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ment. To these have been since added, Savoy, and the Netherlands and other conquered territories, which are formed into 20 departments, making in all 203 departments. Each department is subdivided into communes, of which there are 1720 : and each commune, into cantons, of which there are 6400 in France, exclusive of the conquered countries. 219. Religion. The religion of France is the Roman Catholic, but other denominations are free to worship as they please. Before the revolution, there were in France, 20 archbishops, and 130 bishops. The clergy of all ranks amounted to 150,000, and this order of men, with the monasteries, owned a third of all the lands in the kingdom. During the revolution, the lands of the clergy were sequestered and sold for the public benefit, but the present clergy are allowed competent salaries. 220. Government. Before the revolution, France was a monarchy, nearly absolute. Anciently the princes summoned the States General, or Great Council of the Nation, to assist in devising measures for the public interest. But these councils were discontinued ; the last being held in 1614. The Parliament of Paris, indeed, retained the privilege of registering the king's edicts, before they were deemed to have the force of law; but this right became a mere matter of form, and the king's will was law. 221. Revolution. The Treasury of France being exhausted by bad management, peculation and enormous pensions squandered on favorites of the king, the public distresses compelled Louis XVI. to summon the States General in 1789. When assembled, they proceeded to overturn the old government, abolished the monarchy, beheaded the king and queen, banished or put to death their adherents, compelled the nobles and higher clergy to fly, and confiscated their estates. During the heat of the revolution, two or three forms of constitution were established, which were intended to be free and republican, but proved not to be durable. After a few years of distraction and unceasing murders and banishment, a new constitution, with a legislature of two branches, and an executive consisting of three Consuls, was form

ed and put in operation : but the ambition and talents of Bonaparte, in 1804, raised him to the imperial dignity. The form of a legislative body still exists, but the Emperor may be considered as absolute. 222. Army and .Wavy. Under the ancient monarchy, the army of France in time of war was from three to four hundred thousand men. During the revolution, the government demanded the services of every able bodied man, and the troops were at times estimated at a million. But the troops in actual service rarely amounted to more than half that number. The navy of France has been always respectable, consisting of from 50 to 100 ships of the line; but while France furnishes the best disciplined land troops, her navy is deficient in good seamen ; and in every war, her naval power is nearly destroyed by Great Britain. 223. Revenue. Under the monarchy, the public revenues amounted to thirty millions sterling. The present revenues are said to be about twenty-five millions.— The current coin of France is about ninety millions sterling. The loss of St. Domingo has impaired the revenues; but this loss may be more than balanced by the acquisition of Belgica, Savoy, the German States on the Rhine, and some other conquered countries. 224. Character and Manners. Ancient authors all agree that the Gauls were a fickle, perfidious people, prompt to action, but impatient of toil, and ever studious of change. The present French are remarkable for their vivacity, gayety and politeness; fond of show and pleasure, but not cleanly in their houses. The sanguinary scenes of the late revolution manifested a ferociousness of character, rarely found among civilized men, and impress the mind with horror. 225. Language. The original language of France, the Celtic, gave place to the Latin, during the empire of the Romans in that country; at least among the higher classes of men. When the Franks settled in the country, under Clovis, they introduced the Gothic, and the French became a mixture of Celtic, Latin and Gothic ; but it was called Romance, from the predominance of Roman words, and the first fictitious narratives being written in that language, the name Romance has becn transferred from the language to that kind of writings. The present French is esteemed for its adaptedness to the business of common life, and for light and familiar subjects, but it wants force, dignity and sublimity. It is, however, more widely diffused in foreign countries than any living language. 226. Literature. During the dark ages, France produced some writers of reputation; and learning revived there, before it did in England. It is supposed that learning and fine writing arrived to the highest pitch in the reign of Louis XIV. Among the most elegant authors which have adorned the literature and exalted the character of their country, are, Descartes, Pascal, Montesquieu, Corneille, Racine, Boileau, Moliere, Voltaire, Fontaine, Fenelon and Massilon. The History of Thuanus, in Latin, vies in elegance, with that of Livy. Lavoisier, in chemistry, Laland, in astronomy, and numerous other scientific characters, cannot be named but with the highest respect. 227. Education. Formerly the Jesuits were employed in the education of young men; and females were educated in nunneries. No system of general education for all classes of people is established in France, nor in any country of Europe. But colleges and schools of the best kind are established for instructing youth in every branch of useful knowledge. Twenty-one universities, and more than thirty literary societies existed in France before the revolution. Since this event, a National Institute has been established, with professorships in all branches of science and arts. Normal schools have also been founded in the several communes. 228. Chief Towns. Paris. Paris, the metropolis of France, was originally a castle upon an island in the Seine. It now covers the banks on both sides of the river, which are connected by several bridges, and is about 15 miles in circumference. It consists of three "parts, the ville or town on the north; the city in the middle, situated upon three islands in the Seine; and the university on the south. The houses are generally built of free stone, which is quarrried in mines beneath the city, so that no small part of it stands over vast cavities. The two most noted bridges, are the Pontneuf, consisting of 12 arches, and the Pont Royal ; most of them have rows of houses on the sides. Paris contains more than 900 streets; and the population is estimated by different authors, at four, six, seven and eight hundred thousand souls. 229. Edifices. The streets of Paris are well paved and lighted, and the buildings are in a style of superior elegance. Many of the public edifices are in the noblest style of architecture. Among these are the Louvre, a palace, rebuilt, but not finished, by Lewis XIV. This is joined by a gallery to the Thuilleries, behind which, on the bank of the Seine, are most pleasant walks in elegant gardens, planted with evergreens and stately elms. The Palace Royal contains an immense number of valuable paintings. The Royal Library contains 94,000 printed books and 30,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Notre Dame, is a venerable Gothic pile ; but the public buildings are too numerous to be here described. 230. Lyons. The second city in France is Lyons, at the confluence of the Rhone and Soane, which was formerly the seat of numerous manufactures of silk and cloths, wrought with gold and silver. During the late revolution, Lyons favored the cause of monarchy, and was doomed, in the phrenzy of the times, to utter destruction. The republicans besieged and took the city, butchered multitudes of the inhabitants without mercy, and proceeded to execute the decree of the convention, which ordered the houses to be demolished. But rage and folly have their limits and a part of the city escaped. The inhabitants were formerly 150,000, but the population has been greatly reduced. 23 1. Marseilles. Marseilles, a sea port on the Mediterranean, was founded by a colony of Greeks from Phocea, who fled from the tyranny of the Persians, about the year 539 before the christian era. It is surrounded by a rocky barren country, but has an excellent harbor and great commerce. The old town is ill built; but the new town erected in the 18th century, is distinguished for regularity and elegance. The inhabitants are estimated at 80,000, who carry on commerce, and manufactures of silk. 232. Bourdeaux. Bourdeaux is an ancient city, on the Garonne, built in the form of a bow, of which the river is the string. The tide rises there twelve feet, so that the largest vessels can ascend the river to the city. It is a bishop’s see, has a university, an academy of arts, and a magnificent theater. The town has twelve gates, a strong castle, called the Trumpet, with a noble quay for securing the shipping, and fine walks under rows of trees. The river is large, and the hills on the opposit side planted with vinyards and adorned with churches, villas and woods, present a charming prospect from the town. The population is about 80,000, and the commerce very extensive. 233. Other large Towns. Rouen, the chief city of Normandy, upon the Seine, contains 70,000 inhabitants. Lille, in the north, one of the best fortified towns in the world, contains nearly the same number. Toulouse, upon the Garonne, at the end of the Royal Canal, contains 60,000 inhabitants. Versailles, 12 miles from Paris, contains a like number. Nantz, a commercial city on the Loire, contains also 60,000 people. Brest, on the north west, contains a naval arsenal, with the chief harbor for ships of war; its inhabitants 30,000.-Toulon, on the south, another maritime town, contains about the same number. 234. Inland Mavigation. France contains many camals for facilitating inland transportation. Among the largest is the canal of Beirare or Burgundy, which contains 42 locks, and opens a communication between the Seine and Loire. It passes Montargis, joins the canal of Orleans,and enters the Seine near Fontainbleau ; opening a water conveyance between Paris and the western parts of France. The canal of Picardy connects the Oise and the Somme, and opens a communication with the north of France. But the canal of Languedoc, formed by Lewis XIV, exceeds all others in France. It passes from the Garonne to the Mediterranean Sea, a distance of 180 miles; is six feet deep, and 144 feet wide,

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