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year 1577, Sebastian, king of Portugal, having lost his life, and most of his troops, in an expedition against the Moors, Philip II. of Spain, invaded and took possession of Portugal; and his successors held it till 1640, when the Portuguese, headed by the Duke of Braganza, threw off the yoke of Spain; since which the kingdom has been independent. Its name is said to be a compound of Port and Calle, the harbor of Calle, a town near the mouth of the Douro. 286. Situation and extent. Portugal, which is a narrow tract of the peninsula, and the most western kingdom of Europe, extends from 37 to 42 degrees of north latitude, in the eighth, ninth and tenth degrees of west longitude from London. Its length is 150 miles, and its bredth 120. Its boundaries are the Atlantic on the west and south; the river Minho on the north, and Spain on the cast. Portugal is estimated to contain 27,000 square miles, and nearly two millions of inhabitants. 287. Mountains and Rivers. The chief mountains are those in the south, which separate the province of Algarva from Alentejo, and the Tralos or Estrella, achain which runs from the center of Spain, and penetrates Portugal, north of the Tajo. The country is considered as mountainous or rather rocky, but many parts of it are fertile. Portugal is penetrated by the great rivers of Spain, the Douro and Tajo. It has for a boundary on the north the Minho, and the Guadiana on the south east. It has also three smaller streams, the Mondego, the Soro, and the Cadaon, the latter of which forms the harbor of Situval. 288. Climate and shroductions. The climate of Portugal is very temperate and salubrious. The soil is light and inferior to that of Spain; the kingdom not producing corn sufficient for its own consumption. But this deficiency is attributable to the indolence of the people, rather than to the barrenness of the soil. The country produces considerable quantities of wine, and the same fruits as Spain. It also furnishes great quantities of salt for exportation. 289. Minerals. In the northern provinces, are vast cavities, which were mines wrought by the Romans, One of them cut through solid rock, is a mile and a half in circumference, and 500 feet deep. But gold and silver are no longer sought in Portugal, since the discovery of the richer mines of America. Portugal however furnishes lead, copper, iron, coal, marble, talck, amianthus, felspar, antimony, bismuth, arsenic, quicksilver, rubies, jacinths and beryl. But fuel is scarce, and mineralogy is neglected. Portugal also contains mineral waters of considerable celebrity. 290. Religion. The religion of Portugal is the Roman Catholic, which is observed with great strictness. There are several courts of inquisition to enforce conformity to the established religion; and even the Jews, who are numerous, conform to its external rites. The clergy consist of , patriarch, three archbishops, and fifteen bishops. The whole number of ecclesiastical persons is about 200,000, of which 30,000 are monks and nuns. There are also in Portugal three spiritual orders of knighthood. In ecclesiastical concerns, the canon law is the rule of proceeding, and the Pope maintains great authority in Portugal. - 291. Government. The government of Portugal is a monarchy, absolute and hereditary. The states or representatives of the orders formerly had a share in the government; but they were discontinued near the close of the 17th century, and their place supplied by a council of state appointed by the king. There is also a council of war, the Aulic Council, or supreme court of justice, a council of finance, and a royal board of censure. The laws consist of the fundamental statutes of Alphonso I. and the royal edicts. The courts, whose judges are appointed by the king, are slow in their proceedings, and the lawyers numerous. When the laws are defective, the courts resort to the Roman laws. 292. Revenue, Army and Navy. The revenue of Portugal is about eight millions of dollars; arising from duties on goods, a tax on the rent of lands, and the mines of Brasil, of which one fifth of the produce belongs to the king. The army consists of 25,000 men ; the navy of 13 ships of the line, and about 15 frigates. Five ships of the line are stationed at Brasil, for the de- G 2

fense of that country. Portugal being a small kingdom,

has little influence in the affairs of Europe. Commerce has a long time kept that power in alliance with England; but during the late convulsions in Europe, it is said Portugal has been obliged to pay tribute to France for the enjoyment of peace. 293. Chief Towns. Lisbon. Lisbon, whose name is said to have been formerly Ulyssippo, from an opinion that it was founded by Ulysses, is situated on the north side of the Tajo, near its mouth, with a spacious harbor in front, and a ridge of hills in the rear, on which it rises in the form of a crescent, which gives it a splendid appearance. It consists of two jurisdictions, the western under the patriarch, and the eastern under the archbishop. It is surrounded with a wall which has 77 towers and 36 gates, and contains from 200,000 to 250,000 inhabitants, with 40 parish churches and 50 convents. On the first of November, 1755, this city was laid in ruins by an earthquake, with the loss of 50,000 inhabitants. But it has been rebuilt, with wide and regular streets, and more elegant houses. 2.94. Oforto. The next town in consideration is Oporto, situated on the north bank of the Douro, five miles from the sea, upon the declivity of a hill. It is the chief town in the province, between the Minho and Douro, and contains nearly 40,000 inhabitants, with 12 convents, and several churches and hospitals, but none of them distinguished by their architecture. It is the see of a bishop; and has an active commerce, especially in wines and fruits. From this town, we have the red wine, called Port, of which 20,000 hogsheads are annually shipped for foreign markets. 295. Universities and Learning. The institutions for education are the university of Coimbra and Evora; a college at Massa; and one at Lisbon, for the education of young noblemen. In general, education is neglected, and Portugal can boast of few literary names of distinction. Among these, Camoens, the author of the Lusiad, holds an eminent rank. The Portuguese language is a dialect of the Spanish, and mostly composed of Latin words, altered in orthography and inflec

Elements of Useful Knowledge. 79

tions; with a mixture, however, of Gothic and Moorish words. -296. Manufactures and Commerce. The manufactures of Portugal are in a low state, and the country is chiefly supplied by England, with most articles of clothing.— Portugal also receives a considerable quantity of corn from other countries. In return, Portugal exports wine, silk, oil, fruits, sugar, cotton, cork, drugs, tobacco, salt, bullion, precious stones, ivory, ebony and spices. From foreign countries Portugal receives cloths, hardware, fish, wood and corn; but the inhabitants having little enterprize, the trade is mostly in the hands of foreigners. The trade of Portugal with Brasil is considerable, and 6 or 7 millions of dollars in specie are annually remitted from the mines to Portugal. 297. Character and Customs. The Portuguese are not a very active or enterprizing people; tho the northern provinces exhibit more marks of industry than the southern. Their persons are rather smaller than the Spaniards, with regular features, dark eyes and a brown complexion. The pride of rank is as general and as pernicious there as in most other feudal countries. The Portuguese are fond of retirement and silence, and are excessively superstitious. The ladies are small in stature, handsome and industrious. The oriental custom of sitting on cushions upon the floor is not wholly obsolete. The amusements are billiards, cards, dice and bull fights. The Portuguese are temperate in diet, but the rich asfect great magnificence in dress and furniture. 298. Islands of Portugal. Madeira. In the 33d degree of north latitude, and 16th of west longitude, lies Madeira, an island 55 miles long and 10 broad. It was discovered in 1419 by one Zarco, and afterwards settled by the Portuguese. The name signifies wood, as it was found covered with trees. It consists of one mountain, rising from the sea to a point in the center, on the top of which is a hollow, which was formerly the crater of a volcano ; as all the stones and substances on the island are evidently volcanic. The island is divided into two capitanias, or jurisdictions, and contains 43 parishes and 60,000 inhabitants. The climate is very fine, and the

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principal produce is excellent wine, of which 30,000 pipes are made yearly. The capital is Funchal. 299. Azores. In the midst of the Atlantic, lie the Western Isles or Azores, a cluster of islands, so called from the hawks which frequent them, between 36 and 40 degrees of north latitude, and 25 and 33 of west longitude. They are nine in number, and are fertile in corn, wine and fruits, but subject to violent earthquakes. The inhabitants are about 50,000. The principal of these islands are Tercera, St. Michael and Fayal. The latter gives name to the wine made in these islands. --- ITALY. 300. Name and History. The name of Italy is said to be derived from an Arcadian prince, who led a colony thither, in very ancient times; but of this there is no certainty. The country was peopled probably by the same race of men as Gaul and Germany, or Celts. In later times the Greeks established themselves in the southern part, now Naples, which was called Magna Grecia. The northern part was possessed by the Gauls, and the central part was held by the Etruscans and Latins, who were of Teutonic origin. On the Tiber arose the city of Rome, about seven centuries and a half before Christ, whose inhabitants, by a series of deep policy, and masterly exploits, successively conquered all Italy, and most of the civilized world. 301. Fall of the Roman Empire. The dominion of the world rendered the Romans the richest and most vicious people on the globe. The emperors, immersed in sloth and debauchery, neglected the affairs of government; the citizens were enervated by luxury, and the army was corrupted. In this condition, Rome fell a prey to the hardy warriors of the north. The Goths, Vandals, Huns and other nations of the north, conquered Italy, Spain and France. Then arose the Papal power, and Italy was oted into petty states, which have continued to this ay. . 302. General description of Italy. Italy has on every side natural boundaries. On the north and west, the Alps; on the other sides the sea, which on the east is

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