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he has money enough to meet his expenses. The comfort, with which an Englishman — who understands the word better than any other, is likely to enjoy an excursion in lands where the language, manners, and customs, are so different from his own, will greatly depend upon his carrying with him a ready stock of good temper and forbearance, which have more certain currency than gold in the purchase of civilities and efforts to please. A man will see more, enjoy more, and learn more, by carrying with him his head and heart in good travelling trim, than can be obtained by having his pockets full of letters of credit, without this necessary state of mind and feelings. It is a fact deeply to be regretted, that many vulgar and half-witted Englishmen think, if they leave home with money, they can command anything; that it is mean to be civil, and beneath them to feel grateful for any efforts to oblige them made by those for whose services they pay. The presumption of our countrymen is proverbial on the Continent ; fortunately, the exceptions are numerous, and we are spoken of as an unaccountable people, when some men of unquestionable character and fortune display examples of suavity and true gentility which cannot be surpassed on earth : the foreigner is thus puzzled to know how to estimate our national character. It is a vulgar prejudice, that all foreigners cheat the English, and that caution is necessary to guard against the constant attempts to overreach them. That some such characters are met with cannot be denied; but those whose rapacity is thus made to characterize a class have been often created by the meanness and prejudices and thoughtless extravagance of the travellers themselves. It is a bad feeling to set out with, that you must be always on your guard. Custom has established certain charges, and any deviation from them is soon detected; but it too often happens that things are demanded by the traveller which are very expensive, or difficult to procure: the charge for these is protested against as extravagant, though the injustice is entirely on the side of the grumbler. Firmness in not paying more than what is customary, unless such extraordinary trouble has been given, will always succeed; and good humour will lower a bill more readily than violence."-Brockedon.
“It may not be useless to inquire why, with good hearts and generally ample means, the English should be considered neither generous nor always just; and seldom, we are afraid, agreeable.
“ That a permanent residence on the Continent is injurious to the English character (in every sense of the word), there cannot be a question. But there is another description of our countrymen, the Summer Tourist--many of whom, without any intention of doing wrong, contribute in no inconsiderable degree to bring us into . contempt.
“ It is amongst the great and often-noticed faults of the Englishman in a foreign land (and particularly of the class we allude to), that he seems to think every man's hand is against him, and that he assimilates himself with difficulty to the habits of the people amongst whom he resides.
His self-created troubles commence on landing, and follow him like a spectre on the road. If the postilions wish to change employers, as is customary when they meet a carriage coming in the direction of the station they have left, the Englishman generally objects, in the belief that something sinister is intended ; and we have heard the sharp. No, no, no."' from within, confirmed by the travelling-servant from without, in an oracular · Milord ne change jamais ;' when it has been obvious that he must have been a gainer by the proposed arrangement.
“ Arrived at his resting-place, he either finds or makes fresh grievances. In a German hotel, there are generally beds in the best room ; but this is so offensive to the notions of an Englishman, when travelling with his family, that he immediately demands, rather than asks for, a sitting-room, which the landlord has not to give-and remains in ill-humour during the remainder of the evening, under the impression that it has been reserved for some more honoured guest. This often leads him to quarrel with his dinner, to dispute his bill, and to proceed on his journey with the conviction that he is a much injured, rather than a most unreasonable person.
“ A great deal of this ill-humour is increased by his being unable to explain himself in the language of the country, and by his finding the German menials unusually slow at rightly comprehending any other; particularly those specimens of the unknown tongue,' of which our countrymen so frequently make use upon the Continent. Indeed, it is surprising how some of them are able to get on at all. Not only what Horne Tooke called the wings of speech,' but one-half of its body is often cut off; and, in place of nouns and verbs, the medium of communication is reduced to mere nouns.
“On his arrival at his destination, he finds that the handsome exterior of his hotel is a deception, the rooms it incloses being compara-. tively small, hot, or inconvenient, and without a single exception bed-rooms or salles publiques. The table-d'hôte is a style of dinner opposed to all his home-born notions of comfort or enjoyment. As the meats are carved by the attendants, he is teased by being offered dishes for which he has no inclination, and sees those he desires to taste vanish from before him--never to return. The wines of the country he deems no better than vinegar; the carte presents a list of names that recall no accustomed flavour; and as their prices are as unintelligible as their names, he is puzzled what better beverage to select.
“ It is thus, without any intention of doing wrong, and merely from a disregard to the feelings and opinions of others, that many of our countrymen who go abroad produce so unfavourable and false an impression of the national character. If we would follow the sensible advice of Mr. Brockedon, by leaving home with a determination to be pleased – if we would submit cheerfully to those petty overcharges which in a summer excursion in England we should scarcely notice- if we would fall easily into the customs of those around us, and not consider that every stranger who approaches us has a sinister intention--if we would believe that habits may be endurable though different from our own, and that the laws of a country are formed rather for its own regulation than for our annoyance, we should more truly enjoy the tours upon which so many thousands are annually spent, and make the inhabitants of the Continent more disposed to believe that an Englishman is not a particularly disagreeable person.
“ It may seem easy to give this advice, and to say, with Master Faithful,' Take it coolly!' to the traveller who, after a long day's journey under a powerful sun, has to encounter the vexations of a late arrival at a crowded hotel, and to perplex his already-troubled brain, in vain attempts at making himself intelligible, or in resisting what he deems an unreasonable demand ; but till we can bear these things with greater equanimity than hitherto, and avoid becoming mean, because we are apprehensive of being cheated, we must be content to acknowledge, that there is some (though not a very flattering) resemblance in the portraits for which we have sat.”—W.M. T., extracted from the Atheneum.
“It is particularly desirable to make the necessary arrangements with respect to luggage, passports, &c., a little beforehand, and not to be in a feverish hurry and bustle at the last moment, with the chance of forgetting something of importance. Setting out at one's ease is a good omen for the rest of the journey. With respect to luggage,
recommend the greatest compactness possible, as being attended with constant and many advantages; and in general, I think people are rather over provident in taking more than they want. Avoid being intrusted with sealed letters, or carrying anything contraband, for yourself or others. The necessity for concealment causes a perpetual anxiety, and has a tendency to destroy that openness of manner which is often very serviceable in getting on. Avoid also commissions."—Walker's Original.
Jamque ascendebant collem, qui proximus urbi
Imminet, adversasque aspectant desuper arces.-VIRG. The quickest mode of acquiring a good idea of any place is to take the earliest opportunity of ascending some tower or eminence, from which there is a commanding view, with some person who can point out the most remarkable objects. If this is followed up by wandering about without a guide, and trusting solely to your own observation, you will be as well acquainted with the localities in a few hours, as the generality of travellers would be in a week, or perhaps better, because your impressions will be stronger. I do not mean by this to supersede the employment of guides in sight-seeing, for they are very useful in saving time.
The Emperor Charles V. used to say, that in proportion to the number of languages a man knew, he was so many more times a man. No one should think of travelling before he has made some acquaintance with the language of the country he is about to visit. This should be the first, as it is the best, preparation for a journey. It will prove as good as a double purse to him-as two pair of eyes, and one pair of ears—for, without it, the one pair tie possesses is likely to be of little use.
The only other advice which will be here offered to the traveller is, that he should make up his mind beforehand what line of Route he proposes to follow, and gain some acquaintance with the country before setting out, by perusing the best works descriptive of it; that he should lay in such a stock of good temper and patience as is not likely soon to be exhausted, whatever mishaps may befall him; and that he should divest himself, as soon as possible, of his prejudices, and especially of the idea of the amazing superiority of England, above all other countries, in all respects.
C. MONEY.-CIRCULAR NOTES. The safest, most economical, and most convenient mode of carrying money abroad to meet the expenses of a journey, is in the shape of circular notes, which may be obtained from Messrs. Herries, Farquhar and Co.; Coutts; Hammersley, and the other chief bankers in London. They possess this great advantage over a common letter of credit, that the bearer may receive his money at many different places, instead of one fixed spot alone. The traveller having determined how much money he will require for his journey*, pays in that sum to the banker, and receives in exchange, without any charge except the stamp-duty, notes to the same amount, each of the value of 20l. or upwards, together with a general letter of order, addressed by the house to its foreign agents, which, while it serves to identify the bearer, also gives him a claim to their good offices, in case he may need them.
The letter is addressed to nearly two hundred agents and correspondents in different parts of Europe, so that wherever the traveller may be, he cannot be very far removed from his supplies.
· The value of the notes is reduced into foreign money, at the current usance course of exchange on London, at the time and place of payment, subject to no deduction for commission, or to any other charge whatever, unless the payment be required in.some particular coin which bears a premium. They are drawn to order, and the traveller will naturally, for his own security, not endorse them till he receives the money; besides which, such checks are so concerted with the agents as to render a successful forgery of his name scarcely possible."
From the number of English who now go abroad, these circular letters can no longer be expected to serve as a private letter of introduction ; but it is of no slight importance in many cases of difficulty to the stranger, in a strange place, to be able to produce a reference
• It is difficult, if not impossible, to fix with any approach to exactness the average rate of expenses of a traveller abroad, as it depends so much on his own habits, and varies in different countries; but unless the expenditure be very lavish, 11. a day for each individual ought fully to cover all the outlay, even when travelling post. On a pedestrian excursion in remote situations, the expenses can hardly exceed from 5s, to 108. per diem.
to some person of respectability; and the parties to whom these letters are addressed are usually ready to afford friendly advice and assistance to those who need it.
It is advisable for the traveller to take a small supply of English money to pay his expenses in the steam-boat, and on landing. When it is requisite to change this or any other money into the current coin of the country in which he is travelling, the best plan is to take them to some authorized money-changer (geld-wechsler, changeur de monnoies), who from his profession is necessarily acquainted with the rate of exchange (such persons are to be found in almost every town); and by no means to change them at shops or inns, where, from ignorance or fraud, travellers are liable to be cheated.
Gold coins are rare in many parts of the continent, and must be purchased at a premium by those who require them. In Prussia and Austria there is a paper coinage of the same value as the metallic currency; in Prussia also, gold Friedericks d'or are easily procured. In other parts of Germany the traveller is obliged to receive his money in crown-pieces, if he is unwilling to submit to any deduction; and it is no slight inconvenience to be thus loaded with £20 worth of silver.
The best silver coins to take are, for Northern Germany, Prussian dollars ; since the coins of Prussia (except the small change) now pass current in all the states which are members of the New Customhouse Union (Zollverein); and for Southern Germany, Brabant dollars (ecus de Brabant), which are almost universally current, from Frankfort and Dresden, southwards. In the greater part of Germany, French Napoleons, like the French language, are of no more use than English sovereigns, and the English tongue. In merely passing through a country, it is expedient to take no more of its coins than are necessary to carry one through it, as almost every state has a distinct coinage; and a certain loss must be sustained by each exchange.
Of all the penalties, at the expense of which the pleasure of travelling abroad is purchased, the most disagreeable and most repugnant to English feelings is that of submitting to the strict regulations of the continental police, and especially to the annoyance of bearing a passport. As this, however, is a matter of necessity, from which there is no exemption (no one being allowed to travel on the Continent without a passport), it is better to submit with a good grace. By a little care and attention to this matter at first, the traveller may spare himself a world of vexation and inconvenience in the end.
As a general rule, the utmost care should be taken of the passport; since the loss of it will subject the stranger to much trouble, and may cause him to be placed under the surveillance of the police. It should always be carried about the person, as it is liable to be constantly called for. Its importance in the eyes of officials is very much increased in proportion to the number of seals and signatures it bears.
Before leaving England, it is necessary to obtain a passport from