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jected to the discipline of the army, he preserved a fair reputation; but when he fell into want, his propensities assumed the ascendency, he joined a company of thieves, adopted their practices, and was executed.

The principles now laid down remove an objection that has frequently been stated, viz. that as different combinations modify the manner in which the faculties are manifested, and as the functions of some parts at the base of the brain are still undiscovered, no certainty can be obtained regarding the functions even of the higher organs; because, say the objectors, all the manifestations actually perceived may be the result of the joint action of the known and unknown parts, and hence it is impossible to determine the specific functions of each. The answer to this objection is, that the function of each organ remains invariable, whatever direction the manifestations may take in consequence of its acting in combination with other organs. Hence, if we suppose the unknown convolutions at the base of the brain to be the organs of Hunger and Thirst, as several facts indicate, then Tune combined with these parts large, would be directed to Bacchanalian songs; if combined with these small, and Veneration large, hymns would become the subjects of its manifestation ; but, in either case, Tune would perform only its primitive function of producing melody


Where several organs are large in the same individual, they have a natural tendency to combine in activity, and to prompt him to a line of conduct calculated to gratify them all. Where, however, all or the greater part of the organs are possessed in nearly equal proportions, important practical effects may be produced, by establishing Combinations in activity among particular organs, or groups of organs. For example, if Individuality, Eventuality, Causality, Com

parison and Language, be all large, they will naturally tend to act together, and the result of their combined activity will be a natural talent for public speaking, or literary composition. If Language be small, it will be extremely difficult to establish such a combination in activity, and the natural talent will be deficient; but if we take two individuals, in both of whom this group of organs is of an average size, and if we train one of them to a mechanical employment, and the other to the Bar; in the latter, the Reflecting Organs and that of Language will be trained to act together, and the result will be an acquired facility in writing and debate; whereas, in the former individual, in consequence of the organ of Language never being accustomed to act in combination with those of Intellect, this facility will be wanting. On the same principle, if a person having an excellent endowment of the organs

the organs of Propensity, Sentiment and Intellect, were introduced for the first time into higher society than that to which he had been accustomed, it might happen that he would lose for a moment the command of his faculties, and exhibit an unhappy specimen of awkwardness and embarrassment. This would arise from irregular and inbarmonious action in the different organs; Veneration powerfully excited would prompt him to manifest profound respect; Love of Approbation would inspire him with a strong desire to exhibit a pleasing and becoming appearance; Cautiousness would produce alarm, lest he should fail in an essential of breeding; Self-esteem would feel compromised by embarrassment stealing on the mind; and the intellect, distracted by these vivacious and conflicting emotions, would be unable to regulate the conduct according to the rules of propriety. When familiarized with the situation, the sentiments would subside into a state of less energetic and more harmonious action; the intellect, assuming the supremacy, would regulate and direct the feelings; and then the individual might become the idol and ornament of the circle, in which he at first made so awkward a debut.

It is in virtue of this principle that education produces its most important effects. If, for instance, we take two individuals, in each of whom all the organs are developed in an average degree; and if the one of them has been educated among persons of sordid and mercenary dispositions, Acquisitiveness and Self-Esteem would then be cultivated in him into a high degree of activity, and self-interest and personal aggrandisement would be viewed as the great objects of life. If the Love of Approbation were trained into combined activity with these faculties, it would desire distinction in wealth or power : if Veneration were trained to act in concert with them, it would take the direction of admiring the rich and great; and, Conscientiousness not being predominantly vigorous, would only intimate that such pursuits were unworthy, without possessing the power by itself of overcoming or controlling the whole combination against it. If another individual, possessing the same development, were trained amidst moral and religious 80ciety, in whose habitual conduct the practice of benevolence and justice towards men, and veneration towards God, was regarded as the leading objects of human existence, the Love of Approbation, acting with this combination, would desire esteem for honourable and virtuous actions ; and Acquisitiveness would be viewed as the means of procuring gratification to these higher powers, but not as itself an object of paramount importance. The practical conduct of the two individuals might be very different, in consequence of this difference of training.

The principle now under discussion is not inconsistent with the influence of size ; because it is only in individuals in whom the organs are nearly on an equality in point of size, that great effects can be produced by combinations in activity. In such cases the phrenologist, in estimating the effects of size, always inquires into the education bestowed.

The doctrine of combinations in activity explains several other mental phenomena of an interesting nature. In viewing the heads of the higher and lower classes of socie

ty, we do not perceive the animal organs preponderating in point of size in the latter, and those of the moral sentiments in the former, in any very palpable degree. The high polish, therefore, which characterizes the upper ranks, is the result of sustained harmony in the action of the different faculties, and especially in those of the moral sentiments, induced by long cultivation; while the rudeness observable in some of the lower orders results from a predominating combination in activity among the lower propensities ; while the awkwardness that frequently characterizes them, arises from the propensities, sentiments, and intellect, not being habituated to act together. If, however, an individual is very deficient in the higher organs, he will remain vulgar, in consequence of this defect, although born and educated in the best society, and in spite of every effort to communicate refinement by training ; while, on the other hand, if a very favourable development of the organs of the higher sentiments and intellect, with a fine temperament, is possessed, the individual, in whatever rank he moves, will have the stamp of nature's nobility.

Several moral phenomena, which were complete enigmas to the older metaphysicians, are explained by this principle. Dr Adam Smith, in his Theory of Moral Sentiments, Chapter II., “ On the influence of fortune upon the sentiments of mankind, with regard to the merit and demerit of actions,” states the following case : A person throws a large stone over a wall into the public street, without giving warning to those who may be passing, and without regarding where it may fall; if it light upon a person's head, and knock out his brains, we would punish the offender pretty severely ; but if it fall upon the ground, and hurt nobody, we would be offended with the same measure of punishment, which, in the former event, we would reckon just, and yet the demerit in both cases is the same. Dr SMITH gives no theory to account for these differences of moral determination. Phrenology explains them. If the stone fall upon an unhappy passenger, Benevolence in the specta

tor is outraged ;—if the sufferer had a wife and family, Philoprogenitiveness and Adhesiveness are offended. SelfEsteem and Cautiousness also are excited, by the idea that we might have shared the same fate ; all these rouse Destructiveness, and the whole together loudly demand a smart infliction on the transgressor. In the other event, when the stone falls to the ground, and hurts nobody, the only faculties excited are Intellect and Conscientiousness, and probably Cautiousness, and these calmly look at the motive of the offender, which probably was mere thoughtless levity, and award a slight punishment against him. The proper sentence, in such a case, is that which would be pronounced by Intellect, and the moral sentiments acting in combination, uninfluenced by the lower propensities.

Dr Smith states another case. One friend solicits a place for another, and after using the greatest efforts is unsuccessful. Gratitude in this case is less warm than if the place had been obtained ; and yet the merit is the same. In the event of success, Self-Esteem, Acquisitiveness, and the other animal organs, are gratified, and excite Conscientiousness, and Benevolence to gratitude. In the opposite result, the repressing influence of these faculties, disappointed and grieved, chills the glow of Benevolence and Conscientiousness, and feeble gratitude is felt.

When a person becomes judge in his own cause, his intellect may present to him the facts exactly as they happened, but these excite in his mind, not simply the sentiment of Conscientiousness, but also Self-Love, Acquisitiveness, and, if he has been grievously injured, Destructiveness. Hence the decision of his own mind, on his own case, proceeds from Intellect, influenced and directed by all these lower feelings acting along with Conscientiousness. Present the same case to an impartial spectator, favourably constituted, and his decision will be the result of Conscientiousness and Intellect, unalloyed by the intermixture of the selfish emotions.

Pure or abstract justice, then, in the proper sense of the

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