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ies are not unfrequently visited with the bilious plague, the fatal disease of all hot countries. The sea coast, however, is refreshed by cool breezes from the ocean, and the mountainous regions enjoy a pure, and salubrious air.
245. Mountains. The mountains of Spain are arranged in distinct chains. On the north, the Pyrenees present a range of majestic elevations, extending from the Mediterranean, westward towards the Atlantic, south of Biscay. Another chain, called that of Guadarama, runs from Soria, south westward to Portugal. The chain of Toledo is nearly parallel to the last. Another chain is called Sierra Morena, to the south of the river Guadiana ; and the most northern chain, to the north of Grenada, is called Sierra Nevada.* Montserrat, a detached mountain, with broken summits, on a plain 30 miles from Barcelona, exhibits most romantic scenes, and is the seat of a convent.
246. Rivers. The Ebro. One of the chief rivers in Spain, is the Ebro, which has its source in the Pya renees, in Asturia, and running south east, enters the Mediterranean, after a course of 380 miles; on the banks of this river stands the city of Saragossa, and the more ancient city of Tarragona.'
247. The Douro. The Douro springs from the mountains in the centre of Spain, near the ancient Numantia, and being augmented by numerous streams from the great chains of mountains, north and south, pours its waters into the Atlantic, near Oporto, after a course of 350 miles.
248. The Tajo. The Tajo, or Tagus, the largest riv. er in Spain, rises in a chain of mountains, near Abarracin, and receiving many tributary streams from the mountains on the north and south, penetrates Portugal, and enters the Atlantic, below Lisbon, after a course of 450 miles. On the banks of the Manzanares, one of its tributary streams, stands Madrid, the metropolis of Spain, and its estuary forms a noble harbor at Lisbon.
* Sierra in Spanish, is a saw ; the name is given to chains of mountains presenting detached summits, which, at a distance appear like saw-teeth. Hence the name Mont-serrat.
249. The Guadiana. The Guadiana has its sources in the mountains of Toledo, and Sierra Morena, in New Castile, and pursuing a winding south westerly course, through Estremadura and a part of Portugal, it enters the Atlantic, in the bay of Cadiz. Its length is about 400 miles
250. The Guadalquiver. The Guadalquiver, anciently called Betis, rises in Andalusia, in the Sierra Morena chain of mountains, and pursuing a south westerly course, nearly 300 miles, it enters the bay of Cadiz, at St. Lucar.
251. Smaller Rivers. The Segura, Xucar and Guadalavir, are secondary rivers which enter the Mediterranean on the east. On the west is the Minho, which rises in the mountains of Gallicia, and forming a boundary between Spain and Portugal, enters the Atlantic, after a course of 160 miles.
252, Forests. There are several forests in Spain; .some which are suffered to remain, through negligence of cultivation, and others are reserved for the amusement of the kings, who are excessively addicted to the chase. The forest of Pardo is 30 miles in length. Some of the forests are said to be the haunts of free booters.
253. Animals. Spain is remarkable for producing most excellent breeds of horses and mules; and this celebrity has been maintained from high antiquity. But in nothing is Spain more distinguished, than in the excellence and numbers of its sheen, which produce the finest wool on earth, and constitute no inconsiderable part of its riches. These useful animals are pastured in the mountainous regions of the north, in summer, and driven to the more southern provinces in winter.The whole number of sheep is estimated at thirteen millions, five millions of which produce the wool of the finest kind,
254. Minerals. In ancient times, Spain was to the Greeks and Romans, what South America now is to Spain, the source from which they drew vast supplies of gold and silver. At present, few mines are worked, tho some rich veins of silver are known to exist. The chief mines of that metal are in the Sierra Morena, at Guadal
cornal. At Almadan, are productive mines of quicksilver, which is sent to South America, to be used in refining the more precious metals. Calamin, cobalt, antimony, copper, tin, lead, coal, amber and jet, are found in Spain; and iron of the best kind is abundant. Spain contains many mineral waters, as the hot springs near Oviedo, and the warm chalybeate baths of Buzot.
255. Religion. The religion of Spain is the Roman Catholic, which is observed and enforced with a degree of rigor, unknown in other countries. The court of inquisition is invested with exorbitant power, tho its severity is now relaxed. The archbishoprics are eight, and the bishoprics forty-six. The see of Toledo is said to have an income of ninety thousand pounds sterling. The whole number of clergy and religious orders are nearly 190,000, of whom more than ninety thousand are monks and nuns.
256. Government. The government of Spain is despotic and the crown hereditary. Anciently the will of the crown was controlled by the Cortes, court, or great national council, composed of the nobility, clergy and representatives of cities, whose share in legislation constituted an important feature in every government established by the Gothic nations. But the princes of Spain found means gradually to usurp the whole powers of legislation, and since the reign of Charles V. in the 16th century, the Cortes have rarely been assembled. The king however has several councils employed in the administration of government; as the council of state, of finances, of war, of the Indies, and several others.
257. Army and Navy. Before the discovery of America, the armies of Spain were composed of the best soldiers in Europe, and carried terror into France, Germany and Italy. But they have lost their reputation for spirit and disciplin. The same is true of the navy, which, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, alarmed even England for its safety. But since the destruction of the Armada in 1588, the Spaniards have not made a figure on the ocean ; altho, in recent engagements with the English, they have fought with acknowledged bravery. The troops of Spain are about 60,000, and the ships of the line from 30 to 50.
253. Revenues. The ordinary revenue of Spain is estimated at about 25 millions of dollars. This revenue arises from customs on goods imported and transported from one province to another; from monopolies of the crown ; stamp duties ; a land tax; and papal absolutions and indulgences, with some deductions from the salaries of officers, the mint, the crown revenue from America, and the provinces of Spain. The crown draws a great supply of specie from America ; but it is thought the mines yield no clear profit. The expenditures of Spain exceed the income, and the crown is burdened with a considerable debt.
259. Agriculture. Spain produces all the plants and species of grain proper for the climate. Barley and flax, like wheat, are sown in autumn, and the crop taken off in the spring as in Syria and Egypt. The Spaniards plow with oxen who draw with the yoke over the horns, the most natural mode, and one that enables the animal to exert the most strength. But agriculture is discouraged by the low state of the peasantry, who, not owning the soil, and compelled to labor chiefly for the benefit of the nobility and clergy, are destitute of the principal motive to industry.
260. Productions. In addition to the grain and plants which constitute the necessary food of men, Spain produces oranges, lemvis, almonds, figs and grapes, of which great quantities are exported. Pomegranates, dates, olives, pistachios, capers, filberts and chesnuts are also the produce of Spain. The sugar cane grows well in the southern provinces, but is little cultivated, on account of the ease of procuring sugar from the West Indies. Cotton is raised in Spain ; silk is made in great quantities; saltpeter and barilla are produced in abundance, as are several kinds of wine.
261. Manufactures. Manufactures are not in a thriving condition in Spain, as the principal of them are monopolized by the crown, which destroys competition. Among the manufactures of Spain are broadcloth, glass, paper, porcelain, stockings, tapestry, swords of a superior quality, cotton, silk, and tobacco. But Spain is so impolitic as to export raw materials, insted of en
couraging manufactures. Considerable part of her silk and cotton are exported ; and of the wool, of which 25 millions of pounds are produced annually, the finest kind is mostly exported to England, France and Holland.
262. Commerce. The commerce of Spain is considerable, the best part of which is carried on with her American colonies. Her exports arc wines, fruits, oil, silks, wool, lether, broadcloth, salt, and many articles of less value, which amount to about 20 millions of dollars. Her imports are gold, silver, precious stones, pearls, cotton, cocoa, cochineal, dyeing woods, skins, medicinal plants, sugar, tobacco, Peruvian bark, &c. from her colonies in America. From the United States she receives great quantities of fish, and sometimes corn. The amount of her imports is fifty millions of dollars.
263. Chief Cities. Madrid. Madrid, the residence of the Court, is situated near the center of Spain, in New Castile, on a small stream called the Mansenares, which falls into the Tagus, but it is dry in summer. This city contains about 150,000 inhabitants, 13 parishes and 66 convents. There are 15 gates of granit, some of them elegant; one of them has three arches, of which the central one is 70 feet high. The churches and monasteries contain valuable paintings, and the royal palaces are magnificent. The new palace presents four fronts of 470 feet in length, and 100 fer, high, with numerous pillars and pilasters. The audience chamber is a double '. cube of 90 feet, hung with crimson velvet, and adorned with a sumptuous canopy and a painted ceiling. The city has little trade, but some royal manufactories.
264. Sevilla. Sevilla stands on the south bank of the Guadalquiver, in the midst of an extensive plain. It was formerly the residence of the Gothic kings, and the metropolis of Spain. It is of a circular form, surrounded by a wall; the streets narrow and crooked. It contains 30 parishes, 84 convents, 24. hospitals and about 80,000 souls. The commerce was formerly very great, this being the emporium of the trade to America; but this trade is transferred to Cadiz. The commerce however is still considerable ; and it has a great manufacture of snuff.