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cred 40,000 English inhabitants; but this insurrection was finally crushed by Cromwell. Ireland was governed as a dependent kingdom, by a Lord Lieutenant, untill the year 1800, when it was united to England, and it now sends a hundred representatives to the Imperial Parliament. 154. Mountains. The mountains of Ireland are neither numerous, nor high. There is however a ridge of highlands, lying in the direction of southwest and north east, near the center of the island, which cast the waters to the east and west. The mountains are mostly in short lines or detached groops. The highest of these, Mangerton, near the lake of Killarney; and Donard, in the county of Down, rise not more than 2600, or 3000 feet above the level of the sea. 155. Rivers. The Shannon. The largest river in Ireland is the Shannon, whose source is the lake Allen, and which, passing through two lakes, the Ree and the Derg, spreads into an estuary from 3 to 10 miles wide, which extends 60 miles from the sea. The whole course of the river is about 160 miles, and it affords navigable water nearly to its source ; but the navigation is impeded by a ridge of rocks below Killaloe. 156. Smaller Rivers The Lee on the south, enters the harbor of Cork; the Blackwater, a large river on the south also, discharges its waters into Youghall Bay. The Barrow, a stream of 100 miles in length, in conjunction with the Nore and Suir, forms the harbor of Waterford in the south east; the Slaney, a smaller stream, forms the harbor of Wexford. The Lissy is a small stream, rendered worthy of notice, by having the metropolis upon its banks. The Boyne, a stream on the east, of 50 miles in length, is famous for the battle fought between King William and James in 1690. The Banna and Foyl, in the north, are rivers of considerable magnitude. 157. Bays and Harbors. Ireland is remarkable for the number of spacious bays which indent its shores, and form excellent harbors. Of these the principal are Carrickfergus, Strongford, Carlingford, Dundalk, Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork, Kinsale. Baltimore, Bantry, Kenmare, Dingle, the Shannon, Galway, Sligo, Donegall, Swilly and Foyl. Many others might be mentioned, which are of less importance. 158. Lakes. Ireland contains many lakes, some of which are of considerable extent. The word Lake is pronounced by the Irish Lough, as by the Scots, Loch ; but the Irish sometimes apply it to an estuary or broad inlet of the sea, such as the Swilley and the Foyl, which in America, we should call a bay, of which the Delaware furnishes an example. 159. Chief Lakes. The Earn in the north west, is the largest lake in Ireland, being 30 miles long, and 12 broad, but composed of two parts connected by a strait of four Ymiles wide. The Neagh, in the north east, is 22 miles in length, and 12 in width. These lakes contain many small islands. Corrib, in the county of Galway, is 20 miles in length, but narrow. The Ree and the Derg, which are expansions of the Shannon, are less considerable. The lake of Killarney, in the south west, is of secondary magnitude, but its borders furnish romantic views and delightful scencry. 160. Moors and Bogs. The bogs and moors of Ireland are proverbial, and form a singular feature of the country. They are of different kinds; some being covered with grass, but so soft as to endanger the unwary traveller. Others are shallow lakes, studded with bogs, or tufts of rushes. Others are peat-moors, which furjlish fuel for the people. Others are pools of water and mire. These bogs are rarely level, but varied with hills and dales. t 161. Forests. Scarcely the semblance of a forest remains in Ireland; the wood being long since consumed, and not replaced by the hand of industry. Turf and coal are the fuel used by the inhabitants. 162. Climate and Soil. Ireland like England, has a *mild climate, but very humid, by reason of the vapors wafted upon the land by westerly winds. The summers are not excessively warm, and the winters exhibit little or no frost, in ordinary years. But Ireland, like England, sometimes experiences severe frost, in winters of unusual severity. The soil is a stony clay or loam, or a gravelly sand; but is remarkably fertile, and furnishes a rich herbage for innumerable cattle. 163. Division of Ireland. The most usual division of Ireland is into four provinces—Leinster, Ulster, Connaught and Munster. Leinster contains 12 counties; Ulster, 9; Connaught, 5; and Munster, 6; in the whole, 32 counties. 164. Government. In primitive ages, Ireland was subject to a number of petty princes and chieftains. After it became subject to the crown of England, the government was formed upon the plan of that of England, with a Parliament, consisting of a House of Peers and a House of Commons; and a Lord Lieutenant appointed by the King of England, represented the power of the crown. In 1800, Ireland was united to Great Britain, and is now represented in the Imperial Parliament. 165. Army and Revenues. The Irish form no inconsiderable part of the regular army of Great Britain. In addition to which, Ireland in 1780 raised 40,000 volunteers, and has recently equipped a considerable body of militia. The revenues are estimated at a million sterling. 166. Religion. The established religion of Ireland is that of the Church of England; but two thirds or three fourths of the people are Roman Catholics; and the Presbyterians are supposed to be as numerous as the Episcopalians. There are four archbishoprics; those of Armagh, Dublin, Cashel and Tuam. The Archbishopric of Armagh contains seven Bishoprics and that of Dublin, three ; that of Cashel, five, and that of Tuam, three. - 167. Language. In the west of Ireland, the old Irish language, which is the Celtic, with some intermixture of Gothic words, is still in use. In other parts of Ireland, the English tung has been introduced with the government and inhabitants of England, and the Irish is nearly extinct, 168. Literature. Trinity College at Dublin is the only University in Ireland. It consists of 33 buildings of 8 rooms in each, arranged in two squares, and is govern: ed by a Chancellor, and Provost, with their deputies, 22 fellows, and 13 professors; the students usually about 400. Ireland has produced a number of very learned men and good authors, among whom may be named, Usher, Swift, Ware, Steele, Berkeley, Parnel, Goldsmith, Burke, Sheridan and Kirwan. 169. Manners and Customs. The Irish are remarkable for their hospitality and for excessive indulgence in drinking at entertainments. The higher classes resemble the English and American gentry in their dress and modes of life; but are said to be more addicted to hunting and other robust exercises. Ireland is celebrated for producing the stoutest men and fairest women in Europe. 170. Peasantry. The peasantry of Ireland are poor and oppressed beyond the like class of people in almost any country. Their dwellings are hovels of mud, in which a partition only separates the family from their cow. Their food consists chiefly of potatoes and buttermilk, with some coarse bread, eggs and fish. The laboring people seldom eat butcher's meat.—Their drink is usquebaugh, or whisky. When a person dies, his body is laid out before the door, with a plate upon it to invite charity; and when carried to the grave, is accompanied with dreadful howls and other barbarous ceremoIn 16S. 171. Chief Cities. Dublin. Dublin, the metropolis of Ireland, is situated upon the Liffy, a small river, in a delightful plain or vale, between ranges of hills. It is about two miles and a quarter in length, and the same in bredth; being ten miles in circumference, and containing 150,000 inhabitants. It is in magnitude the second city in Great Britain, and the fifth in Europe. The houses were anciently constructed of wattles daubed over with clay; but are now built with brick and stone. It contains six bridges; a castle in which are kept the public records; a magnificent parliament house ; 19 churches, of which St. Patrick’s is a venerable edifice, begun in the 12th century; a Royal Exchange, and other elegant buildings. 172. Environs of Dublin. Dublin stands 7 miles from the Sea at the bottom of a bay, both sides of which are ornamented with elegant buildings. The harbor does not admit large ships, but a mole or strong wall of the thickness of a street, and four miles in length, has been erected to protect the shipping. St. Stephen's Green, a mile in length, is laid out in walks and planted with trces. Phenix park is destitute of trees. Numerous seats of the nobility and many striking natural objects, as hills and islands, embellish the vicinity of Dublin. 173. Cork. The second city in Ireland is Cork, which stands on an island, in the Lee, at the bottom of a bay, 7 miles from the sea, and 129 miles south west from Dublin. The harbor is capacious and safe, and at this place is shipped the greater part of the Irish provisions, consisting of beef and butter, with hides and tallow. Cork contains seven churches, besides six Catholic Chapels, two or three churches for dissenters, and about 70,000 inhabitants. 174. Limerick. Limerick is situated off, both sides of the Shannon, whose broad estuary penetrates about 60 miles into the land. It has an excellent haven, and its central position makes it advantageous for trade. The banks of the river are connected by three bridges, one of which consists of 14 arches. The inhabitants are estimated at 50,000. The chief exports are beef and other provisions. 175. Waterford and Wexford. Waterford on the river Suir, is a city of considerable importance, containing about 30,000 inhabitants. Its exports are provisions and linen. Wexford, in the south east of Ireland, contains about 9000 inhabitants and is noted for its manufacture of wool. Packets sail regularly between Waterford and Milford Haven in Wales. 176. Other considerable Towns. Belfast, on the north east, stands at the bottom of the bay of Carrickfergus, contains about 18,000 inhabitants, and is the center of the linen manufactures. Dundalk, Londonderry, Sligo, Galway, and a few other towns are considerable for their magnitude and trade. Of these Kilkenny, an interior town, with 16,000 inhabitants, is celebrated for its fossil coal, which is said to be the best yet found on the globe. 177. Manufactures. Ireland was anciently distin

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