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ITALIAN IRRIGATION

BEING A REPORT ON THE

AGRICULTURAL CANALS OF PIEDMONT
AND LOMBARDY

ADDRESSED TO THE HONOURABLE THE COURT OF DIRECTORS
OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY

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PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY

VOL. I.
HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE

Suoril! (Stoition

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ABSTRACT OF CONTENTS.

Mission to Northern Italy by tho Honourable the Court of Directors of the

East India Company—instructions—general acknowledgment of assist-

ance received—methods of inquiry—reports on irrigation in Italy by

French officers—works on the subject by MM. Nadault do Buffon and

Mauny de Mornay—route through France—contrasts of climate—Nice—

Genoa—Sir Ralph Abercromby—Turin—facilities granted for examina-

tion of records in the canal department—study of Italian hydraulic liter-

ature—provision for books made by the Government of India—infe-

riority of Piedmontese hydraulic literature — M. Michela, inspecting

engineer of canals—superiority of Piedmontese legislation—M. Giovan-

etti.s treatise on the law of irrigation—perfection of theory and impor-

fection of practice in Piedmont—probable cause of the difference—

education of hydraulic engineers—details of the system—institution for

experimental hydraulics—Italian authors on hydraulics—Baron Plana,

astronomer-royal—province of Vercelli—M. Charles Noe, inspecting

engineer of the canals of the Vercellese—canals of Cigliano and del

Rotto—the river Dora-Baltea—favourable physical characteristics of this

stream—regulators with small sluices—advantages of this arrangement

—contrast with regulators employed in British India—clearance of silt

deposits by action of escape close to the regulators—small establish-

ments at the regulators—manufacture of pritme—imperfection of levels

—canal of Ivrea—dam across the Dora-Baltca—masonry falls—perpen-

dicular and ogee-formed drops—farm of Leri—Signor Corio, the tenant

—interior economy of the farm—rice-cleaning machines or pistemar-

cite or winter-meadows—some details of these—rice-grounds—details—

sanitary relations of rice cultivation—imperfection of information on

this subject illustrated—departure from Leri—execrable roads—mea-

surement of water in the Vercellese—imperfection of tho arrangements

for this purpose—supply for rice—payment in kind—government mills

at Salasco—dissatisfaction with this species of payment—causes of this

feeling—Novara—General Solaroli—canal Mora—untidy state of the

works—canals Busca, Langosco, and Sforzosca—fontanili or springs—

higher temperature of spring-wator in winter—advantage for winter-

meadows, ........ 3-33
VI CONTENTS.

THE LOMBARDO-VENETIAN KINGDOM—PROVINCES OP MILAN, LODI,

CREMONA, MANTUA, VERONA, BRESCIA, COMO, AND PA VIA.

Page

Louibardy—Naviglio Grande at Buffulora—approach to Milan—want of

introductions to the Government—courtesy of Prince Carlo Swartzen-

berg—annoyance from the police—canals around Milan—canal of Pavia

—the Vettabia—the Naviglio Interno—irrigation with sewerage waters

Modulo May'utraU—discrepancies between theory and practice in

measurement of water—locks of the Naviglio Interno—Leonardo da

Vinci—his work on the Measure and Motion of water—practice of the

Government regarding the water from the main canals—beneficial results

of sale in perpetuity—extent of minor canals—Cavo Lerino-Marocco—

details—imperfections of the measurement system employed—fontanili

or springs—M. Mazzeri—account of a great spring near Milan—tenant-

farmers of Lombardy—their general intelligence—extent of hydraulic

literature of Milan—New Collection of Italian authors on hydraulics—

Bruschetti.s histories of irrigation and navigation canals in the Milanese

—Colombani's treatise on hydraulics—the Censimento or Revenue Sur-

vey of Lombardy—works connected with this—relations between land-

lords and tenants in Lombardy—varieties of leases and rents—Conttgna

llcconsegnaBtiancioAJjitto a HezzadrUi—jiJUto a Grano—duties

of Lombard engineers—works on agricultural engineering—legislation

of irrigation in Lombardy—Romognosi.s treatise on the subject—sani-

tary legislation—Berra.swork on marcite or winter-meadows—departure

from Milan—Cremona—canal Muzza— drainage-works in Cremona and

Mantua—embankments of the Po—Signor Elia Lombardini—Verona—

Peschiera—Lago di Garda—Brescia—canals of the Oglio, Chiese or Clisio,

and Mella—Brescian marcite system—Signor Grassini- growth of rights

to water—Count Antonio Lecchi and Signor Fillippo Ugoni—Treviglio

and Cassano—head-works of the Muzza canal—Trezzo—head-works of

the canal Martesana—lake system of Lombardy—Como—Varese—Lago

Maggiore— return to Milan—Cavo Tavcrna—canal of Pavia—return to

Turin—departure for Tuscany—mishap to books and maps—general

impression of works of irrigation in Northern Italy, as compared with

those of British India, ...... 34-70

CONTENTS. Vll

CHAPTER I.

CANALS OF IRRIGATION IN PIEDMONT.

Suction I.—Hydrography, Soil, Climate, And Population Of The

Irrigated Plain Op Piedmont, ..... 88-98

Section II.—General Historical Summary Of The Origin And Pro-

Gress Of Irrigation In Piedmont.

Methods of grouping the facts of the subject in chronological or topo-

graphical order—reasons for preferring the latter—canals of the four-

teenth century—of the fifteenth century—of the sixteenth century—

of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries—period of

greatest activity in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries — great

arterial lines—branch lines—progress of improvement from East to

West, ........ 99-102

Section III.—Canals Of The Rivers Dora-repaira, Stura, And Orco.

Canal of the Veneria Reale—of the Royal Park—of Fiano—of the Veneria

Reale from the Stura—subterranean channel—canal of Caluso—histo-

rical sketch of its origin and progress—litigation—appropriation of the

line by the Government—improvement of the works and administration

— measurement By stem of Contini — Oncia di Caluso — Michelotti's

modifications—lease of the canal to the " Societa Pastorale"—description

of the works and original cost, annual expenditure for maintenance and

establishment—annual returns—area of irrigation—price of water—

tabular statements, ....... 103-119

Section IV.—Canals Of The Dora-baltea.

Sketch of the administrative Bystem of the Royal Canals of Piedmont.
I. Canal of Ivrea—historical sketch—descriptive details—volume of
water—area of irrigation—price of water—payment in kind for rice cul-
tivation—minor branches—number of works of various kinds—districts
irrigated—annual expenditure—income—indirect returnB. 2. Canal of
Cigliano—history—descriptive details—branch of Snluggia—works—
discharge—area of irrigation—income, direct and indirect—expenditure

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