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whose manner at once proclaims, “ Nemo me impune lacesset;" the world reads this notice, and holds it safest to allow them to follow their own course without obstruction, while they avoid giving offence. Contrasted with them, are the feeble and vacillating; men as unstable as water, unsteady as the wind. The wicked seize upon them, and make them their prey. The treatment received by different persons from society, is thus widely different; and it may truly be said, that a large portion of mankind cannot easily conceive the miseries inflicted on the weak by the powerful and unprincipled taking advantage of their deficiencies.

When a favourable combination, a fine temperament, and large size, are conjoined in an individual, they constitute the perfection of genius. This I conceive to have been the case in Homer and in SHAKSPEARE. Vivacious buoyancy, ease, and fertility, arising from the first and second causes, joined with depth, strength, comprehensive ness, and masculine energy, the result of the third, place these authors above all others whom the world has ever

And when we consider that these rare and splendid gifts must again be united in one individual, before their equal can reappear, we shall have no difficulty in perceiving why so few Homers and SHAKSPEARES are given by nature to the world.

In these observations, I have treated of the effects of Size in the brain in general, on the general manifestations of the mind, to bring the doctrine clearly and forcibly before the reader ; but I beg of him not to fall into the mistake of taking general size as an indication of particular power,

for then difficulties without end will be encountered. For example, it has often been objected, that a particular individual wears a large hat, indicating a large brain, and yet that he has no scope of intellect, and no ability, in the general sense of the term. The answer is, that we must look for the power in the direction of the Size, as explained on p. 97. If the large hat is requisite, on account


of a great development of the animal organs, we must expect the individual to be only a powerful animal, and he may be this, and at the same time a weak man. If the size predominate in the region of the sentiments, we may then look for greatness in moral worth; but it is only when great size, combined with an active temperament, pervades the whole three classes of organs, Propensities, Sentiments, and Intellect, that Phrenology authorises us to expect a general character, vigorous, comprehensive and profound.

The circumstances which modify the effects of Size have already been stated (pp. 32, 33. 101), when treating of the principles of the science, to which the reader is respectfully referred




The primitive functions of each organ were discovered, by observing cases in which it decidedly predominated over, or fell short of, other organs, in point of Size; and by similar observations each must still be verified. After the discovery is established, its practical application deserves attention. Every individual possesses all the organs, but they are combined in different degrees of relative size in different persons; and the manifestations of each are modified in some degree by the influence of those with which it is combined. The effect of combination, however, is not to change the proper functions of the different organs, but only to modify the manner in which they are manifested; or the acts in which they seek gratification.

Three rules may be laid down for estimating the effects of differences in relative size, occurring in the organs of the same brain.

RULE FIRST.-Every faculty desires gratification with a

degree of energy proportionate to the size of its organ *; and those faculties will be habitually indulged, the organs of which are largest in the individual +.

Examples.-If the animal organs in general are large, and the organs of the moral sentiments and intellect in general small, the individual will be naturally prone to animal indulgence in the highest degree, and disposed to seek gratification in the directest way, and in the lowest pursuits.

If, on the other hand, the organs of the moral sentiments and intellect greatly predominate, the individual will be naturally prone to moral and intellectual pursuits; such persons are a law unto themselves."

In illustration of this rule, the skull of a Charib, and the head of Pope ALEXANDER VI., who was a monster of wickedness in human form, may be contrasted with the skull of RAPHAEL, and the head of MELANCTHON the Reformer

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The condition, cæteris paribus, is always understood, and therefore need not be repeated, in treating of the effects of Size.

+ Having been solicited to state, in methodical order, the effects of the combinations so far as observed, I tried to do this in the MS. of the pre

In farther illustration, the heads of BURKE and Hare the murderers, represented on page 87, may be contrasted with those of the Reverend Mr M., given on page 88, and Captain PARRY, on p. 565. In the Charib, ALEXANDER VI., BURKE, and HARE, the basilar and posterior regions of the brain, dedicated to the animal propensities, greatly preponderate over the anterior and coronal regions, which manifest the intellect and moral sentiments *; in RAPHAEL, the basilar region is large, but the intellectual and moral decidedly preponderate; in MELANCTHON, who was distinguished for benignity and wisdom in a rude and excited age, the anterior and coronal regions very greatly predominate; in the Reverend Mr M. the same favourable combination occurs, and he was remarkable for a similar character; and in Captain Parry, the base is large, but with great predominance of the anterior and coronal regions. Now, under the rule before stated, the first class will be naturally prone to low and degrading pursuits, having for their object the gratification of Amativeness, Destructiveness, Acquisitiveness, and other inferior feelings ; they will possess very few aspirations after the noble and beneficent virtues which dignify human nature; be blind to the obligations of justice, piety, and mercy; and totally incapable of appreciating the advantages of science. The second class will form a direct contrast to them. They sent work; but found the result to be a tedious enumeration of proposi. tions, adapted to Individuality alone, difficult to be remembered, and withal extremely incomplete. I have therefore preferred stating princi. ples chiefly, accompanied with illustrations, to render them intelligible, and shew their application. This method was adopted in the Elements for the sake of brevity, and, on mature examination, it appears to be prefer. able in itself. The reader in whom the Reflecting Organs and Concentrativeness are amply developed, will not only easily comprehend the rules here laid down, but be able greatly to enlarge the sphere of their applica. tion.

• The size of the coronal region is best judged of by the height and breadth of the brain above Cautiousness and Causality, the situation of which organs is indicated in some of the figures by asterisks. Wherever that region is shallow or narrow, the moral feelings will be comparatively feeble.

will naturally feel the superiority of moral and intellectual pursuits, ardently desire to advance in the career of improvement, and instinctively love every virtue and attainment that is calculated to increase the true dignity and happiness of Man. It is common for individuals to assume themselves as standards for judging of mankind in gene. ral; yet no criterion can be more fallacious; the consciousness of men belonging to the inferior class would represent the race as base, grovelling and selfish, that of the higher as elevated, benignant, and intellectual.

RULE SECOND.-As there are three kinds of faculties, Animal, Moral and Intellectual, which are not homogeneous, it may happen that several large animal organs are combined in the same individual, with several moral and intellectual organs highly developed. The rule, then, will be, that the lower propensities will take their direction from the higher powers; and such a course of action will be habitually followed as will be calculated to gratify the whole faculties whose organs are large.

Examples.-If the organs of Acquisitiveness and Conscientiousness were both large, stealing might gratify Acquisitiveness, but it would offend Conscientiousness. According to the rule, the individual would endeavour to gratify both, by acquiring property by lawful industry. If Combativeness and Destructiveness were large, and Benevolence and Conscientiousness also amply developed, wanton outrage and indiscriminate attack might gratify the first two faculties, but they would outrage the last two; hence the individual would seek for situations calculated to gratify all four, and these may be found in the ranks of an army embodied for the defence of his country; or in moral and intellectual warfare against the patrons of corruption and abuse in Church and State. LUTHER, Knox, and many other benefactors of mankind, were probably actuated by such a combination of faculties; WASHINGTON nobly displayed it.

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