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tie • sent an errand in the worst weather, wind and rain, and ton, seen Girzy dexterously slice out a piece horizontally,
bad roads, if he staid a few minutes beyond the time which and by a layer of dusted-in flour, and frequent basting, and Girzy and the minister, fixed for his return by the cuckoo holding to the fire, raise a fictitious appearance of skin, clock, or the watch, “he is diverting himself with his black- that deceived even the keen-eyed minister. It was of this gnard companions," "Girzy would cry maliciously; and a trick, the unhappy Davy, now, in an evil hour, made use. slap in the face would welcome his return, while the mi- He could no longer resist. He hastily seized a knife, and nister considered it his duty to chastise him with the horse- cut off a morsel of crisp skin, which tasted so deliciously, whip.
that he returned to the charge, again and again, in a kind The minister had no roasting jack in his kitchen, and of frenzy of appetite, till the whole crackling was devoured! one of Davy's most frequent jobs was to turn on the spit, and then—vain attempt to conceal the fraud, he had remeat of which he was never to have nearer knowledge than course to Girzy's device, which ended in the skinless pig by smell. Nothing made his master more angry than the roast being scorched black in many places.—“What shall I do! not being nicely done. A good beating was always promised what shall I do !" cried Davy; “ the minister will kill mefor this offence, of often falsely imputed negligence; and the and I deserve it.” And for the first time, Davy felt that he minister never forfeited his word. If Davy was promised had merited the punishment, which he often received for no half a dozen lashes, he was generally paid with a round fault at all. He was too 'candid and conscientious to blame dozen ; and in short, no minister's little man had ever been the evil example of Girzy, 'which 'had led him into this so wretched as poor Davy. It happened one Saturday, that snare. “Oh, I deserve all that he can do to me and he will the lady who recommended the orphan to this service, sent kill me! he will kill me! Lord have mercy upon me !" In this the minister a present of a sucking-pig, a favourite morsel extremity Davy turned his eyes on the two small bottles with him; and informed him at the same time that an old standing in the window, which, as was mentioned in his friend of theirs was to come to sermon at his church next hurry, the minister had left there, hastily charging the bos, day, and would afterwards take pot-luck with him. His for his life, not to touch them, as they contained poison. chops watered at sight of the pig, for he was naturally glut- Davy had not hitherto thought of this injunction, but tonous, and by long habit, good eating was become his now it darted on his mind—“ As good be poisonied, as kill. favourite solitary enjoyment ;-he would have gone a day's ed with the horse-whip,” he cried; and 'abandoning the journey at any time for a bit of the stufiing, and the nice pig to burn to a cinder at its leisure, he eagerly swacrisp skin, well basted with a faggot of sage, dipped in but- lowed the contents of one of the bottles at a draught. ter, salt, and water. The church was almost adjoining the It was marked Maraschino, which Davy took for granted manse ; and Girzy, having made every preparation for din- was, as well as the Curaçoa written on the label of the other
, ner, put the pig to the fire, believing Davy had now expe- some potent, deadly poison. He now sat down on his little rience enough to turn the spit, and baste the roast by him- stool to die. “ I will soon die," thought Davy : " and self, without her superintendence. She was just gone, when the minister and Girzy come from the kirk I will le when the servant who attended his guest, brought the min. lying there dead, and he wont kick me then.” But death, ister two small bottles from the same lady who had sent the approached very slowly. Davy heard the church clock pig. He had only time to place them on the kitchen win-strike three, and knew the minister would return in a firm dow shelf, as the bell for church was just ringing in. He minutes more. In 'a frenzy of despair, he rusbed uzcast a last anxious look on the pig, which was now making on the other bóttic, and despatched it also ; and now le slow revolutions round and round, under the steady guid. was sure death could not be far off. In the meantime, in ing hand of Davy, and already beginning to exhale a sa- waiting its arrival, Davy fell into a deep sleep, and sank ou voury odour. “ It will just be ready when sermon is over,” | the kitchen floor. It was Girzy who entered first, as the thought the minister ; and he said aloud, “ If you roast it minister had to put off his gown. The bad smell of the well, I will not forget it to you; but if you dare to burn burnt pig met her outside the door. “ Come here, minisit, you had as good be sleeping : I'll certainly kill you." ter, and see your bonny Davy," cried the malicious jade ; Davy, who had never known his master fail,in fulfilling his and the minister entered in a fury. “Where is my whip! threats of punishment, promised to be careful to keep up where is my whip ?-rascal, I will kill you !" cried hu. the fire, and to baste diligently; and thanks to the sage and Davy roused himself at this threat. He crawled to the fert onions, and Girzy's odoriferous stuffing, a most tempting fla- of the minister, who had returned with the lash, and cried vour to a hungry boy was soon spread through the kitchen for mercy, though he was hardly able to articulate, for the from the pig; which became as golden brown as a chestnut. poison had now begun to operate. Davy exhibited every It has often been said, and the maxim is still as true as ever, symptom of a drunk man a boy can shew, except a drunk that nothing is worse for young persons than evil example. man's gaiety. “Do not kill me, minister,” he cried. This was the first pig ever Davy had roasted. Neither “ There's no need, I have swallowed the two little bottles hen, nor goose, nor lamb, hare, nor turkey, had ever smelt of poison you left in the window. I must soon die now." 80 temptingly ; and he was all alone. He manfully re- Imagine the rage of the minister, when, turning to the sisted the first stirrings of temptation. “ No,” said he, window, he saw the two liqueur bottles empty! He brought “ though I am certain if I managed like Girzy, that the min. the lash several times about the boy's shoulders; but, perister could not find it out, I won't taste it.” But the more ceiving that he was nearly dead drunk, he delayed his punturns of the spit Davy made, and the nearer his nose ap- ishment till next day, and ordered Girzy to throw the young proached the savour that arose from his frequent bastings, vagabond on his bed in the stable, resolving that Davy the more powerful the temptation grew; and now the bad should get his dues with interest. The sight of the empty consequences of evil example were seen. He had often, place on the table, which the sucking-pig should have occ11when turning the spit, laden with pork, veal, beef, or mut- pied-one of the finest, fat, delicate, sucking pigs he has
ever seen did not soften the minister's resentment. The stroke of good fortune awaited him, for at day-dawn, he pig run in bis head all day and all night.
joyfully beheld the farm of which he was in search, and On Monday morning, Davy awoke, after a sleep of which he well knew, though he was a stranger to the road eighteen bours, with a dreadful headach, and a consuming to it. “The gudewife will give me my breakfast," cried thirst. “It is the effect of the poison,” thought he. “I he; "and then I'll get a good sleep in Pate's bed. 0! but thought I would die sooner ; and my master would not then I am tired!" kill me. It will be hard to be poisoned and killed too. It No one was yet stirring about the farm-house; and as was a great sin to poison myself—Lord pardon me for it.” | Davy sat musing on the stile, till the ha' door would open, He again fell asleep, and when the minister saw him still his heart began to fail. They'll be angry at me. 0!I deprived of sense and motion, he left him without striking wish I had staid and been thrashed or killed. But I must him. “ I'm sarprised at your patience with the young ras- tell what I did—that I ate the pig's skin, and then let it cal," cried Girzy,“ that you have not thrashed him within burn, and then poisoned myself. That was a great sin. a inch of his life.”_"No," said her master; “ he could The gudewife will be angry. The gudeman will maybe not feel what he gets now; I'll give him such a flogging as he thrash me, but I deserve that—I dinna ken what to do. will have cause to remember for the rest of his life. He'll Lord have mercy upon me!” And Davy again said the Lord's be seeking his breakfast by and by, and before he get that Prayer, and repeated every psalm he knew. The door was
# shall have all his dues, quod juslum, as he richly de- now opened, and he crept into a corner of the porch, but feared artes."
to enter, or let himself be seen. It was the gudewife herself lu the afternoon, Davy awoke once more-not yet dead ! saw him first, as she went out to the byre to milk the cows. His headach was, indeed, rather better, and he was famish
“ Is it you, Davy.! where have ye been all night, my man? rug of hunger, having tasted nothing save the pilfered What for have ye left the manse, bairn ?"_“I durst not creckling, from breakfast time on Sunday. But he durst stay at the manse,” sobbed Davy, “the minister was going but renture into the house to ask for food. All the horror to kill mé.”—“ What do you mean, my bairn ?" cried the 5 his crimes, theft and self-murder, now appeared before compassionate gudewife,-“ tell me Davy all has happened 1 m. But the dread of punishment was yet more appalling. ye.” And Davy told his whole story, most ingenuously, and - What will become of me?" cried the miserable Davy;
with the strictest observance of truth; for he hall not been shid they must be cruel and inconsiderate persons, indeed, long enough under the cruel discipline of Girzy and the Mi* bo rashly drive a boy, at his thoughtless years, to such nister to have acquired the slave's vice of lying, and conjawful extremity. They may be the authors of all his fu- cealing a small fault by committing a greater. The gudefute misfortunes; and of crimes he never would otherwise wife laughed in her sleeve when Dary described his unforbare committed. He thought of running to sea, which he tunate imitation of Girzy's trick of making fresh skin to Lad heard of boys doing; of going to a cotton-mill, and a roast ; but when he gravely informed her that he had of a coal pit. Por a soldier he was far too little. Happily swallowed two bottles of poison under dread of the lash, the he wanted courage for any of these exploits; and he finally honest woman shrieked out, and her maid, half dressed, and pulved to run back to the GUDEMAN'S. “I do not know her husband, came running to her help. “ The poor bairn the way," thought Davy; “but the Lord will guide me. Davy,” she cried, “he is poisoned, gudeman :—for fear of Pase is not so well off as me—the minister's little man-but being lashed on Sabbath last, for spoiling the minister's l'atr is not scolded and cuffed by Girzy, and thrashed by roast pig, he has swallowed as much poison as would kill a the minister, every day, whether he be a good boy or a bad horse.”—“ Lord be about us .” cried the maid.
Tell me bes, all the same. Yes, when night comes, I will bolt how it's wi' you, Davy, my man,” said the gudeman, hoping the stable-door, and creep out by the loft-window. I will there was some mistake ; as Davy, though ragged, dirty,
ris ibe road first to Tillicoultry; I have a gude Scotch and tired, did not look like one at the point of death. “ Tell Isuzue in my head, as the gudeman used to say. If I me about this poison ?"_“ It was in two little bottles about Pue get to Tillicoultry, I'll soon find the road to the gude- the length of that,” said Davy, shewing his hand, which man'e" Davy wore a sort of clerical livery that Girzy and was not a large one..“ The minister said to me, “Davy,
o tailor of the village had provided for him, out of an old for your life, dinna touch these bottles ; they are poison :' Et of the minister's He knew the clothes did not belong but when the pig was burnt, kennin' the minister would lotim; so he dressed himself in his old harren shirt, and kill me when he came in from the kirk, I just swallowed la tersed brexches, and without shoes, stockings, or bonnet, first one, and then the other. The one was as red as blood Biate his escape, in a terrible fright, repeating the Lord's and very sweet, and the other was as yellow as a gowan; I Prayer as he ran, and in mortal dread of the minister pur- fell asleep after that ; and I have done a great sin in trying sul overtaking, and killing him. This was not very to put hand to mysell, 1 ken that.” The gudeman had a labely; but Dary was not yet the close, acute reasoner he af- shrewd guess what the minister's bottles of poison, that had 'Twards became. The effects of deadly fear which impe- thrown Davy into so long a sleep, might be. He bade his airy his breathing, prevented him from making much way; wife compose herself. “ You'll no die this time, Davy, my :ll at last he began to think,—“The minister will never man ; but ye must take better care how ye swallow poison low be open the door, and Girzy cannot climb to the win- again. Mary must gie ye some breakfast ; and then you Gut. They'll just wait till the morn, thinking me poi- must go to bed.” Davy did not require two invitations to wal; and then Davy Dibble will come to bury me.” With breakfast ; and the gudeman and the gudewife consulted
anda thoughts for his companions, Davy marched the whole about what was to be done with him. They had had chil. che long, dark night; but luckily, as his sensible mo- dren of their own, and did not like to hear of punishment, "W7 kad netti told him of fairies, nor let him hear of the terror of which drove little orphan boys to poison themsets, lae had no fear of them. And now an unexpected selves, and run off from their homes. The gudeman sa
down and wrote to the minister, to inquire, in the first there was a new trick found out to get more money; and place, into the truth of this extraordinary story, and how, after they had got it, another Parliament was called to set in so short a period, Davy's character and conduct had all right, &c. But now they have so outrun the Con
stable, &c. &c. changed so far for the worse, that it was necessary to punish him so harshly every day. The minister, whom conscience No man is the wiser for his learning. It may admi. upbraided for severity to the poor little orphan lad, was, nister matter to work upon ; but wit and wisdom are born at the same time, exceedingly offended that the culprit ha
with a man. Most men's learning is nothing but history, not been sent back to his tender mercies. Girzy was ac
duly taken up.
JEWS.-Talk what we will of the Jews, they thrive cordingly ordered to make up the few goods and chattels wherever they come ; they are able to oblige the Prince of of our small hero into a bundle, which was sent to the gude- the country by lending him money ; none of them beg; man with a message, saying, “ The minister hoped never they keep together, and for their being hated, my life for to see the wicked ungrateful little rascal's face again." yours, Christians hate one another as much.
PUNISHMENTS. “ You never shall,” said the angry gudeman.
The intent of punishments is not to torment a sensible Good fortune often springs from the darkest sources being, nor to undo a crime already committed. Is it possi
. Davy's poisonipg and thrashings were the beginning of his ble that torments and useless cruelty, the instruments of The lady who had sent him to the manse now put him to furious fanaticism, or of the impotency of tyrants, can be school, where in two years, he was able to assist the master.
authorized by a political body; which, so far from being From thence he went to Edinburgh, and to the office of the passions of individuals.
influenced by passion, should be the cool moderator of the
Can the groans of a tortura agent of his patroness; where he made such good use of his wretch recal the time past, or reverse the crime he committime and talents, that, in ten years afterwards, he was a part-ted ?—the end of punishment, therefore, is no other than to ner in the business, and his brother Peter one of the clerks. prevent the criminal from doing farther injury to society, In after life, as often as Mr. David heard of little boys rebel. Such punishments therefore should be choseri, and such modes
and to prevent others from committing the like offence
. ling, playing truant, or running away from home, he re- of inflicting them, as will make the strongest, and most membered his poisoning, and said there were probably more lasting impression on the minds of others, with the least persons in fault than the runaway; and he would inquire torment to the body of the criminal.-Beccaria. into the affair, and see justice done to the offender.
'The frequency of executions is always a sigri of the weak. +++ As soon as the SCHOOLMASTER can find space, he will gire the who might not be made good for something ; nor ougfit any
ness or indolence of governments. There is no malefactor Sequel to the TALE OF LITTLE Dary, in MEMOIRS OF Mr DAVID
to be put to death, even by way of example, unless such w Brown, W. S.
could not be preserved without endangering the community
, When a state is on the decline, the multiplicity of crites ELEMENTS OF THOUGHT.
occasions their impunity. Under the Roman republic,
neither the senate nor the councils ever attempted to grant Kings, THEIR USE.-A King is a thing men have made pardons ; even the people never did this, though they somat for their own sakes, for quietness' sake. Just as in a fa- times recalled their own sentences.-Rousseau. mily one man is appointed to buy the meat ; if every man
If punishments be very severe, men are naturally led to should buy, or if there were many buyers, they would der conceals a theft.
the perpetration of other crimes to conceal the first. A mur
In proportion also, as punishments never agree ; one would buy what the other liked not, or became more cruel, the minds of men, as a fluid rises to the what the other had already bought, and so there would be a same height with that which surrounds it, grow hardenel confusion. But that charge being committed to one, he or insensible; and the force of the passions still continuing according to his discretion, pleases all: the word King di-than formerly the prison. That a punishment may pro
in the space of an hundred years, the wheel terrifies no more verts our eyes. Suppose it had been Consul or Dictator. duce the effect required, it is sufficient that the evil it occaTo think all Kings alike, is the same folly as if a Consul of sions should exceed the good expected from the crime; inAleppo or Smyrna should claim to himself the same power cluding in the calculation the certainty of the punishment, with a Consul of Rome. Kings are all individuals: this, and the privation of the expected advantage. All severity or that King; there is no species of Kings : A King, that severe punishments also occasion inipunity. Human na
beyond this is superfluous, and therefore tyrannical claims privileges in his own country, because they have ture is limited, no less in evil than in good. Excessive them in another, is just as a cook that claims fees in one barbarity can never be more than temporary.Beccaria
. lord's house because such are allowed in another. If the the English law, is to be ascribed to the practice of a
A great part of the intemperate and vindictive spirit o master of the house will yield them, well and good. The text, “ render unto Cesar the things that are Cesar's,” Lord Bacon describes it, on “ the spur of the occasion;
gislators acting upon some temporary excitement, or, makes as much against King's as for them; for it says will suffice to illustrate this by one or two examples. Ther plainly, some things are not Cesar's. But divines make was a statute passed in the reigu of Henry VIIL by whic choice of it, first in flattery, and then because of the other it was enacted, that persons convicted of poisoning shwul part adjoined to it , “ render unto God the things that are malignant as the crime of poisoning is, it does not becom
It must be admitted that, atrocious at God's," whereby they bring in the Church.Selden.
the character of justice, even if it be right to exterminate f! THE COMMON CENTRE.-An old Radioal.
offender, to take a fiend-like pleasure in protracting it
agonies of death, and to display a horrid ingenuity in to Euclid was beaten in Boccaline, for teaching his scholars turing the wretch whom she cuts off from mankind. It a mathematical figure, wbereby he showed that aṁ the lives surely enough that he dies, without his death being wae both of Princes and private men tended to one centre, con the occasion of exhibiting the cruel and revengeful feeling gentilezza, handsomely to get money out of other men's of the legislator, by examples which teach cruelty to pockets, and put it into their own. Selden, « The Princes of England have done something eccentric barbarity of the statute, when we find that it "
“ In all times," says people. In the present instance, we cease to wonder att illegal to get money ; but then came a Parliament, and made under the impulse of strong public indignation, all was well; the people and the Prince kissed, and were consequence of the atrocious crime of a person nam friends ; snd so things were quiet for a while. Afterwards Roos, who was cook to the Bishop of Rochester, and w
hy putting poison into a pot of broth, part of which was having ignited the hemp that covered the steam-pipe ten feet served up to the Bishop's family, and the remainder to the from the generator, must have been at a temperature of at least pour of the parish, destroyed several lives; though we by 800 degrees; but from want of water to give it its necessary no means youch for the cogency of the proof, on which the density, the indicator shewed a pressure of only about five atcharge of so enormous a crime was sustained.
We know mospheres.
Whether the pressure of the steam which was thats ometimes families have been poisoned by accident; as, atmospheres, the steam-pipe kept up at the high temperature
rushing through the steam-pipe, was at five or one hundred for instance, by an ill-cleaned copper vessel. However this before mentioned ; undoubtedly, owing to the steam being supermay be, no doubt of the man's guilt was entertained. The saturated with caloric. The pump was now made to inject a novel and dreadfal sort of punishment which he underwent, much larger quantity of heated water; and the indicator, in an was inflicted by a special statute, passed for the occasion, instant, showed a pressure of from 50 to 60 atmospheres. It and of course subsequently to the commission of the crime; soon expanded (the throttle-valve being partially opened) to and the boiling to death was intended to be a sort of retalia- the former pressure of about five atmospheres. The water tion, because the crime had been effected by boiling! He was injected again ; and again the indicator was observed to suffered the punishment by a retrospective operation of the oscillate, at each stroke of the pump, from 4 to between 40 and attThis statute, however, did not long exist, to convert clearly showing that, at the reduced pressure, there was a great
100 atmospheres, according to the quantity of water injected the proceedings of a court of justice into
a sort of culinary redundance and loss of heat, with little elastic force. It soon process; for, in the first year of Edward VI., it was repeal- occurred to me, that here may be traced the true cause of the ed. Only think of a British Parliament sitting in consul. tremendous explosions which suddenly take place, in low as tation upon a proposition of boiling a human being to death, well as high pressure boilers. There are many instances where and that by a law made after the crime had been commit- an instant before one of these terrific explosions had taken place, ted! They could only have surpassed this by being actually the engine labonred-showing evidently a decrease of power present at the execution of their own sentence, and by tak- in the steam. To illustrate the theory of sudden explosions, ing care that the lingering torments of the diabolical cook | let us suppose the feed-pipe, or pump of a boiler, to be chokery were pot abridged by any merciful rapidity of operation ed. In this case, the water would soon get below some parts on the part of the person whom the sheriff appointed to stir thus leaving them to become heated to a much higher tempera
of the boiler, which should be constantly covered with water, the fire, and preside over the horrors of the judicial caul. ture than the water ; t'e steam being now in contact with the dron. The sentence was executed in Smithfield. There was heated metal, readily takes up the heat, and becomes superthe fire lit-the cauldron raised--and the man boiled, by charged with caloric. Since caloric will not descend in water act of Parliament, to the great edification of the people; it cannot be taken up by it when above its surface. The steam whe, if they learned nothing else from it, learned, at least, thus supersaturated, will heat the upper surface of the boiler, that atrocious cruelty was à legislative virtue, which the in some cases, red-hot ; and ignite coals or any other combusfalgar might not, therefore, be ashamed to practise. It is tible matter which may be in contact with it. Now if steam, bad enough in a legislative body to become ridiculous by its in this statc, could be supplied with heated water, as was the Lullies, but it is still worse to deserve the abhorrence of all readily anticipated. Let the same cause continue which cut off
case in the experiment before-mentioned, the result may be enlightened minds by its inhumanity. If any thing could the supply of water from the boiler, until it shall no longer be diminish the public indignation against the culprit who was able from its diminished quantity, to lay on the bottom of the maricted of so heinous a crime, it was the greater enormity boiler, then, all at once, like the boiling over of an over-heated of having recourse to such a mode of punishing it. We pot, the heated water will rush up into, and be immediately may fairly infer, that the deliberate and shocking cruelty of taken up by, this mass of supersaturated steam. Thus, having the legislature excited disgust even in that rude time, when suddenly acquired a sufficient density, by the addition of heated We find that one of the first acts of the popular reign of Ed-water, it will become steam of immense power, and will as sud, sard VI., a few years after, was to erase the monstrous denly explode-no safety-valve being calculated to guard Dezaliy of boiling to death" for ever from the criminal against this rapid generation of high steam. law of England.--Tait's Magazine.
In converting cast into wrought iron, a mass of metal of
about one hundred weight is heated almost to a white heat, and USEFUL NOTICES.
placed under a heavy hammer moved by water or steam power. This is raised by a projection on a revolving axis ; and if the
hammer derived its momentum only from the space through Tas following remarks on the causes of these explosions, which it fell, it would require a considerable greater time to aze by Mr. Jacob Perkins, a gentleman who has devoted almost give a blow. But as it is important that the softened mass of the whole of his life to the study of the nature and properties red-hot
iron should receive as many blows as possible before it
cools, the form of the cam or projection on the axis is such, It appears to be a well-established fact, that the caloric of that the hammer, instead of being lifted to a small height, is stean, at a given density, is a constant quantity when in con- thrown up with a jerk, and almost the instant after it strikes tart with water. This is undoubtedly the case, if the steam is against a large beam, which acts as a powerful spring, and poperly generated; but if any part of the boiler, which con- drives it down on the iron with such velocity that by these Fars the steam, is suffered to get at a higher temperature than means about double the number of strokes can be made in a the water contained in it from want of a sufficient supply
of given time. In the smaller tilt-hammers, this is carried still water, the steam will receive an excess of caloric, and become further ; by striking the tail of the tilt-hammer forcibly against sa petsaturated stearn, without adding any available power a small steel anvil," it rebounds with such velocity, that from theretos lo some receut experiments I have heated steam to a three to five hundred strokes are made in a minute. In the Senperature (viz. 1200) that would have given to it all the manufacture of scythes, the length of the blade renders it ne*at which steam is capable of exerting (viz. nearly 60,000lbs cessary that the workman should move
readily, so as to bring by staare inch), if it had had its full quantum of water. every part on the anvil in quick succession. This is effected by Yet the indicator showed a pressure of less that five atmos- placing him in a seat suspended by ropes from the ceiling ; so pleres. Having satisfied myself, by repeated experiments, as that lie is enabled, with little bodily exertion, by pressing his to the certainty of this curious fact, the thought struck me, feet against the block which supports the anvil, to vary his disthat if heated water was injected suddenly into this mass of tance to any required extent. "In the manufacture of anchors, persaturated steam, the effect would be instantly to form an art in which this contrivance is of still greater importance, meblis elastie steam the strength of which
would depend upon it has only been recently applied.-Babbage on Machinery and lize leruperature of the supersaturated steam, and the tempera- Manufactures.
and quantity of water injected. To ascertain the truth of ON OILING RAIL-WAY CARRIAGES, BY MR. J. L. SULLIVAN, Be theory, I made the following experiments :- The generator
CIVIL ENGINEER, BALTIMORE. za filled with water, and heated to about 500 degrees. The
(From the Journal of an American Society.) pressure valve being loaded at 70 atmospheres, it prevented the THERE is no difficulty in oiling axles continually, but to do it rate from expanding into steam. The receiver, which was so as not to waste a drop of oil, has not been done, 1 believe, store of porn war and steam, being heated to about 1200 till the latest improvements in the friction-saving carriage of de acesy a small quantity of water was injected into the genera- the Baltimore rail-road, where very accurate experiments
have ter with the forcing pump, which forced out from under a press been making by Mr. George Brown, one of the principal pro. este talve of the generator, into the receiver, a corresponding prietors of that work,
the result of which, he informs me, is, ateity; and this instantly flashed into steam, wbich, from its that one quart of oil will be sufficient for 2000 miles" run of a
EXPLOSION OF STEAM BOILERS.
carriage, which, with its load, weighis 3 tons. He informs me, DECLINE OF SCOTTISH AGRICULTURE. at the same time, that he has ascertained that the Lehigh rail
from Number 10. way carriages consume 4 quarts in running 321 miles with i ton. This, it will be perceived, is nearly 30 times as much.
With the return of peace in 1814, a severe depression took The manner of oiling the Winan's waggon is peculiar to its con- place in agriculture, and a fall in the price of produce of struction as now improved. The secondary wheels now run in the soil of all kinds. The crop of 1811
was bad, but those of a cast-iron case, the top of which is formed so as to affix to the 1812 and 1813 bad been very good in England.' The averunder surface of the side timbers of the frame of the waggon. age prices of wheat for the two last years, were 125s, 51. Its sides sustain the axle, and are supported or joined by an in- and 108s. 91. The great importations of foreign grain began termediate part or bottom, which forms a tight case, into in 1813. In the years 1811 and 1812, the value of grain, the which the oil is put, so that the friction wheel dips into it, and four, &c. imported, was from foreign countries, L.2,306,651; its rim carries up a little of it continually to the rubbing and rol- and from Ireland, L.2,478,509. Io the next two years, grais, ling surfaces, returning it to the reservoir ; thus oiling its &c. to the value of L.5,007,911, was imported from foreign own axle, where all the rubbing is situated, and the rol countries, and to the amount of L. 4,415,827, from Ireland, ling-axle, and no more is consumed than evaporates, Its en. The quantities imported in the latter years are nearly one-thit closure keeps clean. I need not remind the reader that the use greater than the respective values would indicate, for the valr of oil on axles is not only to keep the surfaces from actual con.
was estimated at the average market prices, which were abt! tact, and grinding together, but to keep them cool, and this is one-third lower in 1813 and 1814, than in 1811 and 1812. la better done by the successive application of new portions of oil consequence of these large importations, and on account of the than by keeping the same oil on the axle as long as it will last, crop 1814 and 1815 being also abundant in most parts of Bripartaking of the heat the axle requires, and therefore evaporat- tain, the average prices of wheat fell in 1814 to 73s. 11d., a ing the faster. This method must therefore be of consequence in 1815 to 64s. Other grain fell in the same proportion. To when great velocity is to be given to heavy loads.
add to the misfortunes of the Scotch agriculturists, the quality We extract the following additional observations on the sub- of their wheat in 1815 and 1816, was very indifferent, so moet ject from the minutes of a monthly meeting of the Franklin In- so, that it sold for a third less than English wheat, though, stitute:
prices in the three prior years had differed little; and in some out « Geo. W. Smith, Esq., to whom was referred the question, these years, Scotch wheat had been superior to English la "What is the best unguent, and the most econoinical mode of 1815 the average price of wheat in Scotland was only 536 6. its application, to diminish the friction of rail-way cars, locomo- This state of matters produced great distress and alarm. It air tive engines, and other machinery of similar construction ?' | pears from a variety of evidence, that all parties had calculater! stated, that the result of several experiments which have re
that wheat would bring 80s. or 84s. a-quarter; and leases to cently been made, have led to the conclusion, that the finest several years preceding, had been entered into, with the quality of sperm oil most effectually relieves machinery from perfect reliance on the permanence of a price of at lezat som
« Professor A. D. Bache remarked, that Mr. Wood's expe- isted. Mr. Turnbull, a very intelligent farmer, near Dunbar, riments on the friction of railway carriages had shown the fact to stated in his examination before the committee of the House be in that case, as stated by Mr. Smith; and that those of Ren; Commons, on agricultural distress in 1814, that his sales of nie led to the conclusion, that the nature of the unguent should wheat for crops, 1805-1813, gave an average of 94s. per qetebear some relation to the weights to be supported, or resistances ter. No reduction of rents was, however, given. The distres to be overcome, the more fluid unguents applying best to light was considered merely temporary, and farms continued to t loads.
taken at high rents during the years 1814, 1815, and 1511 “After which Mr. J. MʻIlvaine stated, that in using the The Corn Law of 1815, by prohibiting all importation, ti" various kinds of unguents on this machinery, he had come to the wheat reached 80s. it was very generally supposed, would have the same conclusion as that stated by Mr. S., that the best quality effeot of keeping that grain near that price, and landlords seal of sperm oil was the most beneficial ; having considered it as a
tenants acted for several years on that supposition. This lax question of much importance, he had devoted a considerable proved most injurious to British agriculture, and the protectis time to the subject, and was very particular in making his ob- it held out was a mere delusion. In the meanwhile, a cause it servations. He further remarked, that the oil should be carefully misfortune, generally unexpected, though ultimately ineviulie, cleansed, and deprived of those parts which water could ove.'
appeared. The evils necessarily attending the restriction o! Dr. Henry's DisinfectING PROCESS.-An apparatus for cash payments by the Bank of England, without any prethe disinfection of clothes, bedding, &c., on the plan proposed vision to limit within proper bounds the issues of pa by Dr. Henry, has been erected at Lancaster Castle (at an ex
per, shewed themselves in a new form. This proceerling lui pense only L. 10;) and another is also about to be put up at hitherto operated to defraud annuitants, stockholders: 20 the New Bailey, Manchester. The apparatus consists simply other persons, living on the interest of capital, of a third
, er of two cast-iron pans—the inner one 3 feet 6 inches diameter, fourth of their property by raising the price of commodities : and 2 feet 2 inches deep; the outer one 3 feet 8 inches diame that extent, while their receipts remained unchanged. But ter, and 2 feet 4 inches deep. They are united at the flanches.
now the time had come when debtors were to be defraude, The shape, however, is of no consequence, provided the clothes and creditors enriched. The over-issues of the Bank of Es are only sufficiently heated. Neither has steam any advantages land had led to an equal over-issuing by the English counti over hot air
, except in so far as it may secure linen or woollen banks. Bills were discounted almost without limitation. La articles from being burned. A hot closet, so constructed as many counties the agriculturists, or those depending on thi, that the heat should not rise above from 212 to 220 degrees, were their principal debtors ; and as the fall in the value o would doubtless answer the purpose. Remedy for the Foor-Rot in SHEEP.- The following charge their engagements, the bank: failed in great number
agricultural produce rendered it impossible for them to do remedy is suggested by a correspondent of the Essex Inde. It has been estimated, that of 699 country banks in Eogin pendent, for the prevention and cire of the foot-root in sheep, and Wales, in 1814, 240 either became utterly bankrup." which disease has this season been more than usually preva- stopped payment before the end of the year 1816; nor did! lent. He recommends it from experience, having found it mischief cease here. The currency was not only diminish
. decidedly harmless as well as efficacious. His plan is this ; about by the sudden withdrawing of the notes of the insolvent bank once a month, whether the sheep be affected or not, sprinkle but the issues of all the rest were very greatly, contracten some fresh time on some dry place about an inch thick; and The Board of Agriculture estimated, that in the conots while sloaking, put the sheep upon it, making them walk over it Lincolo only, above three millions of bank paper had, in some few minutes ; this canterising the foot renders it hard, course of eighteen months, been withdrawn from circulatim and still less to be affected by the above baneful as well as high and in a variety of other extensive districts in England, and he ly contagious disease. Should the foot be previously diseased, the south of Ireland, no money was to be found in circulatie the parts affected had better be removed by a sharp knife, and credit was totally annihilated ; and so great was the panic, tb : the above plan, without any other application, be adopted.
even the notes of the Bank of England would hardly pass o'tir A GENTLEMAN.
In St Constant's Sketches of London rent except at a discount. These failures were the more dir and English manners, it is asserted that the nurse of James tressing and calamitous, as they chiefly affected the industri I., having followed him from Edinburgh to London
classes, and frequently swallowed up in an instant the fruits o
a long life of laborious and unremitting exertions. That sup treated him to make her son a gentleman. “My good port on which too many of the agriculturists and manufacturwoman," said the King, “ I might make him a laird, but Iers rested, suddenly gave way at the moment when it was na: could never make him a gentleman."
necessary. Prices instantly fell ; aod thousandt wbo, but a mo