowing the character contains as much letter-press, of good execution, as any of the large of the man with whom they had to deal, built their nests Monthly Periodicals: A Table of Contents will be given at the end of in his pots. It was disgusting to hear the fellow express the year; when, at the wećkly cost of three-halfpence, a handsome his delight at the prospect of making pies of their young.

volume of 832 pages, super-royal size, may be bound up, containing that many insects in spring is a sign of many birds in sum- STONE'S MONTHLY REGISTER, may be had of all the Book BEGGARY.—There is a saying among country-people, much matter worthy of preservation.

PART II., containing the five September Numbers, with JOAN. mer. Begging keeps pace, or slackens, with the disposition to give, or withhold, alms. In a former age, the rich dis- Monthly Register and Cover may be had separately at the diferent

For the accommodation of weekly readers, the pensed liberally to the poor, and poverty itself could afford places of sale. Price One Penny. to relieve indigence. Then, beggar joined company with beggar, and troops of mendicants, swarming from towns, overspread the country, and fattened on gleanings which, in IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY OF SCIENCE.......... the midst of plenty, were scarcely missed. The demands

Condition of the Poor in England...........................163

The New Monthly Magazine.... outgrew the supplies. So early as the reign of Henry VII.,

COLUMN FOR THE LADIES.- Adventures of a Female there is a statute directing that every impotent beggar should resort to the hundred where he has dwelt, was best known, Tue STORY TELLER.-Little Davy or was born, and there remain, upon pain of being set in

ELEMENTS OF Tought.-Kings, their use. The Common the stocks for three days and nights, with only bread and Centre.-Learning-Punishments, &c. water, and then sent out of the town. In the next reign, Useful Notices.-Explosion of Steam Boilers.--On Oiling when Henry VIII. dissolved the monasteries and nun. Rail-way Carriages.-Dr. Henry's Disinfecting Process, neries “ with good incomes and warm kitchens,” whence provisions were daily distributed to the needy, the helpless

Decline of Scottish Agriculture. poor wandered far and wide, and so troubled the kingdom

SCRAPS, Original and Selected,.. for sustenance, that parliament authorised the justices of EDINBURGU: Printed by and for John Jou NSTONB, 19, se da ostane every county to grant licenses to indigent, aged, and impotent beggars, to beg within a certain district. + Account of a Visit to Abbotstoru,

Cheap Periodicals.



Price 9d.




William Cobbett


..... 172











ORIGINAL LETTER OF BURNS-POLITICAL overt acts of a dangerous tendency; such as demurring to MARTYRS OF THE END OF LAST

the health—not of his Majesty, but of his Majesty's CENTURY.

“ Heaven-born War Minister,” Mr. Pitt! It is even al

leged that his atrocity amounted to the height of leaving How we wish some one qualified in intellect and spirit a room in displeasure, when some of the party refused to would write their history! Muir, Gerald, Palmer, Skir- drink the health of George Washington, which he wished ving, and many others; nor last nor least, among the illus

to substitute as that of a greater and better man.” “I trivas band_Robert Burns. His political sentiments are suppose,” says Mr. Lockhart; in his life of the Poet, “ the vell known. The letter we publish to-day merely confirms

warmest admirers of Mr. Pitt's talents and politics would them, without adding at all to their force. It was address hardly venture nowadays to dissent substantially from ed to Captain Johnston, the proprietor of the Gazetteer, Burns's estimate of the comparative merits of these two upon perusing the prospectus of that “ Revolutionary print.” | great men.” We rather believe they would. Bat on this We regret that we cannot procure a copy of the prospectus, point, the Editor of the Quarterly may consult the writers though there 'may still be one in the archives of the of its American articles, Mrs. Trollope and Captain Hall Sheriff's Chambers, to which, we believe, the types, paper, inclusive. Burns had been persecuted and ruined before he files, &c. &c. of that obnoxious paper, were, by an ordon- sealed his fate, and committed another unpardonable overt nance, earried en masse. It must, however, have been a

act, by drinking, in a public company, “ May our success pithy document. Burns writes,

in the present war be equal to the justice of our cause."

To this ruinous and most disastrous war, into which Mr. I have just read your prospectus of the Pitt, in despite of his own better judgment, precipitated Edinburgh Gazetteer. If you go on in your paper with the the country, that, by gratifying the Tories, he might sime spirit, it will, beyond all comparison, be the first com. retain place, Burns, in common with nine-tenths of position of the kind in Europe. I beg leave to insert my the nation, was decidedly hostile. Meetings had been asme 25 7 subscriber; and if you have already published held, and declarations and petitions adopted over all

the country against a war with the French Republic. any papers, please send me them, from the beginning. Point Much ignorance seems to prevail now on this point. As ent your own way of settling payments in this place, or I Sheridan said at the time, « No one liked the war save shall settle with you through the medium of my friend, those who were to share in the taxes raised to support it," Peter Hill, bookseller in Edinburgh.

nor was it ever endurable, till the alarm of invasion roused

the spirit of the country. Go on, sir ! Lay bare, with undaunted heart and steady

Burns had committed another great indiscretion. He hand, that korrid mass of corruption called Politics and

chanced to capture a smuggling brig, and at the sale of State-craft. Dare to draw in their native colours, these

the condemned effects, purchased four carronades, which "Calm-thinking villains, whom no faith can fix"

(before war was declared) he presented to the French Conwhatever be the shibboleth of their pretended party. vention, accompanied by a letter expressive of his respect The address, to me at Dumfries, will find,

and admiration of the new government of France. This Sir,

present was intercepted at Dover, and the Poet became a

marked man. His memorable letter to Mr. Grahame of Your very humble Servant,

Fintry was written in the month following the above letROBERT BURNS.

ter to the Editor of the Gazetteer, and immediately on Dumfries, 13th November, 1792,

his being informei, that “ Mr. Mitchell, an excise col. This sin of Burns, it is probable, was never known till lector, had received an order to inquire into his political Toer; though the Scotch Post Office was in these days as conduct.” The subsequent history of Burns' martyrdom Libeertient to Mr. Dundas, as ever was the Parisian bureau we shall give in the exact words of Tory writers, that of letters to FoUCHE. But Burns had committed other the testimony may be less questionable.

* The exact Al that period, the Earl of Buchan, who, as the brother of Tho result of the Excise Board's investigation is hidden,” says man Ecekine, aimed at the story of being cafe character," | Lockhart, “ in obscurity; nor is it at all likely that the Arays sent

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then die-what a prudent, good, ugenerous, kind-hearted

doud will be withdrawn hereafter. A general impression, letter to Mr. Grahame of Fintray, disclaiming the foul inhoivever, appears to have gone forth, that the affair termi- putations which the servile creatures of the period attenipi. nated in sôniething which Burns himself considered tanta- ed to cast upon him, and avowing his real sentiments as 8 mount to the destruction of all hope of future promotion in REFORMER, gave, as has been stated, great offence" to his profession ***. In a word, the early death of Burns that pure and augusť body, the Board of Excise. One of has been '(by implication at least) ascribed mainly to the our supervisors general," BURNS writes, was instructed circumstances in question." This Sir Walter Scott seems to inquire on the spot, and to document me that my to have believed. In an article on Burns, written in 1809, business was to act, not to think : and that whatever might in the height of Sir Walter's partisanship, if he might ever be men or measures, it was me

e to be silent and obes be called a partisan, he says, “ That the poet should have dient.' chosen the side on which high talents were most likely to “ Mr. Corbet was my steady friend ; so between Mr. procure celebrity; that he, to whom the fastidious distinc- Graham and him, I have been partly forgiven; only I untons of society were always odious, should have listened derstand that all hopes of my getting officially forward, are with complacence to the voice of French philosophy, which blasted. denounced them as usurpations on the rights of man, was “Now, sir, to the business in which I would more ini precisely the thing to be expected. Yet we cannot but think, mediately interest you. The partiality of my COUNTAT: that if his superiors in the Excise department had tried the

MEN has brought me forward as a man of genius, and has experiment of soothing, rather than irritating his feelings given me a character to support, In the pofT I bare they might have spared themselves the disgrace of rendering avowed manly and independent sentiments, which I trust desperate the possessor of such uncommon talents. For it is will be found in the man. Reasons of no less weight than but too certain, that from the moment his hopes of promotion the support of a wife and family have pointed out as the were utlerly blasted, his tendency to dissipation hurried him eligible, and, situated as I was, the only eligible line of life precipitately into these excesses which shortened his life." for me, my present occupation. Still my honest fame is my Here is the martyrdom of Burns distinctly stated ; and we dearest concern ; and a thousand times have 1 trembled at shall not stop to remark that Sir Walter Scott might at once the idea of those degrading epithets that malice or misrepres haye's placed the saddle on the right horse," as he could sentation may affix to my name. I have often, in blasting not but know that the same creatures, who, in the insolence anticipation, listened to some future hackney scribblery with of office, crushed the mighty spirit of Burns, or broke the the heavy malice of savage stupidity, exulting in his time? heart where they were powerless wholly to crush the spirit, ling paragraphs_“Burns, notwithstanding the fanfaron; would have crawled and licked the dust in his path, had this ade of independence to be found in his works, and after hava course been imagined acceptable to the faction for which ing been held forth to public view, and to public estimation they acted, and which then, unhappily, governed this coun.

as a man of some genius, yet, quite destitute of resources try. On the subject of Burns's martyrdom, we must quote within himself to support his borrowed dignity, he wind one more Tory writer, Mr. Wilson, alias Christopher North, led into a paltry exciseman, and slunk says, L.4 Burns gave great offence to that fine and delicate insignificant existence in the meanest of pursuits, and among

gut, the rest of his abstraction, the Board of Excise ; and at one time there the vilest of mankind.?: though it io 1989 A 307*?" seeins to have been some danger of his losing his splendid

« In your illustrious hands, sir, permit me to lodge my situation--no sinecure-of something less than a supervisor disavowal and defiance of these slanderous falsehoods. of the district, with an annual salary of L.70. The Excise Burns was a poor man from birth, and an exciseinan baş rebuked him for 6 thinking't-& vice to which, from in- necessity; but I will say it ! the sterling of his honest faney, he had been sadly addicted, as well as to the kindred, worth, no poverty could debase, and his independent British and even more dangerous one of feeling ; and Burns, we mind, oppression might bend, but could not subdue. believe, came under a sort of half-and-half promise and not 1, to me, a more precious stake" in my country's,wek threat to do what he could to wean himself from that habit; fare than the richest dukedom in it 2-Li have a large but he made no promise at all not to feel; and feel he did, family of children, and the prospect of many tnoreeris I Wave till his heart bled at every pore with indignation, shame and three sons who, I see alreads,

have brought into the world griefmma state in which he must have been found an easier souls ill qualified to inhabit the bodies of Slayes, ir Can prey to the evils which beset him from other quarters, and look tamely on, and see any machination to wrest. Tram to those social seductions to which, in the heroism of his them the birth-right of my boys in the ditle independent hard-working south, he had so often shown himself supe- Britons, in whose veins run my own blood p38 NO to win rior." All this is truly and well said. But why blame the not ! should my heart's blood štitath aroha my attemp! wretched Board of Excise, and it alone, when the justice to defend it ! seat 'was equally culpable, if not in the individual case of

**!! do bratte et mana Burns, yet in many as flagrantlý oppressive. The Excise service.; and that it does not belong to img humble stations

“Does any man tell me that my full efforts can be of the had but one political victim—the tribunals a hecatomb. WHAT HAVE YOU TO DO WITH POLITICS ?

to meddle with the concerns of a nation ?*****
“ I can tell him, that it is on such individuals that

chat A letter of Burns to Mr. Erskine of Mar, which Dr. a nation has to rest, both for the liand of support and the Currie has but very partially quoted, places this question eye of intelligence.' in the true light, and is so intimately connected with the How To PLEASE TOUR FRIENDS. Go to India, stay affair noticed above, that we cannot forbear giving a fuller there twenty years, work hard, get money, save it," extract of it than would otherwise suit cur limits. His home-bring with you a store of wealth, and diseasetti Published in the Quarterly Review,

liver; visit your friends, make a will, provide for them at * « He was admonished that it was his business to act, not to think." -Lockhart's Life of Burns. *

soul ou will be!

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Lord Ordinary, a fee of 53. must be paid for enrolling. In REXALIS ON THE COURT OF SESSION, AND THE EXPENSE fact, nothing can be done without the hand of the agent

ATTENDING CAUSES BROUGHT BEFORE IT. being continually in his pocket. No wonder, then, that an The courts of law and equity in every country ought account of charges soon swells up, and that a client should to be open to all classes at little expense. In fact, justice grumble at the sum total. Two-thirds of a business account,

as taxed by the Auditor of Court, is for pure outlay, which should be administered freely, and without delay.

has in the first place to be advanced by the agent, and often The Court of Session, which is the Supreme Court of Scot- at the risk of losing the whole. No doubt

the agent's fees land, is now composed of thirteen Judges, including a Pre- are high, and we shall say far too high; but it is the dyes sident. These are divided into two Divisions, which form paid to the fee-fund, which go to the payment of the public distinct Courts, called the First and Second Divisions. The officers, to clerks, and for printing, &c., that bear so hea

vily upon the shoulders of litigants. Lord President is chairman, and has the casting-vote in Even if a person should be so fortunate as to gain his the First Division, and the Lord Justice Clerk in the case, he frequently comes off a loser; for, although he may Second. These are again divided into the Outer and Inner get his expenses allowed him, these are generally taxed by House, each having four Judges composing the Inner the Auditor at a sum which does not nearly cover the actual

amount incurred by him to his agent; as many items of House, and two, who act as Lords Ordinary, in the Outer charge for business, which was indispensably requisite for House. The junior Judge is common to both Divisions. the due conduct of the case, are disallowed by that officer.

The Judges of the Inner House compose what is properly We hope we have succeeded in showing our readers where called the Court, and act both in a judicial and ministerial the rock lies; and as we like to call every thing by its procapacity. They review the judgments pronounced by the per name, (which is one of the principal duties of the School

master,) we have endeavoured to clear professional men ? Lords Ordinary, which are brought before them by a re- from a great deal of unjust opprobrium, which has been

daiming note, at the instance of the party who considers attached to them on the score of expense. In doing so,

himself aggrieved.' The Lords Ordinary sit in the Outer however, we must not be understood as defending their · House, and all cases, except summary applications, and a scale of charges. On the contrary, we also consider the

few others, come before them in the first place; and it is agent's fees capable of much reduction, and of being put only when a party is dissatisfied with the judgment of the upon a better footing ; and we hope that a reformed Pars Lord Ordinary, that he takes the opinion of the Court. liament will repeal the attorney tax, which bears hard upon Appended to the reclaiming note, which requires to be the agents, and do away with the abominable fee-fund; printed, there must be a full record of the proceedings be- that the fees of all public officers will be reduced ; and the fme the Ordinary, together with the proof or documents business put upon a footing which will enable the practifounded upon; all which must also be printed.

tioner to make moderate charges, and the public to get a From such a number of Judges, and such machinery, one cheap and efficient administration of justice.. might suppose that justice would flow like a stream, and that a lawsuit could not be long in dependence. But ex

HYDROSTATIC BED. perience has taught us, that even from this Court justice

Amongst the numerous and important uses to which comes forth with tardy steps The existing forms are not water has been applied, that of a comfortable bed is one,

complex, neither do they admit of such delay as for- which, to say the least, does not naturally present itself to the merly; but still under them a case can seldom be brought mind. A watery bed, and a watery grave, have hitherto

* condusion in less than two years; and a much longer been held to be synonymous, or convertible terme ; and we period is often occupied in the discussion than three or even four years. A part of the delay may, and often does arise in would as soon have thonght of lying down in the Grotto consequence of the conduct of the agent; but the chief cause del Cani, as in a trough filled with water. Por, not being of it is in the long vacations, which take up nearly seven gifted with the power possessed by amphibious animals, of months out of the twelve; and in the consequent arrears of living equally well in water, as on land we would not have cists before the Ordinaries and the Court.

As to the expense attending the procedure, it is so great, hazarded so dangerous an experiment ; pet, true it is that in that it often acts as a barrier in the way of justice; for, in the progress of knowledge, this discovery has been madey. consequence, many a man will rather, and often does suffer and not, it is observed, accidentally, as many valuable dis oppression, than attempt to vindicate his rights by an ap- coveries have been, but by reflection on well-ascertained peal to the laws of his country. Many persons cannot comprekend how this expense is incurred. Now, as we wish facts, by a mind capable of grasping these facts, and of ap' to put the saddle upon the right back, we shall briefly plying them to practical purposes. show how this expense in general arises.

It is well known that “the sapport of water to a float. It is a common opinion, though an erroneous one, that ing body is so uniformly diffused, that every thousandth part the vents are chiefly instrumental in incurring a long of an inch of the inferior surface has, as it were, its own stray of charges; and that the greater part of a law-busi separate liquid pillar, and no one part bears the load of its Stanoconant goes to the lining of their pockets. But upon neighbour.” Reflecting on this fact, Dr. Arnott was led to ekanining an account, one will find that the greater pro- infer, that if a person were laid upon the surface of a bath, portion of charges is for outlay, or cash advanced in the over which a large sheet of the waterproof India rubber

one of the proceedings. To account for this it is only cloth was previously thrown, the pressure would be so uni. serary to attend to the following facts :

form over the whole body, that no one part could possibly Eray step of procedure, excepting the first, and ofttimes suffer more than any other part, and consequently that one eters that requires, by the forma of Court, to be drawn by who had already suffered from inequality of pressure, as ale Found, whose fees are paid beforehand, and rather in the ways happens to bed-ridden people, especially when the skape of an honorary, than a remuneration for the work to constitution has been debilitated from whatever cause, be done. These fees vary from two to five guineas in ordi- would, on being placed on such a couch, be immediately mary cases, exclusive of a fee of 78. 6d. to their clerks. relieved of the pains and other disagreeable consequences of Again, upon every step of a process there must be paid, be- long confinement to even the softest bed ; and the result forest can be received by the Clerk of Court, a sum of from showed the correctness of his reasoning. A lady who, after

Say in name of dues ; and then there comes her confinement, had passed through a combination of dis det dun, which amount to 2s., and often more, cases, low fever, jaundice, &c., rested so long in one posture

i mety paper. Al every borrowing up of the process, that mortification came on, sloughs formed, inflammation also Hoe makt he paid a xum varying from 29. to 6s., and 18 occurred, terminating in the formation of abscesses. She

mory turning. Before a case can be moved before the was watched with the most affectionate assiduity, and every

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