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before the end of that term. The number of representatives is, for England, 513, for Scotland, 45, and for Ireland, 100—in the whole, 658. These two houses have a negative on each other's votes, and the king has a negative upon both, so that no bill becomes a law without the consent of the three branches, King, Lords, and Commons. 97. The King's Council and Ministry. The King is the chief executive magistrate of the nation, and has the appointment of all officers, civil and military. To the King also belongs the high prerogative of making peace and war. To assist him in the execution of these important duties, he has a Privy Council, appointed by himself. He also appoints some able person to superintend the revenue, and each department of the administration; as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who is Prime Minister; the secretaries of State, Treasurer of the Navy, &c. 98. Courts of Justice. No country can boast of a more excellent system for the administration of justice than England. Twelve judges, appointed by the King, and holding their office during good behaviour, constitute the judiciary of the kingdom. From this number are taken the judges of the Court of King’s Bench, which has jurisdiction of criminal and civil causes throughout England. The Court of Common Pleas has civil jurisdiction equally extensive. To bring justice to every part of the kingdom, nisi prius courts are established— that is, one judge is appointed to go to every county, try issues and take verdicts, which are afterwards carried up to the courts at Westminster, and there decided according to law. 99. The Court of Chancery. To moderate the rigor of law, and of legal rules of proceeding, there is a Court of Chancery or Equity, vested with important powers. This court admits the farties upon their oath to make disclosure of facts, which no court of law can do, and gives relief in many cases in which the rigid rules of proceeding in the law courts preclude a remedy for inJuries. 100. Other Courts. The Court of Exchequer has cognizance of causes relating to the revenues of the king

dom. The Court of Admiralty has jurisdiction over all. maritime causes. The Ecclesiastical Courts have the probate of wills. There are many inferior Courts, but they are of less importance. In all the Courts of Common Law, issues are tried by a jury of twelve men, as in the United States, But from these Courts there lies an appeal or writ of error to the House of Lords, who, assisted by the twelve judges, decide in the last resort. 101. Religion of England. The Church of England, as established by law, is founded upon the reformation by Luther; yet the creed is rather Calvinistic than Lutheran. The principal doctrines are contained in the thirty-nine articles, which must be subscribed by persons as a qualification for office. Dissenters from the established Church are tolerated in the exercise of their religion. 102. Clergy. The Clergy are composed of different orders; as Archbishops, Bishops, Prebendaries, Archdeacons, Deacons, and Vicars or Curates. The Archbishops and Bishops are appointed by the King, for the election of the person nominated by the King is a mere formality. Theinferior Clergy are ordained by the Bishops, and presented to the parishes or benefices by the patron. The rite of presentation is called advowson, and the person presented, the incumbent. 103. Education. In England great attention is given to the education of young persons of property of both sexes. The youth of families in the higher ranks of life are instructed in all branches of learning suited to their condition, whether useful or ornamental. But the lower classes of the community are more neglected. No public provision is made for the education of all the peasantry; but to make some amends, Sunday schools are established, in which great numbers of poor children, who labor for subsistence on other days, are instructed in the rudiments of learning and religion. 104. Universities. There are two Universities in England, which are venerable for their antiquity, their extent and importance : One at Oxford, the other at Cambridge. The University at Oxford consists of 20 colleges and five halls, with like privileges. That at

Cambridge consists of 17 colleges and halls. These are richly endowed, enjoy the privilege of governing themselves as corporations, and each sends two members to Parliament. To entitle a member to a bachelor's degree, a residence of three years is necessary at Cambridge, and four at Oxford. Three years further residence entitles to the degree of Master of Arts—after which, seven years must elapse before the degree of Bachelor of Divinity or Doctor of Laws can be conferred; and four years more for the degree of Doctor of Divinity. 105. Learned Men. England has been distinguished from a very early period, for the number and eminence of her literary characters. The writings of Beda and Alfred, even in Saxon times, show a considerable extent of learning. During the ignorance and barbarism of the dark ages, the monasteries produced a number of histo: ries written in tolerable Latin. Since the revival of learning, England has produced a great number of au. thors of the first distinction, in every branch of science and literature; and the names of Bacon, Newton, Mil. ton, Shakspeare, Pope, Addison and Johnson, will perish only with the world we inhabit. 106. English Language. The English language is composed—1st. Of some Celtic words, derived from the aboriginal Celtic inhabitants, the first and immediate descendants of the Japhetic colonies—2d. Of Belgic words, introduced by the Belgic tribes, who settled in England before the invasion of Julius Cesar–3d. Of Saxon and Danish words, introduced by the Saxons, Angles, and Danes. These and the Belgians all spoke dialects of the same language, and this composes the body of the popular language of England and the United States at this day. 4th. Of Some French words, incorporated with the language under the Norman Princes—5th. Of words borrowed from the Latin and Greek languages, after the revival of letters—6th. Ofterms borrowed from the modern Dutch, French, Spanish, Italian and Turkish languages—7th. Of names of plants, animals, minerals, and other things of foreign origin, which new dis. coveries and importations are constantly introducing to eur knowledge, and into common use, from the remotest parts of the world. 107. Antiquities. The most remarkable remains of the ancient Celtic or Belgic inhabitants are the stupendous monuments of stone, called Cromlecks, or circles of stones. One of these, called Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, consists of two circles and two ovals, composed of stones standing upright, on which are laid other massy stones, some of them six feet broad, three feet thick, and 20 feet long. These stones are mortised together. The exterior circle is 180 feet in diameter. These circles of stones are numerous in the west of England and in Wales, at d are supposed to be the seats of judgment, where courts were held by our rude ancestors. Barrows or conical mounts of earth are also found in England, which were repositories of the bones of the dead, similar to those which are found in America. iOS. Roman Antiquities. The altars, monumental inscriptions, remains of roads and camps, arms and coins, are among the relics of Roman dominion in England. But the most astonishing of the Roman works is the great wall of Severus, running from Tinmouth to Solway Frith, more than 70 miles in length. This was composed of earth, fortified with stone turrets and a ditch, and intended to restrain the incursions of the Picts and Scots, who often ravaged and plundered the northern counties of England, 109. Saxon Antiquities. The Saxons erected many edifices which are still standing, and particularly churches and castles. Of these, the most remarkable is the cathedral of Winchester, which was the burying place of several Saxon Kings. Their castles consisted of a solitary tower, square or hexagonal. Many Saxon charters are still extant, signed by the King and his Nobles, with a cross, the subscribers not being able to write their names. Under an old castle in Ryegate is an oblong square hall, cut out of a rock, with a bench on the sides. 110. Mational Debt. The national debt of Great-Britain began in the reign of King William, and being augmented in every war, it amounted, in 1805, to more than five hundred millions sterling, the annual interest of C 2 --

which is about twenty millions. A sinking fund, formed in 1786, has redeemed about 30 or 40 millions, but the burden of this enormous debt is extremely oppressive, as it obliges the government to tax everything that man can use or enjoy.

111. Revenue. The revenue of England arises from the land tax, excise on articles consumed, customs on imports and exports, stamp dutics, tax on income and on letters, and from numerous less important sources. The whole amount of revenue is about twenty-five millions sterling, twenty millions of which are required to discharge the interest of the national debt. To support the enormous expenses of great fleets and armies, the government every year, in time of war, borrows a large sum, which adds to the national debt. The civil list, or allowance to the King, is a million a year; from which are maintained the royal family, officers of state, judges and embassadors.

112. Customs and manners. The persons of the English are of a good size, and their complexion fair, as is that of most of the northern nations of Europe. They are industrious, enterprising, and brave—less phlegmatic than the Germans, and less volatile and active than the French. Their dress is chiefly of wool, linen, cotton and silk, as in the United States. Their food consists chiefly of wheat bread, beef, mutton, pork, poultry, and fish. Their chief drinks are malt liquors and red wines, with wines of other kinds, spirits and cider in smaller quantities. Their chief amusements are the theater, hunting and dancing.


113. Of the name. The northern part of Britain was unknown to the Romans, until the time of Agricola's government of the island. In the year 80, this General penetrated north, subdued the inhabitants, and with his fleet circumnavigated the island. The north part of the island, the Romans called Caledonia, from a word which is said to have signified a forest or mountainous country. But it was not till long after, that the country received the name of Scotia or Scotland; and then, it derived it

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