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term, is the result of combined activity of Intellect and Conscientiousness, uninfluenced by the animal propensities. For example, if we are called on to judge of the conduct of a person accused, in order to arrive at an absolutely just decision, the intellect must present to us a clear perception of his real motives, and the tendency of his action; if either of these is wanting, the sentiment of Conscientiousness acts not on a real, but on an imperfect or imaginary case ;—in the next place, all the animal propensities must be quiescent; because, if offended, Selfishness or anger, or Acquisitiveness or ambition, or Adhesiveness, mingle with Conscientiousness, the fountain is polluted, and the stream cannot be pure. It is an interesting fact, that the dictates of Conscientiousness, when perfectly enlightened, and not misled by the lower feelings, will be found always to harmonize with the enlightened dictates of Benevolence and Veneration; because the moral sentiments have been so constituted as to coincide in their results; and hence, wherever any action or opinion is felt to stand in opposition to any of these sentiments, we may, without hesitation, suspect either that it is wrong, or that the intellect is not completely informed concerning its nature and legitimate consequences.

In party-politics, Adhesiveness, Love of Approbation, and Benevolence, not to mention Combativeness and Destructiveness, are extremely apt to enter into vivid activity, in surveying the conduct of an individual who has distinguished himself by zealous efforts upon our own side; and our judgment of his conduct will, in consequence, be the determination of Intellect and Conscientiousness, disturbed and led astray by these inferior feelings.

The doctrine of the primitive functions of the faculties, explained in the first part of this work, and of the Combinations now laid down, shews why Phrenology does not enable us to predict actions. Destructiveness, for example, is not a tendency to kill a man or a beast as a specific act, but a mere general propensity, capable of leading to de

struction as its ultimate result, but which may be manifested in a great variety of ways (many of them justifiable, others unjustifiable), according as it is directed by the faculties, which, in each particular instance, act along with it; thus, acting along with large Acquisitiveness, and in the absence of Conscientiousness, it may prompt to murder ; while acting along with large Conscientiousness and Benevolence, it may prove the orphan's help, and the widow's stay, by arresting the arm of the oppressor.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE DOCTRINE OF

THE COMBINATIONS.

I CANNOT too earnestly repeat, that the principles now illustrated are practical and important. If any one require the assistance of a human being in affairs of moment, let him be assured that attention to the three elements of temperament, combination of mental organs, and education or training, will afford him more certain information regarding the inherent qualities of the object and his practical capabilities, than certificates of character and attainments, such as are commonly relied on. The extent to which this work has already attained, prevents me, however, from doing more than making a few observations.

In one instance I refused to hire a boy as a servant, because I found his head to belong to the inferior class, although he was introduced by a woman whose good character and discrimination I had long known, and who gave him an excellent character. That individual was at first greatly incensed at my refusing to engage the boy, but within a month she returned, and said that she had been grossly imposed upon herself by a neighbour, whose son the boy was; that she had since learned that he was a thief, and had been dismissed from his previous service for stealing. On

another occasion I hired a female servant, because her head belonged to the superior class, although a former mistress gave her a very indifferent character,-the result was equally in favour of Phrenology. She turned out an excellent servant, and remained with me for several years, until she was respectably married *.

When a servant is to be hired, the points to be attended to are the following.

First, The temperament.--If this be lymphatic, there will be little spontaneous activity; work will be a burden; and exhaustion will soon follow from forced application. If it be purely nervous, there will be great vivacity, and a strong natural tendency to activity ; but physical strength will not be present in a corresponding degree. Combinations of the sanguine and bilious, or bilious and nervous temperaments, are the best; the bilious bestowing the quality of endurance, and the sanguine or nervous that of activity.

Second, The proportions of the different regions of the brain to each other.-If the base of the brain, the seat of the animal organs, be large, and the coronal region be shallow and narrow, the animal feelings will be strong, and the moral weak; if both of these regions be large, and the anterior lobe of the brain small, the dispositions may be good, but the intellect will be weak. If all three be large, the moral and intellectual predominating, the best combination of qualities will be present.

Third, The proportions of particular organs to each other.-If the lower region of the forehead be largely developed, and the upper deficient, the intellect will execute well whatever work is placed before it; but it will be limited in its capacity of foreseeing what ought to be done, if not pointed out, and of arranging details in reference to the

A report of eleven cases observed in the Dublin Penitentiary is published in the Phrenological Journal, No. xxi. p. 88, in which the dispositions were inferred from development of brain.

whole. If the upper part of the forehead be large, and the lower deficient, the power of abstract thinking (which a servant rarely requires, and is almost never called on to exercise) will be considerable, but quite uncultivated, and destitute of materials to ac on; while the talent for observing details, the love of order and arrangement, and, in short, practical usefulness, will be deficient. The best combination of the intellectual organs for a servant, is that which occurs when the lower region of the forehead is large, the middle region immediately above the nose, up to the line of the hair, is also large, and the upper lateral region full. The dispositions depend on the combinations of the moral and animal organs. If Acquisitiveness, Secretiveness, Love of Approbation, and Veneration be all large, and Conscientiousness deficient, the servant will be selfish and cunning ; but extremely plausible, deferential, and polite; eye-service will be rendered abundantly, but conscientious discharge of duty will be wanting. If Benevolence, Conscientiousness, Firmness, Self-Esteem, and Combativeness be large, in combination with Cautiousness, Secretiveness, Love of Approbation, and Veneration moderate, there may be great fidelity and honesty, with heat of temper, unbending stiffness of deportment, and, in short, an exterior manner, the reverse of the former; but internal disposi. tions and practical conduct in situations of trust far superior. The combinations also determine the fitness of the individual for particular employments; a female with small Philoprogenitiveness ought never to be employed as a nursery-maid ; nor one deficient in Order and Ideality as a lady's maid. A man deficient in Conscientiousness is unfit to be a butler or steward. The varieties of combination are extremely numerous, and the effects of them can be learned only by experience.

Fourth, The education or training of the individual falls to be inquired into.-Phrenology shews only the natural qualities, but the direction which they have received must be ascertained by inquiry. No combination of organs

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will render an individual an expert cook, without having practised cookery, or an accomplished coachman, without having practically taken charge of horses, and learned to drive.

Fifth, The relation of the natural qualities of the master or mistress to those of the servant must be attended to. If a mistress with a small brain, having Conscientiousness and Benevolence moderate, and Self-Esteem and Combativeness large, should hire a servant possessed of a large, active, and well proportioned brain, the latter will instinctively feel that nature has made her the superior, although fortune has reversed their relative positions. The mistress will feel this too, but will maintain her command by imperiousness, captiousness, or violence. In this condition, the best dispositions of the servant may be outraged, and conduct produced of a discreditable nature, when contemplated by itself, apart from the provocation. A servant with a small brain, but favourable combination, would prove a treasure to a mistress possessed of similar qualities; whereas she would be felt as too feeble and inefficient in her whole manner and mode of acting, by a lady whose brain was very large, very favourably combined, and very active. This principle explains why the same individual may

be found to be an excellent servant in one family, and an unsuitable one in another.

Sixth, The qualities of servants, in reference to each other, ought to be considered. Two individuals, possessing large and active brains, great Self-Esteem, Love of Approbation, and Combativeness, may, if they have also large Benevolence, Veneration, and Conscientiousness, prove excellent servants to their employers, whom they regard as legitimate objects of veneration and conscientiousness; but may make very indifferent companions to each other. Each will desire deference and respect from the other, which neither will yield ; and in all probability, they will quarrel and manifest only their propensities in their mutual intercourse. Instruction in their own nature, and

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