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133. Manners and Customs. The Scots, who are wealthy, resemble the English in their dress, their food and their customs. But some differences proceed from their religion, their climate, and other causes. As the climate will not give them wheat in abundance, nor maiz, the chief food of the common people is oatmeal, eaten in a cake or in a porridge. Their drink is maltliquor or whisky; but the peasantry are remarkable for sobriety and temperance. At a funeral, the corpse is conveyed to the grave on a herse of trellice-work, painted black, and spotted as with falling tears. No clergyman attends, nor is there any religious service on these Occasions. 134. Highland dress. The Highlanders, in the west and north of Scotland, wear a woollen stuff, of various stripes, crossing each other. Over the shirt, they throw a waistcoat, in a loose manner, like the Roman toga, or fasten it round the middle with a lethern belt, the ends hanging down before and behind. This is called a fishelin ; and by the peasants a kilt, which is some times also a short petticoat hanging down to the knees. Some times they wear a kind of petticoat buckled round the waist, called a finilibeg. Their stockings of the same material are tied below the knees, with garters formed into tassels. The poorer classes wear brogues, or shoes of untanned skins. 135. Amusements. Dancing is the common amusement of the Scots. The gentlemen have a game called the Goff, which is played with a bat and ball; the latter is smaller and harder than a cricket ball, and he who drives it into a hole, with the fewest strokes, wins the game. Another diversion is called curling ; which consists in rolling large stones, with iron handles, upon the ice, and he is the winner who drives the stone nearest the mark. 136. Persons and language of the Scots. The Scots are remarked for being less fleshy than the English; but are well made, robust, hardy and industrious. They are also remarkable for their attachment to their country, and their fidelity to each other. The language of the Lowlands, or southern and eastern parts of Scotland, is of Gothic origin, or English, with dialectical variations.— The language of the Highlands is the primitive Celtic, or Erse.
137. Education. Few countries, perhaps none except some of the United States, can boast of such a general education of its citizens as Scotland. Every parish has its school, in which children, even the poorest, have an opportunity to learn to read and write, at a trifling expense. This advantage, with the regular preaching of the gospel, and a rigid regard to morals, renders the peasantry the most orderly, intelligent, industrious and peaceable of any in Europe.
138. Universities. There are four Universitics or rather Colleges in Scotland ; St. Andrews, Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. These seminaries are furnished with professorships in the principal branches of science, and have long sustained the reputation of the first eminence. Great numbers of Americans have been educated in the Scottish universities; and more especially the gentlemen of the medical profession.— Among the most distinguished of the learned men of that country, may be named a Buchanan, the classical scholar ; Napier, Kiel, Maclaurin, and Simson, mathematicians; Monro, Smellie, and Cullen, physicians; Hume and Robertson, historians; Thomson, the poet, and Blair the divine and rhetorician.
139. Chief towns and cities. Edinburgh. Edinburgh is supposed to have taken its name from Edwin, king of Northumberland, whose territories extended to the Forth; but this opinion is of questionable authority.— The first mention of the town is in a chronicle about the year 953, when the town was yielded by the English to the Scots. It was originally a mere castle, upon a rock or hill, and the city was afterwards built upon the declivity under its protection. The houses in the old town are very high—some of them 13 or 14 stolies. The new town is celebrated for its regularity and elegance. The castle commands a fine view of the adjacent country, the Forth, and the harbor of LeithThe houses are built of stone, and the city contains about 86,000 inhabitants.
140. Glasgow. Glaswow is the second city in Scotland, and of more ancient origin than Edinburgh. It stands on a declivity, sloping towards the Clyde, in the west of Scotland, 44 miles from Edinburgh, and is remarkable for its regularity, neatness and beauty. The streets are broad, well paved, and cross each other at right angles. The houses are four or five stories high, and many of them supported by arcades, which form piazzas, of magnificent appearance. The inhabitants are about 65,000, and the commerce of the city very extensive. 141. Perth. Perth is an ancient town, situated on the western branch of the Tay. It has a noble bridge over the river, and considerable manufactures of linen, Jether and paper: Its trade is chiefly to Norway, the Baltic and the coasting business. Its inhabitants are about 30,000. 142. Dundee. Near the mouth of the Tay lies Dundee, a neat modern town, with a good road for shipping. Its chief manufactures are linen, thread and lether, and its commerce is considerable. Its public edifices are neat and commodious, and its population about 25,000This town was taken by storm by Gen. Monk in 1651, and its governor, Lumisden, perished amidst a torrent of blood. 143. Aberdeen. Aberdeen, at the mouth of the Dee, contains two towns, the old and the new. The new town was built for commerce, and has a good harbor. The old town is a mile distant. It was destroyed by Edward the third of England, but is now a place of considerable trade. Its inhabitants are about 25,000, and its chief manufactures are woollen goods, and particularly stockings. 144. Grenock and Paisley. Grenock, being the port of Glasgow, and sharing in its trade, has lately risen to considerable consequence. Its inhabitants are estimated at 15,000. Paisley, in the same county, contains 20,000 inhabitants, and is celebrated for its manufactures of muslin, lawns, and gauzes. 145. Inverness and other towns. Inverness, an ancient town, is the metropolis of the Highlands, and is suppo
sed to contain 10,000 inhabitants. Its chief manufactures are ropes and candles. Sterling, Dumfries, Ayr, Dunkeld, Berwick, and some other towns, are places of considerable population, trade and manufactures. 146. Canals. The principal canal, and one of the noblest in Europe, is that which connects the Forth and Clyde, bearing boats and small vessels across the island. The bredth of this canal at the surface is 56 feet, the depth, 7 feet; the locks are 75 feet long and the gates 20 feet wide. It begins at the river Carron, and in the course of ten miles rises, by 20 locks, to the highth of 155 feet—then proceeds 18 miles on a level—is carried over a river, and a public road on arches, and ends at the Clyde. The whole length is 35 miles. It was begun in 1768, and finished in 1790, when a hogshead of water from the Forth was conveyed and poured into the Clyde as a symbol of the junction of the two seas. 147. Manufactures. The manufactures of Scotland experienced a rapid growth during the last century. The principal articles are linen of various kinds, cottons, musiins, gauze, lawn, thread; stockings, carpets, iron, glass, lether, ropes and candles. The manufacture of cotton in Glasgow, occupies 15,000 looms, and the goods produced annually are valued at a million and a half sterling. The goods made at Paisley are of near half the value. 148. Commerce. The commerce of Scotland is chief. . ly carried on by Edinburgh and Glasgow, from the harbors of Leith and Grenock; but the trade of Perth. Dundee and Aberdeen is also considerable. The chief exports are linen, iron, glass, lead, woollen stuffs, cottons of all kinds, stockings, earthern ware, cordage, soap, Iether and candles. The imports are wines, brandy, rum, Sugar, tobacco, cotton, rice, indigo, Irish beef, butter and linens. The amount of exports is something more than a million sterling. 149. Fisheries. The rivers and adjacent seas of Scotland abound with herring, salmon and various other kinds of fish, which furnish large quantities of food to the inhabitants. Great efforts have been made to establish the herring fishery, and liberal bounties offered by govern
ment, but these efforts have not been attended with complete success. o --4--IRELAND.
150. Wame. Ireland was known to the Phenicians and Greeks, long before the invasion of England by Julius Cesar. The Greeks called it Juverna ; the Romans, Hibernia, which are the same name, differently modified, and both formed from a Celtic word, signifying west, or the western island. After the Romans became well acquainted with the island, they discovered the ruling people to be the Scots, and called the country Scotia; which name was, in the eleventh century, transferred to Scotland, where the Scots had settled. Ireland then resumed its ancient name, which was Erin, with the Belgic term land, Erin land, which has been softened into Iretand.
151. Situation. Ireland lies in the Atlantic, west of England, from which it is separated by a channel called the Irish Sea and St. George's Channel. This strait valies in width from 20 to more than 100 miles. The longitude of Ireland is from 5 # to 10 degrees west of London, and its latitude from 51 to 55 # degrees north.
152. Eactent and floftulation. This island is about 300 miles in length, and from 120 to 160 miles in bredth. It contains about 27,500 square miles, and three millions of inhabitants, or nearly 110 to a square mile. Some writers estimate the inhabitants at four millions; but it is probable this estimate is too high.
153. History of Ireland. Ireland was originally peopled by the Celts, from Gaul and Britain. Afterwards the Scots, a tribe of Goths, established themselves in the north and east parts of the island, and the Romans called the country Scotia. But many of the Scots migrated to the west of Scotland, and the remainder were incorporated with the original inhabitants. In the year 1171, Henry II. of England reduced Ireland under the sovereignty of England; the English laws were introduced, and many English inhabitants. The conquest however was not completed, till the reign of Henry VIII. or rather of James I. In 1641, the Irish revolted and massa