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an expanse of water called the Sea of Azof. The Eux. ine is connected with the Mediterranean by narrow straits, called the Bosphorus, and the Hellespont, now called Dardanelles and the strait of Constantinople. 5. The Egean Sea. The Egean Sea, or Archipelago, is a deep Gulf or Bay of the Mediterranean, included between Asia and the Grecian territories. It is about 250 miles in length, and from 100 to 150 in bredth. It receives the waters of the Euxine by the straits of Dardanelles and Bosphorus, and is crowded with islands, which were the birth places of Grecian sages, poets, and heroes. 6. The Baltic Sea. The Baltic enters the Continent between Denmark on the south, and Norway and Sweden on the north, in the 58th degree of north latitude, by a strait called Skagerrack. Then bending southward to the 54th degree, it embosoms Zealand, Funen and other islands; then winding round Sweden, it runs northward to the 65th degree of latitude, projecting north into the gulf of Bothnia, and east into the gulf of Finland. Its length is about 700 miles, and its greatest bredth about 250. 7. The Red Sea. The Red Sea, or Arabian Gulf, enters the continent by the strait of Babelmandel, in the 12th degree of north latitude, and runs to the 30th degree, where it approaches within 70 miles of the Mediterranean. It is about 1500 miles in length, but in general not more than one hundred and fifty in bredth. It separates Arabia from Egypt, and over this sea passed the Israelites, when they left Egypt, under the guidance of Moses. 8. The Cashian Sea. In the heart of Asia is the Caspian, between the 37th and 47th degrees of north latitude, and the 48th and 53d of east longitude. Its length is nearly 700 miles, and its bredth from 200 to 250. It receives the waters of several large rivers, among which is the Volga, the largest river in Europe, but it has no outlet into the ocean. 9. Other Seas. The White Sea is a deep Bay from the Arctic Ocean, on the northern border of Russia; the Yellow Sea is a like bay on the coast of China; and the Okhosk on the northern coast of Asia. Of these, we have only general descriptions. 10. Lakes on the Eastern Continent. There are few Lakes on the Eastern Continent of a like magnitude with the large Lakes in America. The Aral, in Asia, east of the Caspian, about 250 miles in length, and 120 broad; Baikal, in Siberia, 320 miles in length and 80 in bredth, are the principal. Numerous smaller Lakes are mentioned in the description of the countries to which they belong. 11. Gulfs and Bays. The Bay of Biscay forms a spacious recess on the western shore of France and the northern border of Spain. The Gulf of Lyons is a smaller recess on the southern shore of France, at the mouth of the Rhone. The Gulf of Venice, or Adriatic Sea, is a deep recess of 450 miles in length, by about 100 in bredth, separating Italy from the ancient Greece, Illyricum and Dalmatia. 12. The Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Persia extends from the Indian Ocean about 600 miles into the Continent, between Arabia and Persia. It is from 150 to 18O miles wide, and receives the celebrated rivers Euphrates and Tigris. The Gulfs of Siam and Tunkin deeply indent the southeastern shore of Asia; and innumerable smaller recesses of the land, too minute to deserve particular notice, diversify the shores of this Continent. 13. Of the division of the Eastern Continent. The Eastern Continent, has, from very ancient times, been described under three grand divisions. Europe on the west, Asia on the east, and Africa on the south.


14. Situation of Europe. Europe is comprehended between the latitudes of 36 and 72 degrees north, and extends through about 70 degrees of longitude, from the 10th degree west to the 60th degree east of London.

15. Boundaries of Eurofle.—Europe is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the west; by the Mediterranean on the south; by the Northern or Arctic Ocean on the the north, and by the Hellespont, the Euxine Sea, the rivers Don and Volga, and the Uralian. Mountains on the east.

16. Extent of Eurofle. From the western coast of France, Spain and Lisbon, to the Uralian Mountains, the utmost length of Europe east and west is about 3200 miles. From the Mediterranean on the south to the North Sea, the utmost bredth is about 2500 miles. 17. Chief Mountains in Eurofle. The highest mountains in Europe are the Alps, which form two immense chains, extending, in a semicircular form, from the . Gulf of Genoa, to the Adriatic, between Italy and Germany. 18. Helvetian Alhs. The northern, or Helvetian chain, on which chiefly are situated the Swiss Cantons, contains a number of very elevated summits, among which are the Schreekhorn or peak of terror; the Grimsel, the Twins, and St. Gothard. These peaks elevate their inaccessible summits among the clouds, and are covered with everlasting snow. 19. Italian Alhs. The southern chain of the Alps forms the northern barrier of Italy. Its principal peaks are Mont Rosa, Cervin, St. Bernard, and Blanc. Of these, Mont Blanc is the highest; its altitude being about fourteen thousand seven hundred feet, and it is agreed to be the highest mountain in Europe. Mont Rosa is nearly as high. 20. General view of the Alhs. The name Alh, which signifies white, indicates a prominent feature of these majestic works of nature. The tops of the high elevations, mounting into the region of perpetual winter, exhibit to the o spectator, piles of snow and ice, sustaining the clouds with their immense summits. In the vast valleys between these mounts, lie the glaciers, or fields of ice, which are never wholly dissolved, 21. Particular uses of the Alhs. The Alps furnish the sources of the chief rivers of Europe. Embosoming vast reservoirs of water, supplied by rains, and the gradual melting of snow, these lofty mountains pour forth innumerable springs, to form the Po in Italy, the Rhone in France, the Rhine of Germany and the majestic Danube. From the snowy summits of the Alps, proceed also cooling north winds to refresh the sultry plains of Italy.

22. The Pyrenees.—The Pyrenees are a vast chain of elevated mountains, extending from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean, on the northern extremity of Spain, and forming a natural boundary between Spain and France. Mont Perdu, the highest peak, is eleven thousand feet high. From the northern side of this chain, proceed many of the streams which from the river Garonne in France; and from the eastern and southern sides, descend the head streams of the Ebro in Spain. 23. The Cevennes.—The Cevennes are a continued chain of the Pyrenees, running northwardly on the west of the Rhone, and are the most considerable mountains in France. The summits of these mountains are remarkable for storms of snow in winter; and from their declivities descend numerous streams which assist in forming the Garonne and the Loire. 24. The Carhathian Mountains.—The Carpathian mountains are a great chain in the center of Europe, on the north of Hungary. This chain with its spurs or projections, forms a natural barrier between Hungary and Gallicia ; and the Sudetic chain, which is a continuation of these mountains, divides Bohemia from Prussia. 25. Particular uses of these Mountains.—From the lof. ty sides of the Carpathian mountains proceed numerous tributary streams of the Danube on the south; while on the north, they furnish the sources of the Elbe, the Oder and the Vistula, three large rivers, which discharge their waters into the Baltic Sea, and some of the streams which form the Neister, which falls into the Euxine. 26. The Afifiemines.—The Appenines may be considered as a branch of the Alps, beginning in Genoa, and extending eastward and southward through the whole extent of Italy. They are not of great altitude, but they give rise to numerous streams, among which are the Arno, and the celebrated Tiber, on which stands Rome, the ancient mistress of the world. 27. Mountains in JWorway.—A chain of very high mountains runs north and south between the ocean and the gulf of Bothnia, dividing Norway from Sweden. In this chain, are numerous mountains with particular

names; among which Dofrafeld is considered the highest, and among the most elevated in Europe. 28. Settlement of Eurofle. The aboriginal inhabitants of Europe were denominated Scythians and Kelts, a name now corrupted into Celts. The western part of Europe was peopled by the Celts, who were probably the immediate descendants of Japhet, and who emigrated through Asia Minor, Greece and Italy, and spread over all the west of Europe, soon after the flood. They were called also Gaels, and gave name to Gaul, now France. 29. The Scythians. The Scythians settled on the north of the Danube, from the borders of the Euxine to the Vistula. The name Scythians also was given to the Asiatic inhabitants on the north and east of the Euxine. The tribes which penetrated to the north of Europe were called Fins and Laps, whose countries, Finland and Lapland, still bear their name. 30. Changes in the Pohulation. The primitive Celts, in England called Guydels, were vanquished by the Cimbri, a tribe from the shores of the Baltic. These were in their turn invaded by Belgic tribes, who conquered the southern parts of England, and compelled the original inhabitants to retire into the northern and western parts. These were the ancestors of the modern Welch, as also of the ancient Irish, and the Highlanders in the west of Scotland. Their language is the most ancient in Europe. 31. Gothic Tribes. The Scythians, under various names, migrated from the borders of the Euxine long before the Christian era. A powerful tribe of them called Goths, settled themselves on the shores of the Baltic, and especially in the modern Sweden. Other tribes which spoke dialects of the same language, and were therefore from the same original stock, spread themselves over all Germany, and ultimately settled in England and Scotland. 32. South of Eurofle. The Celts were the primitive inhabitants of Italy, France and Spain; but in the south of Europe as in the north, tribes of men and colonies were continually migrating westward. Thus a colony

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