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guished for its manufactures of woollen stuffs, but the manufacture of linen attracted public notice and encouragement as early as the reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth. In the reign of William III. high duties upon woollens discouraging the manufacture, the Irish directed their attention to the making of linens, and to such an extent has this business been carried, that the annual produce is now estimated at two millions sterling in value. Ireland imports flax-seed from the United States, and furnishes in return, most of the white linens consumed by our citizens. 178. Commerce. The commerce of Ireland consists chiefly in provisions and linens. No country of the same extent exports such quantities of beef and butter, of an excellent quality; and Irish linens are known and used in most countries. In addition to these articles, Ireland exports tallow, hides, candles, lether, cheese, fish, and skinsof various kinds, with many less important articles.—The value of the imports of Ireland is about two millions, and that of the exports three or four millions. 179. Canals. Inland navigation has not been as successfully promoted, as in England. An attempt has been made to form a Canal from Dublin to the Shannon, and half a million of money, expended; but the work is imperfect. A canal connects Newry with the Sea; and several other canals have been projected; but the distracted state of the country, concurring with some private causes, has impeded the execution of the design. 180. Agriculture. Agriculture in Ireland is far less improved than in England. The nobles who own the lands, usually reside in England, where their incomes are expended, which ought rather to be laid out in improving their estates. The proprietors lease their lands to men, called middle men, who let them to the real occupiers, and the latter are extremely oppressed by the middle men, whose interestis to force from the poor tenants the hishest possible rent. Yet even under these abuses, Ireland is a productive country. 181. Minerals. A mine of gold has been lately dissovered in the county of Wicklow, which is worked for government, and yields a considerable quantity. Silver is found mixed with lead, in several places. Iron is a mineral of more consequence, found in the bogs or mountains, in considerable quantities. Some copper has been found, and numerous beds of coal. Marble, siate, and sand stone, are found in abundance. ” 182. Curiosities. A The lake of Killarney is considered as a curiosity deserving notice in geographical descriptions. This picturesk expanse of water, about 10 miles in length, and from one to seven in bredth, is divided into three parts, and is surrounded by an amphitheater of mountains, clothed with trees. . To give beauty to the scenery, the arbutus or strawberry tree, with its snowy blossoms and scarlet fruit, here grows in luxuriance. 183. Giant's Causeway. On the north point of Ireland, eight miles from Coleraine, is a collection of basaltic pillars, to which fancy has given the appellation of the Giant’s causeway. These pillars are of different sizes and figures, but mostly with five sides, from 15 to 24 inches in diameter. They rise from the water from 16 to 36 feet high. The causeway projects into the sea, to an unknown extent; but it has been explored to the distance of 600 feet. Most of the pillars, of which there are many thousands, stand in a vertical position; they consist of joints plain or concave, closely compacted together, and exhibit a most magnificent spectacle. -o-oBRITISH ISLANDS. 184. Wight. In the Channel, south of England and westward of Portsmouth, lies Wight, an island of 20 miles in length by 12 in bredth. It contains 30 parishes; 18,000 inhabitants; is very fertile, and adorned with many handsome villas. The principal haven is Newport. On this island is the castle in which Charles I. was imprisoned; an ancient edifice erected soon after the conquest. This island formerly produced wheat in one season sufficient to subsist the inhabitants for eight years.Here are found pipe-clay, alum, and fine sand for glass. On the west are lofty white rocks called the Needles, one of which, 120 feet high, was overthrown in 1782.
185. Guernsey and other islands. On the opposit side of the Channel, near France, and westward of Cape La Hogue, lie Alderney, Guernsey, Jersey and Sark, which belong to Great Britain, and are about 70 miles from Wight. Guernsey, the largest, is twelve milesin length and nine in bredth. It is hilly, but fertile, tho not well cultivated. It contains ten parishes and about 15,000 inhabitants. Alderney is about 8 miles in circuit, with a good soil and about a thousand inhabitants. Sark contains about 300 inhabitants. 186. Jersey. Jersey is twelve miles in length and six in bredth. The soil is fertile, producing all the necessaries of life, and the butter and honey produced there are said to be of an excellent quality. This island with the three last named, is also celebrated for producing most excellent cider in great quantities; 24,000 hogsheads having been made in one year in Jersey alone. This island contains 12 parishes, and 20,000 inhabitants, who are remarkable for health and longevity. These islands are part of the possessions which the kings of England have derived from their ancient sovereignty of Normandy, and the inhabitants speak French. 187. Isles of Scilly. To the west of the Land's end, the south west point of England, and 30 miles distant, lie the isles of Scilly, 140 in number. Most of them are bare rocks; but a few of the largest are inhabited, as St. Mary, which contains 600 people; and St. Agnes, 300. The whole number of inhabitants are said to be a thousand. As they lie at the entrance of St. George’s Chan. nel, between England and Ireland, they render the navi. gation dangerous, and occasion many shipwrecks. 188. Eddistone and Lundy. Near the Cornwall coast, and opposit the harbor of Plymouth, is Eddistone, a rock on which stands a light house, beat with the surges of the ocean, but composed of masses of stone grooved into the rock and joined by iron clamps. In the Bristol Channel is Lundy, containing about 500 akers of good land; formerly noted as the resort of pirates. 189. Anglesea. On the coast of Wales lies Anglesea, about 25 miles in length, and 18 in bredth, separated from Wales by a very narrow channel. It is remarkable
for its fertility, and contains some considerable towns, as Newburg, Beaumaris, and Holyhead. It furnishes also rich copper ore. This island was the retreat of the ancient Celtic Druids, or priests. When Suetonius, the Roman general, invaded the island, in the year 59, the Druids made a most obstinate resistance ; even the women as well as men fought the Romans, running about with dishevelled hair, and flaming torches in their hands, howling and screaming in a frightful manner. But they were subdued, their groves and altars destroyed, and the Druids were burnt in the fires prepared for their enemies. 190. Man. In the Irish sea, lies Man, or as it ought to be written, Mon; an island 30 miles in length and 15 in bredth. In the middle of the island is a ridge of barren mountains ; but the plains are fertile, and feed great numbers of cattle and sheep. It contains 17 parishes and four considerable towns on the sea coast. In the 9th century, the Norwegians seized this island; in 1263 it was subjected to Alexander, king of Scotland. Henry IV. conferred it on the Stanley family, and by marriage it afterwards passed to that of Athol. It has been since purchased and annexed to the crown. 191. Arran and Bute. In the Frith of Clyde lies Arran, a beautiful island, 23 miles in length and nine in bredth. This island contains a mountain, called Goatfell, 3000 feet high; but the plains are fertile, and produce cattle and barley for exportation. The inhabitants are 7000. Bute, in the same Frith, about 12 miles in length and four in bredth, contains 4000 inhabitants, and is the residence of the Marquis of Bute. 192. Ilay. Beyond the peninsula of Cantire, begin the Hebudes, or Western isles, sometimes called by mistake Hebrides. The most southerly of these is Ilay, about 23 miles in length and 18 in bredth, containing 7000 inhabitants. It produces cattle for exportation, and some lead is found, with a mixture of silver. 193. Jura. To the north east of Ilay is Jura, a narrow island of 20 miles in length and five in bredth. It has a rugged surface, and on the western side the paps of Jura, * range of conic hills, present a singular appearance. . *The best crops are potatoes and barley; the cattle are small, but the sheep excellent. Peat is in great abundance; and its minerals are iron and manganese. West of this, are Oransa and Colonsa, which, at low water, are one island. 194. Mull. Mull is one of the largest of the Hebudes, being 28 miles long and 18 broad, with a population of 7000 inhabitants. The climate is rainy ; the chief produce, barley and potatoes. The peoplc dwell in hovels made of whin, thatched, with an opening in the roof for smoke to escape. East of this is Lismore, formerly the residence of the bishops of Argyle; and south of this lies Rerrara, remarkable for the death of Alexander II, in 1249. 105. Iconikilt and Staffa. West of Mull is Icomkill, a small isle of three miles in length, but famous for having been the primitive seat of Scottish literature and religion, founded by St.Columbain the sixth century. This island furnishes beautiful white marble and jasper. Staffa, six miles north, is a small island, remarkable for beautiful columns of basalt, and a surprising basaltic cavern, called the harmonious grotto, of 140 feet in length. 196. Skey. The largest of the Hebudes is Skey, which is 45 miles in length and 22 in bredth, with a population of 15,000 inhabitants. It is, like the other Hebudes, rough and hilly ; but contains good pasturage, and its chief exports are cattle and small horses. This island is the residence of Lord Macdonald ; and here is seen a Danish fort, 18 feet high and 60 in diameter. The houses are chiefly of turf, covered with grass. This island also presents a series of basaltic pillars. 197. Leuis. To the westward of Skey lies a chain of islands, which serve as a barrier against the billows of the Atlantic. The largest of these is Leuis, which is 50 miles in length, and 20 in bredth. The face of the island is a heathy elevated ridge, full of morasses. Stornaway, on the east, is a thriving town, with 70 houses, besides cottages, and a good harbor. The crops are oats and potatoes. No tree will thrive here except alder and mountain ash; but the pasturage supports many cattle, sheep and small horses. Herc is an ancient hall of jus