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from the Scots, who originally lived in the north of Ireland. The name Scot is probably the same as Scuth or Scythian—the people being emigrants from the Baltic countries. 114. Situation and eactent. Scotland extends from north latitude 55 to 58 degrees 35 minutes. Its length is about 260 miles, and its bredth is from 60 to 160 miles; the whole of Scotland is west of the meridian of London. Scotland is estimated to contain 27,793 square miles, nearly 18 millions of akers, and a million five hundred and thirty thousand inhabitants. 115. History of the Population. The first inhabitants of Scotland were probably emigrants from the opposit continent, as the language of the Lowlands has always been a dialect of the Gothic. These primitive inhabitants were probably the Cimbri, from the present peninsula of Jutland: The Pehts, or Peohts,” a tribe of Norwegians, settled in Scotland, before the Christain era, and these, with the primitive inhabitants, formed the population of the Lowlands. About the middle of the third century, the Dalraids, a Celtic tribe from the north of Ireland, passed over and established themselves in Argyleshire, and from them are descended the present Highlanders. 116. Mountains of Scotland. Nearly two thirds of Scotland may be considered as mountainous. The largest of the mountains are in the west and north, in Argyleshire, Perthshire, Inverness, Ross, Caithness and Sutherland; which are called the Highlands. The eastern and southern parts are less mountainous, but diversified with hills and plains. On the south-west is the ridge of Galloway, a continuation of the Cheviot hills. In the center are the lead hills, 3000 feet high, from which streams of water descend in different directions to the ocean. The Grampion hills, to the south of the Dee, form the southern boundary of the Highlands, Ben Nevis, the highest summit in Great Britain, has an altitude of 4350 feet, Many other summits rise above 3000 feet. These mountains exhibit an august picture of forlorn na* Called by the Romans, Picti, the original name latinized, which has misled the moderns, to suppose the name was given to them on account of their painting their bodies,
ture; barren heath and naked rocks; vast precipices, formless lakes and uninhabited deserts, presenting a grand, but gloomy prospect. 117. Rivers. The chief rivers of Scotland are the Forth, the Clyde and the Tay. The Forth has its sources in a mountain called Ben Lomond, or rather in the Con and Ard, two lakes on the east of it, in Monteith. It is swelled by the Teith into a considerable stream, passes Sterling and, to the northward of Edinburg, opens into a wide estuary, called the Frith of Forth, by which it is connected with the ocean. 118. The Clyde. The Clyde springs from the hills in Lanarkshire, and running a northerly course, passes Crawford moor, leaving the Leaden hills on the left; then winds around the lofty hill of Tinto, and in a northwesterly direction, passes Glasgow and forms the harbor of Greenock; then opens into the Frith of Clyde. 119. The Tay. The Tay proceeds from several sources, the chief of which is the lake of the same name, or Lock Tay. It is swelled by the rivers Lyon, Tarf, Garrel and Tumel, the last of which is a rapid and romantic river. It passes easterly and southerly to Perth, below which it unites with the Ern, spreads into an estuary, and mingles with the sea near Dundee. 120. Smaller streams. The Tweed, a pastoral stream, to the north of the Cheviot hills, falls into the sea at Berwick. The Annan and the Nith discharge their waters into the Frith of Solway. The Dee runs easterly and meets the ocean at Aberdeen; a little north of which is the Don. The Spey is an impetuous river of the Highlands. The Ness contributes to form the estuary, called Murray Frith. 121, Lakes, The largest lake in Scotland is Lomond, which is studded with islands, and exhibits a most picturesk and beautiful scenery upon its shores. The depth of its water is from 20 to 60 fathoms. At the time of the earthquake, which demolished Lisbon in 1755, the waters of this and other lakes in Scotland, were agitated in a singular manner; flowing and ebbing, in every period of a few minutes, for several hours in succession. 122. Other lakes. On the east of Lomond is an assemblage of curious lakes, the Ketterin, the Con, and
the Ard, the Achray, and the Lubnaig, situated among hills and rocks of distorted forms; some of them covered with heath, and adorned with the weeping birch.-In the vicinity is the lake of Menteith, containing two small isles, one presenting the ruins of a monastery; the other, the ruins of a castle of the old earls of Monteith. Loch Tay is a beautiful expanse of water, and so is Loch Ness, which contains excellent trout, and never freezes, its depth being from 60 to 130 fathoms. Numerous other lakes embellish the scenery of Scotland. 123. Climate and seasons. In so high a latitude as Scotland, the climate must necessarily be marked with a predominance of cold. The summers are so short, that there is scarcely time for oats to come to maturity, and in wet seasons, the crop is often lost. The winters produce great quantities of snow, but the cold is not so great as on the continent in similar latitudes. On the east, the air of Scotland is drier than in England, the western mountains intercepting the vapor from the Atlantic; but the west of Scotland is deluged with rains, which prove an obstacle to agriculture. 124 Soil and face of the Country. The soil of Scotland is in general not fertile; but many plains and vales are exceptions to this general character; and this, like most other countries, is diversified with various soils, fitted for different vegetables. The face of the country presents an agreeable intermixture of hills and vales, barren rocks, morasses, lakes, and fields covered with luxuriant herbage. In some parts, especially in the north and west, forests of wood and timber trees yet remain ; tho most of the country is without wood. 125. Minerals. Gold was formerly found in Scotland, but at present there are mines neither of gold nor silver; tho small quantities of these metals are found in the lead mines. The chief minerals now found are lead, iron and coal, which are produced in large quantities. . The counties of Lothian and Fife abound with coal, which is also dug in some other counties, and furnishes fuel for common use, and sometimes for export. Some copper has been found in Scotland; as are black and brown marble, fuller's earth, jasper, alum, crystals and talck.
126. Watural Curiosities. The mountains of Scotland offer to the traveller many singular scenes; as caves, cataracts, ravins, natural arches and pillars of stone, among which are the basaltic columns of Arthur's seat. On the northern shore of the Forth, near Dysart, is a coal mine which has been on fire for ages. In Caithness is a large cave, into which people sail in boats to kill seals. The cave Frasgill, 50 feet high and 20 wide, is variegated with innumerable colors which blend and unite with a softness that no art can imitate. Near Sandwit is a small grove of hazels, about four inches high, bearing nuts. Ben Nevis, a curious mountain, presents on one side a perpendicular precipice of the stupendous altitude of 1500 feet.
127. Civil and Ecclesiastical Divisions. Scotland is divided, for civil purposes, into 33 shires or counties, 18 of which are on the south of the Forth, and 15 on the north. For ecclesiastical purposes, it is divided into parishes, of which there are 941.
128. History of the Government. Scotland was reduced to the Roman power by Agricola, and the Lowlands continued under its dominion. After the Romans abandoned the island, Scotland was subjected to its own chiefs, princes and parliament. In the year 1603, by the accession of James VI. of Scotland to the throne of England, England and Scotland were united under the same prince. In the year 1706, the union became complete by agreement and compact, so that Scotland is now a constituent part of Great Britain, sending 16 peers to the House of Lords, and 45 representatives to the House of Commons.
129. Civil Courts. The highest Court in Scotland is
the Court of Session, composed of a president and 14 senators, or lords of session. This court is the last resort in civil cases, except to the parliament of Great Britain; but causes are not tried by jury. The JusticiaTy Court, consisting of five judges, with a president, who is called Lord Justice Clerk, is the supreme court for the trial of crimes. It decides by the majority of a jury, and not by a unanimity, as in England and the United States. There is also a Court of Exchequer, consisting of a Lord Chief Baron and four Barons, and a High Court of Admiralty, consisting of a single judge.
130. Ecclesiastical Courts. The lowest ecclesiastical judicatory is the Kirk Session, consisting of the minister, elders and deacons of a parish. The next in order is the Presbytery, which is composed of the ministers of several adjoining parishes, each attended by a ruling elder, chosen half-yearly. Of the presbyteries, the number is sixty-nine. A number of presbyteries constitute a Provincial Synod, the next higher court, and of these there are fifteen. The highest court of all is the General Assembly, composed of commissioners from presbyteries, royal; boroughs, and universities.— This court meets once a year, and receives appeals from all other ecclesiastical courts.
131. History of the Religion of Scotland. Christianity was introduced into Scotland very early, but not openly preached till the third century. The Catholic system was introduced and prevailed till the reformation, when by the influence of J. Knox, Calvinism was introduced. At the restoration in 1660, Episcopacy was established in Scotland; but the Bishops, in 1638, refusing to acknowledge king William, Episcopacy was discountenanced, and from that time has declined. The established religion now is the Presbyterian, but some Episcopalians remain, and a few other dissenters.
132. Laws. The laws of Scotland differ from those of England, being founded chiefly on the civil or Roman law. Of the common law there is scarcely a trace; but the decisions of the Court of Session are observed as precedents. The canon law forms another main pillar of Scottish judicature. The modes of proceeding in the courts are less tedious and embarrassed with legal fictions than in England. Formerly the Barons and other Lords had the exclusive right of holding courts and determining causes on their own manors, an authority which was extremely oppressive; but these hereditary jurisdictions were abolished in 1755; since which the the citizens are more free and the country more prosper©tis.