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cornal. At Almadan, are productive mines of quicksilver, which is sent to South America, to be used in refining the more precious metals. Calamin, cobalt, antimony, copper, tin, lead, coal, amber and jet, are found in Spain; and iron of the best kind is abundant. Spain contains many mineral waters, as the hot springs near Oviedo, and the warm chalybeate baths of Buzot.

255. Religion. The religion of Spain is the Roman Catholic, which is observed and enforced with a degree of rigor, unknown in other countries. The court of inquisition is invested with exorbitant power, tho its severity is now relaxed. The archbishoprics are eight, and the bishoprics forty-six. The see of Toledo is said to have an income of ninety thousand pounds sterling. The whole number of clergy and religious orders arenearly 190,000, of whom more than ninety thousand are monks and nuns.

256. Government. The government of Spain is despotic and the crown hereditary. Anciently the will of the crown was controlled by the Cortes, court, or great national council, composed of the nobility, clergy and representatives of cities, whose share in legislation constituted an important feature in every government established by the Gothic nations. But the princes of Spain found means gradually to usurp the whole powers of legislation, and since the reign of Charles V. in the 16th century, the Cortes have rarely been assembled. The king however has several councils employed in the administration of government; as the council of state, of finances, of war, of the Indies, and several others.

257. Army and .Wavy. Before the discovery of America, the armies of Spain were composed of the best soldiers in Europe, and carried terror into France, Germany and Italy. - But they have lost their reputation for spirit and disciplin. The same is true of the navy, which, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, alarmed even England for its safety. But since the destruction of the Armada in 1588, the Spaniards have not made a figure on the ocean; altho, in recent engagements with the English, they have fought with acknowledged bravery. The troops of Spain are about 60,000, and the ships of the line from 30 to 50.

258. Revenues. The ordinary revenue of Spain is estimated at about 25 millions of dollars. This revenue arises from customs on goods imported and transported from one province to another; from monopolies of the crown; stamp duties; a land tax; and papal absolutions and indulgences, with some deductions from the salaries of officers, the mint, the crown revenue from America, and the provinces of Spain. The crown draws a great supply of specie from America; but it is thought the mines yield no clear profit. The expenditures of Spain exceed the income, and the crown is burdened with a considerable debt. 259. Agriculture. Spain produces all the plants and species of grain proper for the climate. Barley and flax, like wheat, are sown in autumn, and the crop taken off in the spring as in Syria and Egypt. The Spaniards plow with oxen who draw with the yoke over the horns, the most natural mode, and one that enables the animal to exert the most strength. But agriculture is discouraged by the low state of the peasantry, who, not owning the soil, and compelled to labor chiefly for the benefit of the nobility and clergy, are destitute of the principal motive to industry. 260. Productions. In addition to the grain and plants which constitute the necessary food of men, Spain produces oranges, lemons, almonds, figs and grapes, of which great quantities are exported. Pomegranates, dates, olives, pistachios, capers, filberts and chesnuts are also the produce of Spain. The sugar cane grows well in the southern provinces, but is little cultivated, on account of the ease of procuring sugar from the West Indies. Cetton is raised in Spain; silk is made in great quantities; saltpeter and barilla are produced in abundance, as are several kinds of wine. 261. Manufactures. Manufactures are not in a thriving condition in Spain, as the principal of them are monopolized by the crown, which destroys competition. Among the manufactures of Spain are broadcloth, glass, paper, porcelain, stockings, tapestry, swords of a superior quality, cotton, silk, and tobacco. But Spain is so if politic as to export raw materials, insted of encouraging manufactures. Considerable part of her silk and cotton are exported ; and of the wool, of which 25 millions of pounds are produced annually, the finest kind is mostly exported to England, France and Holland.

262. Commerce. The commerce of Spain is considerable, the best part of which is carried on with her American colonies. Her exports arc wines, fruits, oil, silks, wool, lether, broadcloth, salt, and many articles of less value, which amount to about 20 millions of dollars. Her imports are gold, silver, precious stones, pearls, cotton, cocoa, cochineal, dyeing woods, skins, medicinal plants, sugar, tobacco, Peruvian bark, &c. from her colonies in America. From the United States she receives great quantities of fish, and sometimes corn. The amount of her imports is fifty millions of dollars.

263. Chief Cities. Madrid. Madrid, the residence of the Court, is situated near the center of Spain, in New Castile, on a small stream called the Mansenares, which falls into the Tagus, but it is dry in summer. This city contains about 150,000 inhabitants, 13 parishes and 66 convents. There are 15 gates of granit, some of them elegant; one of them has three arches, of which the central one is 70 feet high. The churches and monasteries contain valuable paintings, and the royal palaces are magnificent. The new palace presents four fronts of 470 feet in length, and 100 fee: high, with numerous pillars and pilasters. The audience chamber is a double cube of 90 feet, hung with crimson velvet, and adorned with a sumptuous canopy and a painted ceiling. The city has little trade, but some royal manufactories.

264. Sevilla. Sevilla stands on the south bank of the Guadalquiver, in the midst of an extensive plain. It was formerly the residence of the Gothic kings, and the metropolis of Spain. It is of a circular form, surrounded by a wall; the streets narrow and crooked. It contains 30 parishes, 84 convents, 24 hospitals and about 80,000 souls. The commerce was formerly very great, this being the emporium of the trade to America; but this trade is transferred to Cadiz. The commerce howeyer is still considerable ; and it has a great manufacture of snuff. -

265. Cadiz. Cadiz is a large commercial city, on Leon, a small island, opposit to port St. Mary, and 40 miles northwest of Gibraltar, in the 37th degree of north latitude. The streets are narrow, ill paved and filthy; but most of them intersect each other at right angles. The houses are lofty, with a vestible open for passengers to retire to in the day time. In the middle of the house is a court, under which is a cistern, the breeding place of musketoes; on the ground floor is a store; on the second floor, a counting house, and the family live in the third story. The roofs are flat, and covered with an impenetrable cement. There is a public walk and a large esplanade for carriages. This city carries on the trade to America, and contains 70,000 souls; but some authors reckon them double the number. 266. Grenada. Grenada, the chief city of the province of the same name, stands at the foot of the Sierra Nevada, or snowy mountains, in a beautiful vale, upon two small hills, separated by the Dorro, a small stream, and washed also by another stream, the Genil. It was the seat of the Moors, and still retains many buildings with Arabic inscriptions; in particular, the Moorish palace, of great magnificence. Here is a court of inquisition, a royal tribunal, a university, and the see of an archbishop. Grenada contains 80,000 inhabitants, and is considered as the paradise of Spain. The Moors who were finally subdued and expelled in 1492, regret the loss of this city so much as still to mention it in their prayers. 267. Malaga. In the same province is Malaga, a commercial city on the Mediterranean, containing 40,000 inhabitants, before the pestiience of 1804, which swept away two thirds of the number. This town is very ancient, has two castles, and is a bishop's see. It stands at the foot of a craggy mountain, on which are made the wines, called Malaga, and Tinto, or Tent, so called from its deep red tinge. The town swarms with thieves and mendicants, but carries on considerable trade ; receiving from the north of Europe, woollen cloths, spices, cutlery, lace, &c. in exchange for its wines, oil and fruits.

268. Murcia. Murcia, the chief city of the province of that name, is situated on the river Segura, in a pleasant plain, and contains 6 parishes, with 60,000 inhabitants. Here is a beautiful bridge over the river Segura, and the cathedral is a superb edifice, with the stairs so contrived that a man may ride to the top on horseback, or in a coach. The country about it is dry, but produces an abundance of oranges, citrons, lemons, olives, and other fruits, with sugar and silk. 269. Toledo. In New Castile, south of Madrid, stands Toledo, an ancient city, situated on a mountain, which is almost surrounded by the river Tajo. The streets are narrow and uneven, but the houses are elegant, as this city was formerly the capital of the province, and contained 200,000 inhabitants; the number however, is now reduced to about 20,000. It contains 17 public squares, with many magnificent edifices, the chief of which is the royal castle and cathedral church, the last of which is the richest in Spain. 270. Barcelona. Barcelona, the chief city of Catalonia, in the north eastern extremity of Spain, is situated on the Mediterranean, with a good harbor. It was founded by Hamilcar Barcas, a Carthaginian general, and from him called Barcino. It is surrounded by brick walls, with ditches, and ramparts so broad as to admit coaches to drive on them for pleasure. It is separated into two parts, the Old and New, by a wall and ditch. It is the residence of a viceroy, is a bishop's see, has a university and a mint. The inhabitants are estimated at 110,000, and are distinguished for their industry and civility; as the women are for their beauty and social virtues. The manufactures ars numerous and the commerce extensive. 271. Saragossa. Saragossa, a name which is said to be a contraction of Cesar Augustus, is a considerable city on the Ebro, which penetrates it, 137 miles west of Barcelona. The streets are broad, well paved and clean, and the houses from three to six stories highIt contains 17 large churches, and 14 handsome monasteries, besides some inferior ones. In one of the churches is the image of the Virgin Mary, on a marble

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