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called the Adriatic, or Gulf of Venice. Its stiuation is from the 38th to the 47th degree of north latitude, and its length is about 650 miles. But its bredth is various. The northern part between the Alps, the Mediterranean, and the Gulf of Venice, is 200 miles in extent from east to west; while between the Mediterranean, and the same gulf from Genoa to the Gulf of Tarento, the bredth seldom exceeds 100 miles. 303. Mountains. On the north and west, the majestic Alps, towering to the skies, form a rampart against the hardy sons of Germany. From these runs the Appenine, in a continued chain from Genoa and Modena, to Naples. These are far less elevated than the Alps. A few miles from the city of Naples, rises Vesuvius, a volcanic mountain of 3600 feet elevation, from whose bosom, at certain intervals, pour rivers of liquid lava, overwhelming every thing in its course. The eruptions, preceded by earthquakes, and attended with subterranean thunders, volumes of smoke darkening the heavens at noon day, ruddy flames streaked with forked lightnings, massy stones hurled to the clouds, and streams of fire pouring in torrents down the precipices, exhibit a spectacle awfully terrible and sublime. 304. Rivers. The Po. The largest river in Italy is the Po; the Eridanus of the ancient Greeks. This river springs from Mount Viso, and from several other parts of the Alps in Piedmont, in the western confines of Italy. Running east, and continually augmented by streams from the Alps on the north, and the Appenine on the south, it is swelled to a large river, and enters the Adriatic, after a course of about 300 miles. On the north, it receives the Tesin, the Doria, the Adda, the Oglio, and Minchio; from the south, the Tenaro, the Trebia and others. The Tesin and the Trebia are rendered famous by the victories of Hannibal over the Romans under Sempronius. 305. The Tiber and other rivers. The Tiber, which is immortalized by the city of Rome, has its sources near St. Marino and the borders of Tuscany; and running a south westerly course of 150 miles, enters the the Mediterranean The Arno rises in the Appenine,
and runs westerly to the same sea. The Adige, the Brenta, the Pavia and Tagliamento, have their sources in the Tyrol and the Eastern Alps, and discharge their waters into the Gulf of Venice. 306. Lakes. Italy presents to view a number of beautiful lakes. The Maggiore, or Lake of Locarno, is 27 miles in length, by three of medial bredth. The Lugano on the east contains the celebrated Boromean isles. The Lake of Como, tho narrow, is 32 miles in length; and the Laga di Garda is nearly as long. These, and many smaller ones, abound with natural beauties, and picturesk scenery. 307. Northern division of Italy. Italy has been divi-ded into a number of smaller states, subject to princes of their own, or to some distant power. The states in the north are Piedmont, Milan, Mantua, Parma and Placentia, Modena, and Genoa. Piedmont formerly belonged to the princes of Sardinia; Milan and Mantua to the House of Austria; Genoa was an independent republic, and the other states were principalities subject to their respective princes. But by the conquests of the French, these possessions are wrested from their sovereigns, and united with the Venetian territories under a French prince, who is made king of Italy. 308. Climate and Productions. The climate and productions of the northern states of Italy are nearly the same in all. The summers are hot, the winters moderate; the soil fertile, producing wheat, maiz and other grain in abundance. The olive will come to perfection in this part of Italy, but the cold of winter is unfavorable to the cultivation of tropical fruits. This country also abounds with excellent pasturage, which feeds numerous herds of cattle, horses, mules and sheep. Great quantities of silk are made and manufactured. Some woollens are made, and wine is exported from Piedmont. The Alpine districts abound with valuable minerals. 309. Piedmont. The most extensive province in the northern part of Italy, is Piedmont, which lies, as its Dame denotes, at the foot of the mountains, in the west. It is about 150 miles in length, by 100 in medial bredth, It was anciently a part of Cisalpine Gaul; in later times, a part of the kingdom of Lombardy; then possessed by the Dukes of Savoy, and lastly by the kings of Sardinia. During the late convulsions in Europe, it has been wrested from its princes, and now forms a part of the kingdom of Italy. This province is extremely populous, containing more than two millions of inhabitants. 3.10. Turin. Turin is an ancient town, the capital of Piedmont, and contains 80,000 inhabitants. It is situated on a vast plain, at the foot of a mountain at the confluence of the Po and the Doria; is the see of an archbishop, and the seat of a university. It is a handsome city, with clean streets and houses of uniform highth. It contains about 50 churches and convents, with hospitals and palaces, which are superb structures. The ducal palace consists of two magnificent structures, connected by a gallery, in which are many statues, all sorts of arms, and a library containing 30,000 printed books and 19,000 manuscripts. It has a strong citadel, with fine walks on the ramparts, and handsome gardens along the Po ; but in autumn and winter, the air is said to be foggy and insalubrious. 31 I. Sardinia Sardinia is an island in the Mediterranean, south of Corsica, of 140 miles in length and 80 in bredth. In 1720 it was ceded to the Duke of Savoy, who took the title of king, and usually resided at Turin in Piedmont, but the latter territory being wrested from the king by France, Sardinia remains his only possession. The soil is fruitful in corn, flax, vines, olives, oranges, citrons and lemons. On the coast is a fishery of anchovies and coral, which are exported in large quantities. The island abounds with cattle, horses and sheep; and has mines of alum, silver, lead and sulphur. Salt is made in great quantities. The inhabitants are about 420,000, of whom Cagliari, the capital, contains 24,000. The airisconsidered as insalubrious, by reason of marshes. 312. Milanese. The Milanese, or Duchy of Milan, is about 100 miles in length, and nearly the same in bredth. Itis penetrated by the Po, and watered by several of its tributary streams. Its population is estimated at 1,120,000 Souls. After being possessed by the Romans, Goths and Lombards, it was subdued by Charles the Great, in the 9th century; and after being the subject of contention for ages, was finally annexed as a fief to the empire of Germany. It has lately been conquered from Austria, and is now a part of the Italian kingdom. It is a rich territory, populous and well cultivated. 313. Milan. Milan, the chief city of the Milanese, is seated in a pleasant vale between the Adda and Tesin. It was formerly the metropolis of the Lombard kingdom, and is 10 miles in circumference. It contains numerous public buildings of great elegance, and in particular, the cathedral, which is of white marble, with a roof supported by 50 columns, and is second only to St. Peter's Church in Rome. From the roof hangs a crystal, inclosing a nail, superstitiously said to be one of those which fixed our Savior to the cross. The library, in the Ambrosian College, contains 45,000 volumes of printed books, and numerous manuscripts, one of which is the History of Josephus, written by Rufinus 1200 years ago, on the bark of a tree. This city was founded more than five centuries before Christ; it has been besieged 40 times, taken 20 times, and four times almost demolished, yet contains about 200,000 inhabitants. 314. Parma and Placenza. The duchies of Parma and Placenza, between the Po on the north and the Genoese republic and Tuscany on the south, have for half a century belonged to the kings of Spain. They are nearly 50 miles in length, and 40 in bredth; containing a population of 300,000 souls. The land is fertile, producing excellent pasturage, but not well cultivated; yet corn, wine and oil are produced in considerable, quantities, and the Parmesan cheese is known every where among epicures. Parma, the chief city of the Duchy of the same name, is of considerable magnitude; as is Placenza, which contains 30,000 inhabitants. Each is a bishop's see, the seat of a university. 3.15. Modenese. To the east of Parma is the duchy of Modena, about 50 miles in length and 30 in bredth, With a population of 320,000 souls. This belongs to the family of Este, the name of its Dukes. It is a fertile “ountry, abounding in all the productions of Italy. Mo
dena, the chief city of the duchy, contains about 40,000 inhabitants; it is not esteemed a handsome city, but contains some elegant buildings; in particular, the ducal palace. This city gave birth to Tasso, the poet; to Corregio, the painter, and to Vignola, the architect. In front of the houses are covered walks or porticoes, and the place is famous for the manufacture of masks. In digging wells, near Modena, a stratum is found, which being pierced, the water gushes up as from a lake of river; and in Carrara is found the celebrated marble used in statuary.
316. Genoa. The territory of Genoa, the ancient Liguria, extends along the Mediterranean about 150 miles, though not more than from 10 to 25 miles in bredth. It is a mountainous tract, some parts of it barren ; but producing some corn and the fruits of similar climates. The whole territory contains 400,000 inhabitants. The chief city, Genoa, is a large town, upon the Mediterranean, which carries on considerable commerce. It was destroyed by Mago, the Carthaginian, and rebuilt by the Romans. It was afterwards in possession of the Lombards, and of the Emperors of Germany; but in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, it became a powerful republic, andforsome ages, distinguisheditself by its naval victories. The city of Genoa contains 80,000 inhabitants, oras some authors say, 150,000; and a great number of magnificent edifices, fronted with marble ; with 33 churches and 69 convents.
317. Mantuan. The duchy of Mantuan, on the Po, to the north of Modena, is 50 miles long, 27 broad, and a fertile country. Mantua, the chief town, is situated on an island, in a lake, or morass formed by the Minchio, and approachable only by two roads, which renders it one of the most defensible fortresses in the world. The streets are broad and strait; the houses well built, but the air is insalubrious. The inhabitants are about 16,000. This city, defended by General Wurmser against the French, was reduced by famin in February, 1797, but retaken by the Austrians and Russians the same year. Near this city was born the celebrated Virgil.