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EUROPEAN STATES, FOR 1828.

cal, and Statistical Almanac for 1830.]

FINAN.crs. LAND Forces. SEA Forces. Government. Peace. I War. Revenue. Debt. In peace. In war. Sail. Sail. 1 Absolute Mon. . TSTS0,000 240,000 370 740 2 Do. - 284,000 200,000 529 | 1,058 3 Do. - 92,000 640,000 324 648 4 Do. . 52,000,000 || 200,000,000 271,404 || 750,504 31 31 5 Constitutional Mon. 3,932,880 6,392,424 11,566 20,000 6 Do. do. 12,031,547 44,402,257 53,89 71,600 7 Absolute Mon. . 950,773 1,400,000 2,432 4,192 8 Republic . . 160,000 1,200,000 385 770 9 Constitutional Mon. 228,849,600 | 3,490,896,768 90,519 || 378,370 610 | 1,050 10 Republic . . . 133,248 10,000 11 Absolute Mon. . 4,080,000 40,000,000 || 38,819 || 74,000 97 120 12 Republic . . . 304,000 3,200,000 475 946 13 Constitutional Mon. 157,760,000 480,000,000 281,000 || 320,000 329 350 14 g 2,580 50 15 Republic . . . 600,000 5,200,000 1,050 2,596 16 Limited Mon. . 4,680,000 12,000,000 12,940 26,108 17 Absolute Mon. . 1,800,000 780,000 9,859 11,353 18 Constitutional Mon. 2,351,456 5,589,450 8,421 12,390 19 Absolute Mon. . 72,000 180,000 200 400 20 Do. - 48,000 145 290 2i. Do. - 120,000 200,000 370 740 22 Republic . . . 565,600 1,600 1,600 23 Constitutional Mon. 480,000 55 110 24 Absolute Mon. . 196,000 280,000 690 1,380 25 Constitutional Mon. 288,000 600,000 800 800 3 3 26 Republic . . . 160,000 1,200,000 406 812 27 Do. - - - 12,000 28 Limited Mon. . 920,000 3,800,000 3,137 7,160 29 Do. - 200,000 200,000 742 | 1,434 30 Absolute Mon. . 600,000 400,000 1,860 1,860 31 Limited Mon. . 724,000 2,000,000 2,800 6,056 32 Constitutional Mon. 12,000,000 178,078,670 43,297 69,472 93 150 33 Absolute Mon. . 600,000 2,177 4,354 34 Do. - 600,000 2,000,000 1,320 1,320 35 Do. - 8,740,800 24,000,000 | 40,000 || 70,000 23 23 36 Do. . 30,477,600 || 114,840,440 165,000 || 524,428 37 Do. 56,000 2,000,000 206 412 38 Do. 160,000 480,000 538 1,076 39 Do. - 52,000,000 200,000,000 || 600,000||1,039,117 12 12 40 . . . Do. - 8,740,800 24,000,000 28,000 || 60,000 8 8 41 Limited Mon. . 4,400,000 12,800,000 13,307| 24,000 42 Do. - 240,000 329,640 982 1,964 43 Do. - 360,000 1,200,000 1,366 - 2,732 44 Do. - 300,000 1,000,000 1,150 2,300 45 Constitutional Mon. 719,784 2,400,000 2,164 4,020 46 Absolute Mon. . 86,000 120,000 240 480 47 Limited Mlon. - 130,000 170,922 539 1,078 48 Do. - 120,000 160,000 451 902 49 Absolute Mon. . 12,593,484 84,000,000 28,436 || 60,000 12 246 50 Do. - 4,800,000 98,000,000 || | 9,100 9,100 6 6 51 Constitutional Mon. 7,000,000 17,264,812 45,201 || 138,569 30 372 52 Confed. Republics 25,509 33,578 53 Absolute Mon. . . 26,520,000 || 230,443,062 46,000 || 173,550 34 60 54 Despotism . . . 11,200,000 36,000,000 80,000 | 200,000 80 160 55 Absolute Mon. . 8,000 8,000 56 Limited Mon. . 160,000 480,000 518 1,036 57 Constitutional Mon. 3,342,818 10,942,766 4,906 27,910 Total . . 658,847,899 || 5,341,721,211 1,909,175 4,578,430 1,368 2,641

in the Table, 500. Mahometans; Russia 150,000; Turkey 2,890,000, which are included in the SWEDEN AND NORWAY.

KING AND Roy AL FAMILY.

CHARLES XIV. (formerly Marshal Bernadotte), King of Sweden and Norway; b. Jan. 26, 1764: elected Crown Prince of Sweden, August 21, 1810; succeeded to the throne, on the death of Charles XIII, Feb. 5, 1818; m. Aug. 16, 1798, Eug ENIE BERNARDHINE DE CLARY, b. Nov. 8, 1781:— Issue:— Joseph Francis OscAR, Crown Prince; b. July 4, 1799; m. June 3, 1823, to Princess Josephine of Leuchtenberg, b. March 14, 1807:—Issue:— 1. Charles Louis Eugene, Duke of Scania; b. May 3, 1826. 2. Francis Gustavus Oscar, Duke of Upland; b. June 18, 1827. 3. Oscar Frederick, Duke of East Gothland; b. Jan. 21, 1829.

Gov ERNMENT.

Sweden and Norway, though under the government of one and the same king, who is a limited monarch, have different Constitutions.

The Diet or legislative body of Sweden consists of four orders, 1st, nobles, hereditary; 2dly, bishops, er officio, and clergy; 3dly, merchants or citizens; 4thly, peasants or agriculturists. Each body deliberates separately. The Diet has the right of legislation and taxation, and the superintendence of the finances; but the king has an unconditional veto.

The Council of State, composed of two ministers, six Counsellors of State, the Chancellor of the Court, as permanent members, and reporters (rapporteurs) form the ministry of the king. The two Ministers of State, the Marshal of the Empire, and Lords of the Empire, are the highest officers of the kingdom.

Council of State.

Count de Gyllenborg, Minister of Justice.

Count de Wetterstedt, Minister of Foreign Affairs and of the Department of the Colonies.

Count de Rosenblad, Lord of the Empire, Counsellor of State.

Count de Moerner, do. do.

Count de Loewenhielm, do. do.

Baron de Nordin, do. do.

Count de Ugglas, do. do.

M. de Schulzenheim, Chancellor of the Court.

Reporters (Rapporteurs.)

M. de Bergensköld, Chancellor of Justice.
M. de Kulberg, Secretary for Ecclesiastical Affairs.
M. de Danckwardt, Secretary for the Home Department.
M. de Skogman, Secretary of Finance and Commerce.
M. de Nordenfalk, Secretary of War, ad interim.

Major Gen. Count de Brahe, Commander of the Army.
Vice-Admiral M. de Klint, Commander of the Navy.

His Royal Highness, the Crown Prince, Grand Admiral of Sweden, Chief Director of the administration of the Navy, and Grand Master of Artillery. Count de Fleming, Marshal of the Empire, and Head of the Royal Court.

Norway.

The Constitution of Norway combines the principles of monarchy and democracy. Nobility is abolished, and the legislative body or Diet, called the Storthing, consists of two houses.

The Council of State, composed of the Governor of the kingdom, the ministry of state, and counsellors of state, form the ministry of the kingdom of Norway. The secretaries of state are not members. One part of the ministry, namely the minister of state and two counsellors of state, who change alternately every year, reside at the royal court at Stockholm: the others compose the regency at Christiania. Part of the Council of State at Stockholm.

M. Löwenskjöld, - e e - Minister of State.
M. Motzfeld, - - - • - Counsellor of State.
M. Krog, do.

M. Due, Secretary of State.
Part of the Council of State at Christiania.

Count de Platen, Governor General of the Kingdom.

M. Collet, Head of the Departments of Finance, Commerce, and
Customs.

M. Dirricks, Head of the Department of Religion.

M. de Fasting, Head of the Departments of the Navy and the Army.

M. de Holst, IHead of the Department of Justice and Police.

M. Falbe, Head of the Department de la revision.

M. Vogt,

Stoud Platow, Secretary of State.

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RUSSIA.
EMPERoR AND IMPERIAL FAMILY.

NICHOLAS, Emperor of all the Russias, and King of Poland; b. July 6, 1796; m. July 13, 1817, ALEXANDRA (formerly Charlotte), daughter of the King of Prussia, b. July 13, 1798; succeeded his brother Alexander, Dec. 1.

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- 1. ALEXANDER, Hereditary Prince; b. April 29, 1818. 2. Mary; b. August 18, 1819. 4 Alexandra; b. June 24, 1825. 3. Alga; b. Sept. 11, 1822. 5. Constantine; b. Sept. 21. 1827.

Princes of the Blood.

Constantine; b. May 8, 1779; renounced his right to the throne, Jan. 26, 1822, with the consent of the Emperor Alexander, and confirmed his renunciation, Dec. 8, 1825; m. May 24, 1820, June, Princess of Lowicz. Maria, Princess of Saxe-Weimar; b. Feb. 16, 1786. Anne, Princess of Orange; b. Jan. 18, 1795. Michael; b. Feb. 9, 1798; m. Feb. 20, 1824, Paulina, niece of the King of Wurtemberg, b. Jan. 9, 1807:—Issue; Maria, Elizabeth, and Catherine.

Gover NMENT.

The government of Russia is an absolute hereditary monarchy; and in the succession to the throne females are not excluded. The government is conducted by a Council of the Empire, the Ministry, and a Senate; but there is no representative body. The late Emperor Alexander gave the Senate the right of remonstrating against any ukase or edict contrary to law. It is a body partly deliberative and partly executive, and forms the highest judicial tribunal of the empire. It is divided into 9 departments or sections, of which six, comprising 62 members, hold their sittings at St. Petersburg, and three sections, with 26 members, at Moscow. The ministers of the great departments are responsible to the Senate. The established religion is that of the Greek Church, but all others are tolerated.

Council of THE EMPIRE.

Count Victor Kotschoubey (Actual Privy Counsellor), President of the Council. M. de Paschkoff, Pres, of the Department of Legislation; (Grand-Veneur.) Count Peter de Tolstoi, General of Cavalry, Pres. Dep. of Military Affairs. M. Nicol de Mordwinoff (Admiral), President of the Department of Civil and Ecclesiastical Affairs. Prince Alexis de Kourakin (Actual Privy Counsellor), President of the Department of Political Economy. *

MINISTRY OF STATE.
(Ministres à Portfeuille.)

His Royal Highness Duke Alexander of Wurtemberg, General of Cavalry, Director General of the Department of Canals, Bridges, and Roads. Prince Peter de Volkonsky, Generel of Infantry, Aide-de-Camp General, Minister of the Imperial Court, and Minister des Apanages. Prince Alexander Galitzyn, (Actual Privy Counsellor,) Director General of ..he Post-Office of the Empire. Count de Nesselrode, Vice-Chancellor, and Minister of Foreign Affairs. Count Tchernitcheff, General of Cavalry, Minister of War. Prince Charles de Liven, General of Infantry, Minister of Public Instruction. M. Georges de Kankrin, General of Infantry, Minister of Finance. M. de Zakrefsky, General of Infantry, Minister of the Home Department. M. Anthony de Moller, (Admiral), Minister of the Nary. M. Alexis Khitroff, Privy Counsellor, Comptroller General of the Empire. Prince Alexis Dolgorouky, Privy Counsellor, Attorney General, and Minister of Justice.

His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Constantine, Commander in Chief of the Army of Poland.

DENMARK.
King and Royal FAMILY.

FREDERICK VI, King of Denmark, Duke of Pomerania; b. Jan. 28, 1768; declared co-regent with his Father Christian VII, April 14, 1784, suc- . ceeded to the throne March 13, 1808; m. July 31, 1790, Sophia FREDERicA, niece of the Elector of Hesse-Cassel, b. Oct. 28, 1767: Issue:– is: Caroline; b. Oct. 28, 1793; m. to Prince Frederick Ferdinand, Aug. 1, 29. 2. Wilhelmina; b. Jan. 17, 1808; m. to Prince Frederick, Nov. 1. 1820.

CHR1st IAN FREDERick, Crown Prince, cousin to the King; b. Sept. 18, 1786; m. (I) Feb. 18, 1806, Charlotte Frederica, Princess of Mecklenburg;

(—Issue; 1. Frederick; b. Oct. 6, 1808; m. Princess Wilhelmina, Nov. 1, 1828); m. (II) May 22, 1815, Carolina, Amelia, daughter of the Duke of Holstein-Augustenburg: — Issue; 2. Julienna; 3. Charlotte; 4. Frederick Ferdinand, b. Nov. 22, 1792; m. the Princess Caroline Aug. 1, 1829.

Government.

Denmark has been since 1660, in law, an absolute monarchy of the most unqualified kind; the will of the King is supreme, in both civil and ecclesiastical affairs; but in religion he must be of the Confession of Augsburg. The crown is hereditary in the male line.

PRIvy MIN1st Ry of THE KING.

Count de Schimmelmann, Privy JMinister of State, Head of the Department of Foreign Affairs.

M. de Moesting, Privy JMinister of State for Finance, and President of the Chamber of Finance.

M. de Sehestedt, Privy JMinister of State, Head of the Chamber of Commerce and Customs.

Count de Moltke, Privy Minister of State, President of the German Chancery.

M. Malling, Privy JMinister of State for Public Instruction.

M. de Steemann, Privy Minister of State and Justice, President of the Danish Chancery.

NETHERLANDS.

KING AND Roy AL FAMILY.

WILLIAM, King of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, and Grand Duke of Luxemburg; b. Aug. 24, 1772; succeeded his father in his hereditary possessions in Germany, April 9, 1806; declared Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands Dec. 3, 1813; assumed the crown March 15, 1815; m. Oct. 1, 1791, WILHELMINA, sister of the King of Prussia, b. Nov. 18, 1774: Issue:— 1. WILLIAM, Prince Royal and Prince of Orange; b. Dec. 6, 1792; m. Feb. 21, 1816, Anne, sister of the Emperor of Russia, b. Jan. 18, 1795:— Issue; William, b. Feb. 18, 1817; Alexander, b. Aug. 2, 1818; Frederick, b. June 13, 1820; Sophia, b. April 8, 1824. 2. Frederick; b. Feb, 28, 1797; m. May 21, 1825, Louisa, 3d daughter of the king of Prussia:—Issue; Alexandrina, b. Aug. 5, 1828. 3. Marianne; b. May 9, 1810.

Government.

The kingdom of the Netherlands, which was constituted in 1814, is a limited hereditary monarchy. The Constitution is formed on the basis of the representative system, and bears a close resemblance to that of Great Britain. The executive power is vested in the King; the legislative power in the King and the States-General, consisting of two Houses. The members of the Upper House are named by the King for life. They must be 40 years of age; in number not less than 40, nor more than 60; and their titles are not hereditary. The members of the Lower House, 110 in num

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