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and Lombards, it was subdued by Charles the Great, in the 9th century ; and after being the subject of contention for ages, was finally annexed as a fief to the empire of Germany. It has lately been conquered from Austria, and is now a part of the Italian kingdom. It is a rich territory, populous and well cultivated.

313. Milan. Milan, the chief city of the Milanese, is seated in a pleasant vale between the Adda and Tesin. It was formerly the metropolis of the Lombard kingdom, and is 10 miles in circumference. It contains numerous public buildings of great elegance, and in particular, the cathedral, which is of white marble, with a roof supported by 50 columns, and is second only to St. Peter's Church in Rome. From the roof hangs a crystal, inclosing a nail, superstitiously said to be one of those which fixed our Savior to the cross. The library, in the Ambrosian College, contains 45,000 volumes of printed books, and numerous manuscripts, one of which is the History of Josephus, written by Rufinus 1200 years ago, on the bark of a tree. This city was founded more than five centuries before Christ; it has been besieged 40 times, taken 20 times, and four times almost demolished, yet contains about 200,000 inhabitants.

314. Parma and Placenza. The duchies of Parma and Placenza, between the Po on the north and the Genoese republic and Tuscany on the south, have for half a century belonged to the kings of Spain. They are nearly 50 miles in length, and 40 in bredth; containing a population of 300,000 souls. The land is fertile, producing excellent pasturage, but not well cultivated; yet corn, wine and oil are produced in considerable, quantities, and the Parmesan cheese is known every where among epicures. Parma, the chief city of the Duchy of the same name, is of considerable magnitude ; as is Placenza, which contains 30,000 inhabitants. Each is a bishop's see, the seat of a university.

315. Modenese. To the east of Parma is the duchy of Modena, about 50 miles in length and 30 in bredth, with a population of 320,000 souls. This belongs to the family of Este, the name of its Dukes. It is a fertile country, abounding in all the productions of Italy. Mo

dena, the chief city of the duchy, contains about 40,000 inhabitants; it is not esteemed a handsome city, but contains some elegant buildings ; in particular, the ducal palace. This city gave birth to Tasso, the poet; to Corregio, the painter, and to Vignola, the architect. In front of the houses are covered walks or porticoes, and the place is famous for the manufacture of masks. In digging wells, near Modena, a stratum is found, which being pierced, the water gushes up as from a lake or river; and in Carrara is found the celebrated marble used in statuary.

316. Genoa. The territory of Genoa, the ancient Liguria, extends along the Mediterranean about 150 miles, though not more than from 10 to 25 miles in bredth. It is a mountainous tract, some parts of it barren ; but producing some corn and the fruits of similar climates. The whole territory contains 400,000 inhabitants. The chief city, Genoa, is a large town, upon the Mediterranean, which carries on considerable commerce. It was destroyed by Mago, the Carthaginian, and rebuilt by the Romans. It was afterwards in pos. session of the Lombards, and of the Emperors of Germany; but in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, it became a powerful republic, and for some ages, distinguished itself by its naval victories. The city of Genoa contains 80,000 inhabitants, oras some authors say, 150,000 ; and a great number of magnificent edifices, fronted with marble ; with 33 churches and 69 convents.

317. Mantuan. The duchy of Mantuan, on the Po, to the north of Modena, is 50 miles long, 27 broad, and a fertile country. Mantua, the chief town, is situated on an island, in a lake, or morass formed by the Minchio, and approachable only by two roads, which renders it one of the most defensible fortresses in the world. The streets are broad and strait ; the houses well built, but the air is insalubrious. The inhabitants are about 16,000. This city, defended by General Wurmser against the French, was reduced by famin in February, 1797, but retaken by the Austrians and Russians the same year. Near this city was born the celebrated Virgil.

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318. Smaller States. To the north east of Modena lies Mirandola, a duchy of 19 miles in length, and ten in bredth. Near the sea lies Massa, a small principality in Tuscany, but independent of the Grand Duke, about 16 miles in length, and ten in bredth ; famous for its quarries of fine marble. In the dominions of the Pope, is St. Marino, a small independent state, situated on a mountain. This little republic was founded by a mason of Dalmatia, who became a hermit, retired to this hill, and gained such reputation for his austerity and sanctity, that the princes of the country gave him the territory. It contains 5 or 6000 people, who retain great simplicity of manners, and maintain a free government.

319. Lucca. Between Massa and Tuscany is Lucca, a small republic, of 28 miles in length by 10 in bredth, containing 120,000 people. The soil is good, and the people industrious; the earth being covered with vines, olive, chesnut, and mulberry trees. The principal exports are oil and silk. The chief city, Lucca, contains 40,000 inhabitants ; it is the see of an archbishop, and has considerable manufactures of silk, and gold and silver stuffs. This little state is said to contain 150 villages.

320. Tuscany. Tuscany is a large principality, bordering on the Mediterranean sea, to which it has given name. It is a part of the ancient Hetruria, which is celebrated in history for its early civilization and improvements. Its extent is about 116 miles in length and 80 in bredth. It is a beautiful and fertile region, abounding with corn, pasture, vines and fruits. The mountains yield iron, copper, alum, porphyry and the finest marble, with many precious stones and valuable articles. The principal river is the Arno. The manufactures, of silk and velvet are considerable, and the population is estimated at 1,250,000 souls. This country was subdued by the Romans about 455 years before Christ. In the fifth century after Christ, it shared the fate of Italy and fell into the power of the Ostrogoths. In the year 800, Charles the Great took possession of it ; but the large cities afterwards obtained independence.

321. Florence. Florence, the capital of Tuscany, is

one of the most beautiful cities of Italy. It is situated on the Arno, at the foot of the Appenine ; is two leagues in circumference, contains 9000 houses and 80,000 inhabitants, with 57 churches, 95 convents and 37 hospitals. The Metropolitan church, built in the 13th century, in the Gothic style, has an octagonal cupola, 240 feet high, with sides of 140 feet from angle to angle. The palace of the Grand Duke contains a library of 35,000 volumes, with numerous pictures by the best masters. The city is also embellished with 17 public squares, several fountains, columns, pyramids and beautiful statues. The buildings are magnificent, and the streets well paved and clean. This city was formerly governed by the celebrated family of Medicis.

322. Pisa. On the river Arno, 6 miles from the sea, is situated Pisa, formerly a large city and powerful republic, containing 150,000 inhabitants ; but subdued first by the Duke of Milan, and afterwards by the Florentines. In consequence of losing its independence, and the increase of Leghorn, which deprived it of its commerce, Pisa is almost depopulated ; the inhabitants being reduced to less than 20,000, and many of the streets being overgrown with grass. It however retains striking evi. dences of its former grandeur; in particular, many superb edifices, and an acqueduct consisting of 5000 arches, which conveys water from the hills 5 miles distant. - 323. Leghorn. Leghorn, or more properly Livorno, is a large city, on the sea coast, and the only considerable sea port of Tuscany. It is a place of extensive trade, but its harbor is too shallow to admit large ships. This city has taken the trade of Pisa, and from a small town, has increased to a population of 80,000 souls. It is well built, with broad streets and well fortified; but is subject to the great inconvenience of being obliged to bring water from Pisa, 14 miles distant. The Jews who are estimated at 15,000, carry on great part of the trade. They occupy a particular part of the city, where they have a synagogue. Foreigners are here indulged in the free exercise of their religion. The light house stands on a rock and contains 30 lamps in one lantern. The

outward harbor is formed by a mole of 600 paces, which serves also for a walk.

324. Piambino and Elba. Piambino is a small state in Tuscany, about 20 miles in length and 18 in bredth, formerly subject to Pisa, but for some ages it has been governed by its own princes. The capital of the same name is a sea port of little account. Opposit to this is Elba, an island of 8 miles in length and three in bredth, celebrated for its mines of iron and load-stone. There being no river on the island, the ore is transported to Piambino to be smelted. This island also contains cop. per, lead, tin, asbestos, and produces excellent wine, and some oil and flax.

325. The Pope's Dominions. The ecclesiastical states, under the immediate government of the Pope, as head of the church, extend from the Po to the Neapolitan territories, a length of 250 miles, and include the whole bredth of Italy excepting Tuscany and the small states to the north of it. The whole population is estimated at more than two millions of inhabitants. This territory is watered by the Tiber, and many small streams, chiefly on the east. The divisions of this territory are the Campagna di Roma, the patrimony of St. Peter, Spoleto, Ancona, Urbino, Romagna, the Bolognese and Ferrarese. This country, once the garden of the earth, is not well cultivated; the oppressed inhabitants being very indolent. The wealth of the country is amassed by the convents and rich clergy, while the streets are crowded with beggars. The climate is mild, and the tropical fruits are produced in abundance.

326. Rome. Rome, the metropolis of the Pope's dominions, and once the seat of the most extensive empire on earth, is situated on the Tiber, about 10 miles from its mouth, and mostly on the southern side. It occupied seven hills, or small elevations, which are now scarcely visible. It is nearly of the same extent as in its splendor, during the Augustan age; but its population is greatly reduced; and a considerable part of the city is now laid out in gardens, fields and vinyards. The pop'ulation is estimated by different writers at 160,000 and

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