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enormous. Some states, situated in the interior of the continent, were com. pelled to pay 10 or 12 different transit duties for every article they imported or exported.

Au Association, headed by Prussia, has recently been formed for the furtherance of trade, by consolidating the different states of the North of Germany, and uniting them under one system of customs. The members of this league have agreed to adopt the same scale of duties--to abolish all intermediate custom-houses, and to divide the profits among the states of the union proportionately to the population of each. In consequence of this, many of the restraints which impeded the communication from one part of Germany to the other have been removed. The conforming states are, Prussia, the head of the league; Bavaria, Saxony, Würtemburg, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Cassel, Nassau, Frankfort-on-theMaine, and other minor principalities. Those which have, up to the present time, held back from this commercial confederation, are, Hanover, Brunswick, Mecklenburg, Holstein, and the Hanse Towns; these will probably follow. Thus, the traveller who has crossed the outer line is freed from the vexations of the Douanier in every part of Central Germany, and may proceed without interruption from Belgium to the frontier of Russia, and from Tyrol to the Baltic. Austria still follows the ancient regulations in all the states belonging to her, nor is any change likely to take place in them,

31. DISTANCES. 1 German mile = 4.816 English miles.

2 German miles, or 4 stunde (hours), make one post, = 9.732 English miles.

32. MODES OP TRAVELLING.–POSTING, OR EXTRA POST. Posting, throughout Germany, has of late years been placed on a much improved footing, though still inferior to what it is in England, in the quickness of travelling, speed of changing, and goodness of the horses.

On all the great roads, with hardly one exception, the postmasters will provide carriages (usually open caleches) for persons who have none of their own, but they are often dirty, and generally very uncomfortable.

Before post-horses can be hired, it is usually necessary to obtain from the police a written order. They should not be brought to the door a moment before they are wanted, as an extra charge is made for every half hour they are kept in waiting.

The post-mastera, in great towns, or where the king or court reside, &c., are entitled to make an extra charge of 4 or 1 post for horses, on the first stage into or out of the town, which is called a royal post.

On hilly stages, the postmaster is empowered to compel travellers to take leaders (vorspann) to drag their carriage up the ascents. He receives a docảment officially signed by the postmaster-general to entitle him to make this demand, and must produce the paper if travellers require to see it. With these two exceptions, a traveller is obliged to take on, from every post station, as many horses as brought his carriage to it. This may sometimes be avoided bý paying a postmaster, at the beginning of a journey, for the additional horses he is entitled to put on, without attaching them, or having them men. tioned or included in the ticket.

German postilions, once proverbial for their slowness, no longer deserve the reproach. Improvements both in roads and posting establishments have introduced a new era, as it were, and from fourteen to eighteen German miles may now be reckone:l as the ordinary extent of a day's journey.

Trinkgeld (drink-money.) Those who wish to travel expeditiously, give the postilion double drink-money; and it is customary to pay him no more than what he can legally demand, only when he has not given satisfaction.

The usual rate is žo silver groschen or 3 zwanzigers a post, which is equi. valent to 40 sous a post in France: 2 zwanzigers is very low; the English generally pay 3.-B.K.

The wealthy Germans themselves say that they pay a postilion in Prussia, &c. For 2 horses 1 mile

12 silver groschen. 4

from 18 to 20 In Baden and South GermanyFor 2 horses

1 post

1 A. 12 kr, to 1 fl. 20 kr. 4

2 A. to 2 A. 20 kr. I had lately a servant who only paid the postilion with four horses 1 f. 48 kr.; and they were generally, though not always, satisfied.-W.M.T.

When two carriages drawn by post-horses meet at, or near the middle of a stage, the postilions generally expect to be allowed to stop and take out their horses, so that each may return home at once. In Northern Germany this cannot be done without the traveller's permission. No variation is made in consequence in the sum paid to the postilion, who drives to the end of the stage

At every post-house a book is kept in which the traveller can enter all complaints which he has to make against the postmaster. These, of course, cannot be redressed unless the name and address of the complainant be affixed.

The Wagenmeister (coach-master), a kind of superior groom who superintends the postboys, is sometimes entitled to a small fee on putting the horses to.

Schmiergeld (grease-money). On driving up to the post-house, the traveller is often addressed with the words, “Wollen sie schmieren lassen? (Will you have the wheels greased?) Whether this is done or not, in some countries the fee is exacted; but more frequently it is only paid when the grease is actually applied.

There is a regulation which compels travellers who have arrived with posthorses, at any place where there is a post station, to continue their journey with post-horses, or else to remain twenty-four or even forty-eight hours on the spot, before they can avail themselves of any other mode of conveyance. This rule is not always enforced.

Number of Horses.-An open carriage (calèche or britzka), not very heavy, and without an imperial, is very often drawn by two horses only, even with three persons; while a close chariot always requires three horses, even though there be only one person inside.

Where three horses are necessary for a carriage, the third horse is not harnessed abreast, as in France and Belgium, but before the other two, at the end of the pole, so that the limoniere or shafts ($ 18, Germ. Deichsel) must be secured under the perch.

In many parts of Germany, if the carriage be not provided with a box in front, from which the postilion can drive, a third (or extra) horse must be taken for him to ride on.

Fuller details of charges for posting in the different countries of Germany will be found in the introductory information prefixed to the routes through each of those countries.

Tolls. The practice of including the tolls in the charge for the horses is extending in Germany, much to the convenience of the traveller,

33. DILIGENCES, Called in Prussia, Schnellposten* ; in Austria, Eilwagen,--are now established in almost every country in Europe. The Post-Office and Public conveyances belong to the Government, and are managed by its officers, with very few exceptions, in all the German states. No one can take his place without producing his passport, properly visé and endorsed for the place to which he is going: it is frequently consigned to the care of the conducteur during the journey. The Schnell-post, or Eilwagen, is placed under the care of a guard, called Conducteur, or Schirrmeister. In most cases the seats are numbered, and passengers are placed in the order in which their places are engaged. The first numbers are affixed to the corner seats, which of course are more desirable than those in the middle, especially for night travelling. On this account, it will be perceived how advantageous it is to engage the place as long as possible before the time of starting. The fare must be paid beforehand, and a receipt is always given for it, and for baggage, whether the passenger takes it with him or sends

by the waggon. The greatest care is taken of the baggage of travellers all over the continent; instances of loss are very rare. Every package must be distinctly addressed, with the name and destination of the person to whom it belongs ; otherwise the post-office will not be responsible for it, if lost.

In Prussia, Austria, and many other parts of Germany, when all the places in the main diligence (Hauptwagen) are booked, additional carriages (bey chaisen) are prepared for extra passengers--a very great accommodation. On some occasions, for instance during the Leipzig fair, as many as twenty or thirty additional carriages are attached, and set out and travel in company. Passengers cannot be called for at their own houses, but must meet the diligence at the coach office, and must send their luggage al least an hour before. Every article is weighed and entered in a book. A certain weight is allowed to each passenger, all above that must be paid for; large trunks must be sent by a baggage-waggon.

The Conducteur is usually a superior person to the English guard; and, besides his duties, has the charge of paying postilions, and is responsible for the baggage of his passengers. He is not entitled to any remuneration from them, indeed in many cases he is forbidden to accept any—a regulation which is greatly superior to the system prevalent in England, where the traveller is exposed often to the insolence and importunities of coachmen and guards.

Postwaggons.-Besides the Eilwagen, there is another species of public con. veyance, of an inferior kind, not so well appointed, and much slower, called Fahrpost, or Postwagen. It is so tedious, usually on account of the long stoppages which it makes at every stage, that the traveller might get to his journey's end nearly as soon on foot. On those roads where there are eilwagen, the postwagen should be decidedly avoided, as they are commonly erowded by inferior persons; but there are other roads which are only traversed by a postwagen.

For ladies, or for a family, a Diligence is by no means a desirable convey, ance; nor is it indeed nearly so economical as a Lohnkutscher's carriage. In many cases, where a party amounts to three or four, it will be less expensive to buy a carriage and travel post, than with the Diligence,

34. THE GERMAN VOITURIER.--LOHNKUTSCHER. In all the large towns of Germany, coachmen (called Lohnkutseher or

*iterally, quick-posts ; the English are apt to pronounce them sngil-posts.

Landkutscher), similar to the Italian Vetturini, abound, ready at all times to convey travellers in every direction. They are usually to be met with in the principal streets, in front of the great inns, where their carriages are stationed, and where they hang up boards, bearing the names of the places to which they are bound, and they are not backward in giving the same information verbally, as they usually address everyone who passes, with the question, “ Suchen sie gelegenheit, mein Herr ?” (Are you in search of an opportunity of travelling, Sir?)

The advantages of Vetturino travelling consist, first, in its being cheaper than postii

or even than the Schnellpost, when four persons join in taking a carriage ;-secondly, it is more independent than the diligence, as it allors the traveller to stop on the road, by having a previous understanding with the driver ;-thirdly, as there are very few roads on which German schwellposts and eilwagen travel every day of the week, it is often the only mode of proceeding, unless the traveller take post-horses ;-fourthly, it is almost the only available mode of travelling upon cross or side-roads which are not post-roads ;-fifthly, it allows the traveller an opportunity of resting at night. At the same time it must be remembered that, as the Lohnkutscher travels with the same pair of horses, it is not an expeditious mode of conveyance, forty or fifty miles being the utmost extent of a day's journey ; and one or two halts of an hour or two's duration are necessary to refresh the horses each day.

The usual Vetturino carriage is a light sort of calèche, capable of being shut in with leather curtains or glass windows, and of accommodating four persons. The coachman undertakes the care and transport of baggage without any additional charge.

The usual cost per diem for the entire use of a calèche, drawn by two horses, is from six to seven dollars in Prussia and the north of Germany, and seven or eight forins in the south ; in Switzerland, where forage is dear, the charge is seldom less than eight or nine florins—20 to 24 fr. The driver, if he behave well, receives a trinkgeld of 12 G. gros, or a zwanziger, per diem. In this is included every charge for tolls, barriers, ferries, &c., and the driver provides for himself and horses. When forage is dear, or tolls heavy, some sittle difference may be made ; but the above may be considered an average of the charges. As a further guide to a Lohnkutscher's charge, it may be mentioned, that the hire of a carriage for four persons should not exceed half the fare of four for the same distance in the Eilwagen.

Upon much frequented roads the German Lohnkutscher has no right to claim back fare, as he hardly fails to pick up passengers on his return; and indeed he will not hesitate to go to the most distant corner of Europe if he meets with a good offer.

Before hiring a carriage expressly for a journey, it is advisable to ascertain whether there be no return carriages (retour chaisen), about to take the same route, as such may be engaged at a very reduced rate.

A single individual has no occasion to take a whole coach to himself, he may secure a single place, paying proportionately; but then he inust take his chance of the company he may have to encounter as fellow passengers.

When the journey will last for several days, it will be well not to engage the coachman at once for the whole distance, but, if satisfied, to take him on day by day. It is better not to employ a driver upon a road which he has not travelled before, but to seek out one who will serve as a guide, and be able to give some information about the inns and country through which he has

In Germany it is not customary or necessary to draw up a written agrees ment with the driver, as iu Italy; but it is sometimes the practice for him to

to pass.

deposit in the hands of the person who has engaged him, a small sum of money (darauf-geld; in Italy, la caparra), as a surety that he will not fail in his engagement, and run off, in case he can make a better bargain elsewhere. The receipt of this money is also binding on the part of the employer, who cannot afterwards put off the driver without paying him a consideration.

After hiring the whole carriage, a verbal stipulation should be made with the driver, that he is to take up nu person by the way without his employer's consent, that he is to stop when and where he is bid ; and though it is an understood thing that he is to pay all tolls, &c., a foreigner had better mention this also. The time of starting and the length of the day's journey should also be fixed.

The German Voiturier does not engage to provide you with meals as the Italian ; but he expects to be allowed to stop at inns of his own choosing, a condition to which travellers are not compelled to agree, though they rarely object. He never fails to regulate his daily journey so as to make his midday halt at some place where there is a good dinner just ready to be served up. This mid-day halt of two or three hours' duration will often suffice to enable the traveller to see as much as he can desire of many places where he would have no inclination to spend a whole day, and which he would merely drive hurriedly through in the public diligences.

[These directions will probably be found to be as ample as are necessary; of course, the traveller must not always expect that natters will go smoothly. If he be totally unacquainted with the German language, he will obviously be exposed to numberless inconveniences, and if he be prudent, will bear them quietly; in vetturino travelling, he must expect to start at break of day, in all weathers, and at a pace seldom exceeding a good ordinary walk; at midday to rest for three or four hours, possibly at a place of not the slightest interest, and to go to bed at the setting of the sun. When it has been said above, that a single individual may secure a place, paying proportionately, it may often happen to a traveller, especially an Englishman, from ignorance, inismanagement, and other causes, to find that his share will be two or three times greater than that of any of his fellow-passengers. In order to explain his meaning clearly, the writer will mention one or two incidents which happened to himself. Being at Heidelberg, and anxious to go to Carlsruhe, he stipulated that, for a certain sum, the Kutscher should not take more than three persons (including the writer) in the inside of the calèche; and, ignorant of the custom of the place, paid in advance a portion of his fare to the master or proprietor; the next morning at five o'clock the Kutscher, whom he had not seen before, took him up at his inn, put four other persons into the carriage before he left the town, and not only pretended ignorance of the writer's arrangements, but even of any money being paid. When the fourth and fifth person attempted to get in, the writer of course strenuously resisted, and what was the result ? as he only spoke French, and the Kutscher German, they did not understand each other. The parties objected to were offended at what they considered a rude interference, and the writer commenced his journey by rendering himself disagreeable, and by being sneered at by all for his simplicity and weakness; added to this, the sum which he paid was nearly of the whole amount.

In going from Freyburg (Brisgau) to Bâsle, he made a similar arrangement, and the voiturier was to start 'not later than the second day, and at a fixed hour; and at the time of starting there were two gentlemen with much luggage, and the Kutscher fulfilled his contract correctly and well. Of course the w.iter had no legitimate cause of complaint; and though, on inquiry, it turned out that he had paid nearly three times as much as either of the

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