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reviews; and the most unmeasured ridicule and abuse have been poured out against them, as if they were a disgrace to the century in which they were produced; bis fellowlabourer Dr SPURZHEIM has sustained an equal share of this unmerited storm. In preparing the present volume for the press, I have drawn largely from the works of both of these founders of the science; in many instances I have compared their statements of fact with nature; sifted their arguments, and weighed deliberately their conclusions ; and I now feel it an imperious duty to state, that the present generation has, in my humble judgment, re-acted, in their cases, the scenes which have attached so deep a stigma to the ages of Galileo and Harvey. The discoveries of the revolution of the globe, and the circulation of the blood, were splendid displays of genius, interesting and beneficial to mankind; but their results, compared with the consequences which must inevitably follow from Dr Gall's discovery of the functions of the brain, (embracing, as it does, the true theory of the animal, moral and intellectual constitution of man), sink into relative insignificance. Looking forward to the time when the real nature and ultimate effects of Dr GALL’s discovery shall be fully recognised, I cannot entertain a doubt that posterity wili manifest as eager a desire to render honour to his memory, as his contemporaries have shewn to treat himself with indignity and contempt. If the present work shall tend in any degree to rouse the public attention to his merits, and to excite the philosophers of England to do him justice ere he die, it will accomplish one great end of its publication. Let them at last lay aside the prejudice which has so long kept them back from looking with their own eyes into his works, and from appealing, with the lights which he affords, to Nature, as the standard by which to try the merits of his pretensions. If they will examine, they will find that a fortunate thought opened up to him a vast region of discovery, and that he has displayed gigantic powers in prosecuting it to its results; that Dr Gall, instead of being an ignorant pretender to know

ledge, is a man of profound and solid erudition; that, so far from being a reckless theorist, he is the most stubborn adherent to fact that has perhaps ever appeared in the annals of inductive philosophy; and that, instead of being characterized by a weak understanding and bewildered imagination, he manifests an intellect at once profound, regulated, and comprehensive.

Dr SPURZHEIM's works and lectures have rendered him better known in this country, and the force of truth has for some years been operating in his favour. No reviewer would now reckon it creditable, to use the terms so unceremoniously applied to him in 1815; but a great debt of respect and gratitude remains to be paid by Britain and the world to Dr SPURZHEIM. He is second in fortune rather than in merit to Dr Gall. The great discovery of Phrenology unquestionably belongs to the latter ; but to Dr SPURZHEIM is due the praise of early appreciating its importance, of fearlessly dedicating his life to the enlargement of its boundaries and the dissemination of its principles, at a time when neither honour nor emolument, but obloquy and censure, were bestowed on its adherents. In admiring the science as it now appears, it becomes us to recollect, that we owe much of its excellence and interest to this gifted individual. He has enriched it with the most valuable anatomical discoveries; ascertained the functions of several highly important organs; shed over it the lights of a refined and analytic philosophy, and pointed out the most important fields of its application. With profound gratitude and respect, therefore, I acknowledge myself indebted to him for the greatest gift which it was possible for one individual to confer on another,-a knowledge of the true Philosophy of Man.

To my excellent friends, also, the Reverend DAVID WELSH, Mr Scott, Mr SIMPSON, Mr Lyon, and Dr Andrew Combe, fellow-labourers with me in Phrenology, I owe many obligations. In availing myself freely of the lights they have struck out, it has been my constant wish to acknowledge

the source of my information ; but if, amidst the habitual interchange of ideas with which they have honoured me, their discoveries have, in any instance, been amalgamated with my own thoughts, and their authors forgotten, I solicit their forgiveness, assuring them that inadvertency alone has been the cause of any such mistakes.

EDINBURGH, October 1825.


SINCE the foregoing observations were written, Dr Gall has been numbered with the dead. Like many other benefactors of mankind, he has died without his merits being acknowledged, or his discoveries rewarded, by the “great in literature and science,” of his own age; but he possessed the consciousness of having presented to the world, one of the most valuable discoveries that ever graced the annals of philosophy, and enjoyed the delight of having opened up to mankind a career of improvement, physical, moral, and intellectual, to which the boldest imagination can at present prescribe no limits. This appears to be the reward which Providence assigns to men eminently gifted with intellectual superiority; and we may presume that it is wisely suited to their nature. A great duty remains for posterity to perform to the memory of Dr Gall, and I cannot entertain a doubt, that in due time it will be amply discharged.

It gives me the greatest satisfaction to renew, after five years' additional experience, the acknowledgments of my highest gratitude and esteem for Dr SPURZHEIM; and to express my earnest wish that Britain may, by suitable encouragement, retain him permanently to herself.

EDINBURGH, October 1830.

Names and Orders of the Organs adopted by Dr GALL.




Names given by

1. Instinct de la genera- Zeugungstrieb. Amativeness.


2. Amour de la progéni- Jungenliebe, ture.




3. Attachement, amitié.


4. Instinct de la défense Muth, Raufsinn. Combativeness.

de soi-même et de
sa propriété.

5. Instinct carnassier.



6. Ruse, finesse, savoir- List, Schlauheit, Secretiveness. faire.


7. Sentiment de la pro- Eigenthumsinn. Acquisitiveness.


8. Orgueil, fierté, hau-Stolz, Hochmuth, Self-Esteem. leur.


9. Vanité, ambition, a- Eitelkeit, Rhum- Love of Appro

mour de la gloire. sucht, Ehrgeitz. bation.

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10. Circonspection, pré- Behutsamkeit, Cautiousness.

Vorsicht, Vor-

11. Mémoire des choses, Sachgedoechtniss, Eventuality.

mémoire des faits, Erziehungs-
sens des choses, édu Fohigkeit.
cabilité, perfectibi-




Names given by

12. Sens des localités, Ortsinn, Raum- Locality. sens des rapports

sinn. de l'espace.


13. Mémoire des per- Personen-sinn.

sonnes, sens des per-

14. Sens des mots, sens Wort-Gedocht- Language.

des noms, mémoire niss.
des mots, mémoire

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19. Sens de méchanique, Kunst-sinn, Bau- Constructiveness. sens de construc

sinn. tion, talent de l'architecture.

20. Sagacité comparative. Vergleichender- Comparison.


21. Esprit metaphysique, Metaphysischer- Causality.

profondeur d'esprit. Tiefsinn.


22. Esprit caustique, es-Witz.

prit de saillie.

23. Talent poétique.



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