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200,000; of which number more than 8000 are priests, monks and nuns; and the Jews are about as numerous.

327. History. Rome was founded by Romulus 753 years before the christian era ; and by a series of martiat efforts, and consummate policy, extended its power over Italy, Sicily, Spain, Africa, Greece, Asia, Gaul, Britain, and a part of Germany. It was taken and plundered by the Goths under Alaric in the year 410, and about half a century later, by Genseric, king of the Vandals. In the 9th century, the Papal power was establishied with temporal jurisdiction, and Rome has since been the seat of Papal dominion.

328. General view of Rome. Notwithstanding the ravages committed on Rome by conflagations and plunder, it retains numerous remains of its former magnificence. Many beautiful squares, superb palaces and churches, with the paintings, statues, theaters, triumphal arches, circuses, columns, fountains, aqueducts, mausoleunis and hot baths, still strike the beholder with astonishment. St. Peter's Church exceeds every other modern edifice in size and grandeur. Its length is 730 feet, its bredth 520, and the top of the cross, which crowns the cupola, is 450 feet high. The Pantheon, a Roman temple, still remains to gratify curiosity, and fill the mind with admiration. The amphitheater of Vespasian, still preserved, and sufficiently capacious to hold 80,000 spectators, is a stupendous monument of ancient grandeur. The Vatican, a palace of the Pope, contains 4400 apartments, with a most complete library, and 40,000 manuscripts.

329. Bologna Bologna is the chief town in the Bolognese, east of Modena, and is situated near the river Reno, at the foot of the Appenine. It is a handsome town, and an archbishop's see, containing a university, and 80,000 inhabitants. The public edifices are magnificent, and contain a great variety of paintings of the greatest masters. The palaces are numerous, in one of which the Pope's Nuncio resides ; and 169 churches. It is a place of great trade, which is facilitated by a canal from the city to the Po. The Reno turns 400 mills employed in the manufacture of silk. The Bolognese is

one of the most fertile provinces in Italy, producing all sorts of grain and fruits; and especially the muscadin grape, which is in high esteem. It contains also mines of alum and iron, and the Bolognian stone, a phosphoric substance, which exhibits light without heat.

330. Ferrara Ferrara, the capital of the Ferrarese, a province north of Bologna, stands upon a plain which is watered by the Po on the north. It is encompassed by a wall and ditch, and surrounded by water, and has a magnificent castle, formerly the residence of the dukes. The park is called Belvidere for its beauty, and behind the duke's garden is a palace of white marble, called the palace of diamonds, for all the stones are cut in the shape of diamonds. The city contains 100 churches, 38 convents, and but 14,000 inhabitants. The Ferrarese is 50 miles in length by 40 in bredth ; but the land is low, sometimes overflowed by the Po and its branches, and not well cultivated, nor is the air deemed salubrious.

331. Ravenna. Ravenna is an ancient city, in a marshy situation, at the mouth of a small river, originally on the border of the Venetian Gulf; but the sea has retired two miles from the town, which has impaired its conímerce. Honorius removed the seat of empire from Rome to Ravenna in the year 404 ; hence the name Romania, now Romagna, of which this city is the capital. It was afterwards the residence of the Gothic kings for 72 years, when Justinian conquered the Goths, and the exarchs or governors of the eastern emperors made it the seat of their government. It contains about

inhabitants, and here is seen the mausoleum of King Theodoric, 15 feet thick, and 28 feet in diameter.

332. Urbino and Ancona. Urbino is the capital of a dutchy of the same name, and the see of an archbishop. It is the birth place of that eminent painter, Raphael, and is remarkable for its manufacture of earthern

To the south of Urbino, is the marquisate of Ancona, a fertile, but not a healthful province. The capital town, Ancona, was formerly the finest port in Italy, being built by Trajan; and its ruined trade is again reviving. The town is situated around the harbor on two hills ; but is not remarkable for its buildings

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The triumphal arch of Trajan, one of the most admirable works of antiquity, remains entire with its inscription.

333. Loretto. In the marquisate of Ancona, is Loretto, a small town on a hill, three miles from the gulf. This town is worthy of notice only on account of the Casa santa, or Holy Chapel, which the inhabitants say was originally the house in Nazareth, in which the Virgin Mary was saluted by the angel. This house, they pretend, remained in Judea, till that country was conquered by the infidels, when a company of angels, to save it from pollution, bore it in their arms, over sea and land, and set it down in a field belonging to a lady called Lauretta, which gave name to the chapel. In this is the statue of the Virgin, carved out of wood, with the child Jesus in her arms. To this chapel, devotees resort from all parts of Italy, to pay homage to the blessed Jesus, and to make presents. It is said that 100,000 pilgrims have thronged to the place in a single day, and a hundred masses are said daily in the chapel. Even the sculpture on the marble gates is disfigured by the kisses of ardent devotees.

334. Naples. The southern part of Italy, from the ecclesiastical state to the strait of Messina, is called Naples, from the principal city of the territory, and for many years has been governed by the Spanish branch of the Bourbon family. To the same kingdom belongs the island of Sicily. The territory of Naples is in length from north to south, 280 or 300 miles, and in medial bredth, 100 miles. Its inhabitants are abc four millions and a half.

335. History. The southern part of Naples was very early settled by Greeks and called Magna Grecia. The more northern and mountainous parts were inhabited by the Samnites, a warlike people, who for 70 years maintained their independence against the whole power of Rome, but at length this part of Italy was subdued by the Romans. It afterwards underwent various rev lutions. During the crusades it was possessed by the Norman princes, who yielded it to the power of the Emperors of Germany. Afterwards the French prin

ces of Anjou possessed Naples and Sicily, and then the kingdom came into possession of the Spanish branch of the Bourbon family. Lately Naples has been conquered by the French, and with Sicily, given to a brother of the French Emperor.

336. Climate and Productions. Naples, being situated between the 36th and 42d degrees of latitude, and having the sea on three sides, enjoys a mild climate in winter ; snow and ice not being seen except on the mountains. The summers are hot, and sometimes the people are oppressed by the siroc, a south east wind that almost deprives the body of power to move. The soil of Naples is generally good, and produces all kinds of grain and fruits in the richest abundance. Naples furnishes also, oil and wine, manna, alum, sulphur, marble, with fine wool and silk.

337. Mountains. The chain of Appenines runs through the Neapolitan territories. Five miles from the city of Naples is Vesuvius, the volcano, which has often poured forth its fiery contents upon the country and villages below. The base of this mountain is 30 miles in circumference, and its altitude 3,600 feet.This part of Italy is subject to earthquakes, especially the southern point, or Calabria. These earthquakes often precede the eruptions of Vesuvius. In 1783, about 50,000 people perished in a tremendous earthquake, which shook Sicily and Calabria. Great numbers also perished in 1805, before an eruption from the mountain.

337. Rivers and Strait. The rivers of Naples are very small, and hardly worth description. The strait which separates Sicily from the continent, at Messina, contains the famous Scylla and Charybdis, which were anciently represented as a dangerous rock and whirlpool. Scylla is a lofty rock, under which are caverns against which the waters dash, and make a hideous roaring. Charybdis is not a whirlpool, but a place where the water is agitated by beating against or running over rocks. The strait is not dangerous, except when the wind opposes

the current. 338. Religion. The Roman. Catholic religion exists in all its austerity in Naples; but there is no office of in

quisition. There are in Naples 20 archbishops and 107 bishops. The clergy are estimated at 200,000. More than half of the lands in the kingdom are owned by the church. It is said that the government has lately reduced the number of convents. In Sicily there are three archbishops and eight bishops.

339. Education. There are in Naples and Sicily four universities, viz. those of Naples, Salerno, Palermo, and Catania ; of which the first is the most useful. In the city of Naples, also, is an academy of sciences and magnificent collections of antiquities. This is also the favorite seat of music. But education in general is neglected; and the inhabitants are sunk in ignorance and superstition.

340. Government. The government of Naples and Sicily has been a monarchy, but not absolute; for the states, composed of deputies from the nobility, the cit. izens and prelates who have baronies, still meet every second year, under the name of a parliament, for the purpose of making grants of subsidies to the king. Royal edicts, before they acquire the force of laws, must be registered by an assembly, consisting of deputies from the nobles and citizens. The proceedings of the courts are dilatory, and Naples contains 30,000 lawyers.

341. Commerce. The exports of Naples are chiefly wheat ; oil to the value of four millions of florins; wine, of which many sorts are made ; wool, silk, saffron, and fruits in great quantities. The imports are woollens, hard ware, and articles of luxury, from the East and West Indies. The manufactures are few, in proportion to the richness of its soil and value of its productions. The trade centers in Naples, but is chiefly in the hands of foreigners. The fisheries, especially those of the tunny, anchovies and corals, are valuable.

342. City of Naples. Naples, the metropolis of the kingdom, is a large and beautiful city, 110 miles from Rome, situated on a spacious bay of the Mediterranean, with a good harbor. The circumference is about 18 miles, the walls indifferent, but the population 400,000 souls. The houses are of stone, with flat roofs, lofty

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