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the north side, at nearly an equal distance from the riva er and lakes on the south, and Hudson's Bay on the north. Canada is also bounded on the south by the great chain which runs through the United States, and which separates Canada from Maine.
902. Rivera. Lower Canada is penetrated by the great river St. Lawrence, which is the outlet of five of the largest lakes on the globe. From the sea to the isle of Orleans, that is, a distance of more than 300 miles, this river is from 12 to 15 miles wide. Above Orleans, it narrows to a mile in bredth, at Quebec.
903. Smaller Rivers. On the south, the Chaudiere, runs from the mountains which divide Canada from Maine, and enters the St. Lawrence, not far above Que. bec. The St. Francis issues from lake Memfremagog, and falls into the same river. The Sorell, the outlet of Lake Champlain and Lake George, discharges the waters of those lakes into the St. Lawrence, below Montreal, On the north the St. Lawrence receives the Sagunau, a considerable river, with Bustard river, Black river, and some smaller ones, below Quebec. Above Quebec, the principal river is the Utawas, which comes from the north west and unites with the St. Lawrence just above Montreal.
904. Climate and Productions. The winters in Canada are long and cold ; the rivers are covered with ice, and the earth with deep snow, for four months., But the heat of summer is sufficient to ripen all kinds of grain, even the smaller kind of maiz. Wheat is raised in great quantities, as well as all other grains and garden vegetables which are produced in New-England. Cana ada is also a good country for grass and timber. The an, imals are mostly the same as in the United States.
905. Chirf Towns. Quebec. The chief town in Lower Canada, and the metropolis of the British colonies in North America, is Quebec. This city, whose name in the Algonkin language, signifies a narrowing or strait, the St. Lawrence here being contracted from a broad es. tuary to a mile in bredth, stands at the confluence of the St. Lawrence and a small river called St. Charles, about 320 miles from the sea. Between the city and the isle
of Orleans is a large bason a league in length, which forms à spacious harbor. Quebec is in north latitude 46 degrees 47 minutes, and in 71 degrees 10 minutes west longitude.
906. Description of Québec. Quebec is situated upon a rocky point, composed of marble and slate. It consists of the lower and upper town. The lower town is at the foot of a steep hill, near the water; and from this there is a passage to the upper town by steps. It contains some handsome squares and buildings; among which are the church, convents, and bishop's palace.. The houses are mostly of stone, and the fortifications are strong. The inhabitants, about 10 or 12,000, are mostly French, and many of them well bred and intelligent. The vicinity of Quebec exhibits a variety of picturesk scenery ; of which the fall of Montmorency, a beautiful sheet of water, of 40 feet high, is not the least romantic.
907. Montreal. Montreal, which name is a corruption of Mont Royal, royal mountain, is situated on the east side of a considerable island, 150 miles south west of Quebec, at the junction of the Utawas with the St. Lawrence. The Island of Montreal is about to leagues in length, and 4 in its greatest bredth. The mountain from which it receives its name, is about half a league from the south shore. On the declivity of this mountain, as it ascends from the shore, is built the city, which has its upper and lower town. It is of a quadrangular form, and contains 6 or 8000 inhabitants, with a regi. ment of British troops. Ships of 400 tuns may ascend with difficulty to this place, but here ends the navigation of large vessels.
908. Government. Canada is governed by the govern. or general of the British possessions, who resides at Quebec, a legislative council and assembly. The governor is appointed by the king ; the legislative council consists of seven members, selected by the governor, and holding their offices for life. The Assembly consists of at least 50 members, chosen by the freeholders, once in four years. The governor, and certain members of
the council, appointed by the king, form a court of civil jurisdiction.
909. Commerce. The exports of Canada consist chiefly of furs and peltry, purchased of the Indians, with a few other articles, as wheat, flour, pot-ash, fish, oil and genseng. The imports are wine, spirits, salt, sugar, coffee, tobacco, melasses, dry goods, drugs and hardware. The amount of exports is about half a million sterling..
910. Inhabitants. The whole population of Lower Canada is about 150,000 ; the greatest part of the people are descendants of the French, and speak their native language. Nine tenths of them are Roman Catholics, whose religion is tolerated. Their dress is the same as in the United States, except that in winter they wear more fur, to guard against the severe cold. The fur cap for the head, and the moggason for the foot, are much used, and the French peasantry still wear the wooden shoe.
UPPER CANADA. 911. Situation and Limits. Upper Canada lies to the westward of Lower Canada. Its southern limit is the line through the center of the great Lakes, which separates it from the United States. On the north it is bounded by New Britain, and on the west the limit is undetermined. Its latitude is from 42 to 50 degrees north. Its bredth is extremely various, and its length east and west not ascertained. It is divided into nineteen counties.
912. Face of the Country. Upper Canada is in general a level country, but a chain of high lands on the north throws the waters towards the lakes on the south, and Hudson's Bay on the north. No territory of the same extent exhibits a greater variety of interesting scenery. The southern part presents those vast bodies of water, the great lakes, which resemble inland soas; connected by a current, which forms a large river. Here is the stupendous fall of Niagara, the greatest cataract, and one of the most surprising curiosities on the globe.
913. Rivers. The point where the St. Lawrence issues from the Ontario is in Upper Canada. The stream which connects the great lakes is a large river ; between Erie and Ontario, it is called Niagara, and is from half a mile to a mile broad. Below Ontario it is from 6 to 10 miles wide, and embosoms numerous islands. The Utawas proceeds from lake Temiscaming, or rather from the sources of that lake, in the high lands west and north, and after a course of 500 miles, falls into the St. Lawrence a few miles from Montreal.
914. Lakes. In addition to the great lakes on the south of Upper Canada, the Temiscaming is a considerable sheet of water. The Nepissing also is a considerable lake, whose waters are discharged into lake Huron by French river. The lake is about 35 miles in length and twelve in bredth ; French river is about 75 miles in length, and its banks are mostly bare rocks. The high lands between the great lakes and Hudson's Bay are full of small lakes, the sources of innumerable streams which run into the great lakes, the St. Lawrence and the Bay.
915. Towns. Newark, on the west side of Niagara river, at its entrance into Ontario, contains about 100 families, with two churches and a court house. Queenstown, seven miles above, is the place where goods are unladen from the water craft, and sent by land carriage round the great fall. York, on the west side of Ontario, 35 miles from Niagara, is the seat of government, and contains 3 or 400 families. Kingston, near the egress of the St. Lawrence from the Ontario, and the old fort Frontenac, contains about 100 families.
916. Inhabitants. The inhabitants of UpperCanada are mostly emigrants from the United States. The number is not known, but it is constantly increasing. The prevailing religion is Methodism, but the settlements are recent, and few churches are established. The government is modelled in the same manner as that of Lower Canada. The country resembles the adjacent territory of NewYork, in climate and productions. Agriculture is in a state of improvement. The trade consists chiefly in
the export of peltry, and the purchase of dry goods, liquors, and other foreign commodities.
NEW BRITAIN. 917. Situation. To the north of Canada lies an extensive country, along the western border of the Atlan. tic and around Hudson's Bay, which is claimed by the British government, but which is inhabited only by savases, except the trading factories, which are small set. plements for the purpose of collecting furs. The exa clusive privilege of collecting furs is granted to a company of English merchants. The extent of the British claims is not known, and to the north and west, the country has been explored only by a few traders.
918. General Tiety of the Country. Beyond the limits of Canada, the climate is so cold and the soil so forbilding, that little can be expected from cultivation. The face of the country exhibits barren mountains and broken rocks, interspersed with marshes and lakes. The southern parts abound with pine, larch, birch, willows, cedars, and a variety of shrubs producing berries, as currants and gooseberries. In the northern part all vegetation ceases; a few inches only of the surface of the earth are liberated from frost, even in the midst of summer; and the face of nature is one bleak dreary waste, the solitary haunt of the wild beast and the roam. ing savage.
919. Bays. In this territory is the vast bay called Hudson's, from its discoverer, Capt. Henry Hudson, who first entered it in 1610, where his crew mutinied, and set him and seven of his most faithful men afloat in an open boat, and he perished. A narrow part of this bay on the south, is called James' Bay, and on the north, is Repulse Bay. The entrance into Hudson's Bay is by a long strait opposit to Greenland, called Hudson's Strait.
920. Rivers. Hudson's Bay receives the waters of scveral large rivers, among which the principal are the Slude, Ruperts, Harricanaw, Abbitiby, Moose and Albany, all which proceed from the borders of Canada and enter James's Bay. The Saskashawin or Saskachiwin, with the Askow and Red River, fall into lake Winipic,