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265. Cadiz. Cadiz is a large commercial city, on Leon, a small island, opposit to port St. Mary, and 40 miles north west of Gibraltar, in the 37th degree of north latitude. The streets are narrow, ill paved and filthy; but most of them intersect each other at right angles. The houses are lofty, with a vestible open for passengers to retire to in the day time. In the middle of the house is a court, under which is a cistern, the breeding place of musketoes; on the ground floor is a store ; on the second floor, a counting house, and the family live in the third story. The roofs are flat, and covered with an impenetrable cement. There is a public walk and a large esplanade for carriages. This city carries on the trade to America, and contains 70,000 souls ; but some authors reckon them double the number.
266. Grenada Grenada, the chief city of the province of the same name, stands at the foot of the Sierra Nevada, or snowy mountains, in a beautiful valè, upon two small hills, separated by the Dorro, a small stream, and washed also by another stream, the Genil. It was the seat of the Moors, and still retains many buildings with Arabic inscriptions; in particular, the Moorish palace, of great magnificence. Here is a court of inquisition, a royal tribunal, a university, and the see of an archbishop. Grenada contains 80,000 inhabitants, and is considered as the paradise of Spain. The Moors who were finally subdued and expelled in 1492, regret the loss of this city so much as still to mention it in their prayers.
267. Malaga. In the same province is Malaga, a commercial city on the Mediterranean, containing 40,000 inhabitants, before the pestiience of 1804, which swept away two thirds of the number. This town is very ancient, has two castles, and is a bishop's see. It stands at the foot of a craggy mountain, on which are made the wines, called Malaga, and Tinto, or Tent, so called from its deep red tinge. The town swarms with thieves and mendicants, but carries on considerable trade ; receiving from the north of Europe, woollen cloths, spices, cutlery, lace, &c. in exchange for its wines, oil and fruits.
268. Murcia. Murcia, the chief city of the province of that name, is situated on the river Segura, in a pleasant plain, and contains 6 parishes, with 60,000 inhabitants. Here is a beautiful bridge over the river Segura, and the cathedral is a superb edifice, with the stairs so contrived that a man may ride to the top on horseback, or in a coach. The country about it is dry, but produces an abundance of oranges, citrons, lemons, olives, and other fruits, with sugar and silk.
269. Totedo. In New Castile, south of Madrid, stands Toledo, an ancient city, situated on a mountain, which is almost surrounded by the river Tajo. The streets are narrow and uneven, but the houses are elegant, as this city was formerly the capital of the province, and contained 200,000 inhabitants; the number however, is now reduced to about 20,000. It contains 17 public squares, with many magnificent edifices, the chief of which is the royal castle and cathedral church, the last of which is the richest in Spain.
270. Barcelona. Barcelona, the chief city of Catalonia, in the north eastern extremity of Spain, is situated on the Mediterranean, with a good harbor. It was founded by Hamilcar Barcas, a Carthaginian general, and from him called Barcino. It is surrounded by brick walls, with ditches, and ramparts so broad as to admit coaches to drive on them for pleasure. It is separated into two parts, the Old and New, by a wall and ditch. It is the residence of a viceroy, is a bishop's see, has a university and a mint. The inhabitants are estimated at 110,000, and are distinguished for their industry and civility ; as the women are for their beauty and social virtues. The manufacturcs ars numerous and the commerce extensive.
271. Saragossa. Saragossa, a name which is said to be a .contraction of Cesar Augustus, is a considerable city on the Ebro, which penetrates it, 137 miles west of Barcelona. The streets are broad, well paved and clean, and the houses from three to six stories highIt contains 17 large churches, and 14 handsome monasteries, besides some inferior ones. In one of the churches is the image of the Virgin Mary, on a marble
pillar, with the child Jesus in her arms; the place is lighted by 50 silver lamps. The balustrades and chandeliers are also of massy silver, and the ornaments of the image are the richest imaginable. This city is the capital of Arragon, has a university with 2,000 students, and contains 36,000 inhabitants.
272. Other Towns. Pompetuna, the capital of Navarre, contains about 5,000 inhabitants. It stands in a plain, on a tributary stream of the Ebro, and carries on on a considerable trade. Corunna is a sea port of some consequence, on the north western extremity of Spain. Bilboa is a commercial town of considerable magnitude on the bay of Biscay, and the capital of the province of Biscay. Valladolid, in Old Castile, contains 20,000 inhabitants, carries on some manufactures of wool and jewellery, and is made memorable by the death of Columbus. The whole number of cities and towns in Spain, are 140; the villages and boroughs, 20,000.
273. Gibraltar, The town of Gibraltar is situated on the declivity of a steep mountain, called by the Moors, Gibel Tarik, the mountain of Tarik, the Moorish general who conducted his countrymen into Spain, in the 8th century, which words are corrupted into the present name.
The mountain was anciently called Calpe ; and this, with the opposit mountain Abyla, in Africa, was a pillar of Hercules. The strait of the sea is about 7 leagues broad. The town has a spacious bay in front to the west, which forms an excellent harbor. This rock the English took in 1704, and have fortified in a manner to render it impregnable. The garrison consists of about 5,000 men, and the town contains from 3 to 5,000 people. The Spaniards have made many attempts to take this fortress, and the last great effort in 1780 exceeded every thing on record. For weeks in succession, 200 large cannon and 80 mortars poured daily 4 or 5,000 shot and shells into the town, until the whole was laid in ruins, and the inhabitants killed or dispersed. But the garrison resisteďthe enemy and kept possession.
274. Language. The present Castilian language, which is the purest dialect of the Spanish, is chiefly composed of Latin words, with a considerable change of ox
thography, and grammatical construction. But with these are mixed many Gothic words. In addition to these, Arabic terms, derived from the Moors, who had possession of the country about 700 years, are diffused through the language; and in Grenada, where the Moors had entire dominion, the Arabic is still spoken by the country people who are of Moorish origin. From the Moors also, the Spaniards have received certain guttural sounds, which prevail in the Castilian dialect. În the north of Spain, a language is still spoken, called Basque, which is different from any other language in Europe.
275. Literature. The government of Spain does not permit a free discussion of religious and political topics; but in all branches of science and learning, not immediately connected with the government and church, the Spaniards have given ample proofs of their eminent attainments. The Don Quixote of Cervantes is admired for its humor; and Spain has produced many distinguished authors in history, medicin, botany, poetry, and other branches of literature. The universities are nearly 30, of which that of Salamanca is the most celebrated; but the students are fettered, in their investigations, by, the old scholastic logic.
276. Antiquities. The remains of Roman and Moorish works are very numerous in Spain. Near Segovia is a grand aqueduct, erected by the Emperor Trajan, extending over a deep valley, and supported by a double row of 159 arches It is 94 feet high, and 740 yards long. At Morviedo, is a theater, hewn out of a solid rock, capable of holding 9,000 persons. At Toledo are the remains of a Roman theater, of 600 feet in length, 500 in bredth, with a lofty roof supported by 350 pillars of marble. It is now converted into a church, in which are 366 altars, and 24 gates. At Martorel is a highbridge, built in 1768, on the ruins of one erected by Hannibal, which had existed almost 2000 years.
An arch or gateway of the original structure remains almost entire.
277. Moorish antiquities. The works erected by the Moors, when masters of Spain, are numerous and magnificent. Among these is the mosk of Cordova, a vast work, erected in the 9th century, in which are 800 cot
But the Alhambra, a royal palace of Grenada, exceeds all the other remains of Moorish magnificence, It was built in the year 1280, upon a hill which is ascended by a path bordered with hedges of double myrtle and rows of elms. It consists of many buildings, of yellow stone. It is entered by an oblong court of 150 feet by 90, containing a bason of water, 100 feet in length, cncompassed by a flower border. You then pass into the court of the lions, so called from 13 lions which support the fountain. This is adorned with a colonnade of 140 marble pillars. It contains many other apartments, with stucco cielings and 'walls, with numerous Arabic inscriptions.
278. Manners and customs. The Spaniards are generally distinguished for pride, or rather a noble self-respect, which may be the parent of the integrity, and numerous virtues which adorn the true Castilian character. But the manners of the nation are corrupted by the superstitions which have been ingrafted upon the christian religion, and which, by enjoining celibacy upon the clersy, have introduced most immoral customs.
The Spaniards are generally temperate in eating and drinking, using little wine, but much chocolate. The ladies are seldom seen abroad, except when they go to mass, when they appear in a black silk petticoat and a mantle, which serves also as a veil.
279. Amusements. The principal amusements of the Spaniards are dancing, cards, hunting, plays; but especially combats with bulls, a most singular diversion. This amusement consists in letting loose a bull, before thousands of spectators, to be tormented and slain by men. First the animal is attacked by the picadors, men on horseback, armed with lances, who wound and enrage him; sometimes squibs are fastened to the lances, which adhere to his flesh and make him furious with pain ; sometimes a rope is thrown round his horns, in the manner the wild bull is caught in South America: at last the matador enters, and by piercing the spinal marrow, relieves the poor animal from his tortures by instantaneous death.