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ide in the known world. The water driven into the bay from the south east is more and more compressed as the bay narrows towards the north, till at the heads of the bay, it rises in the basin of Minas 40 feet, and in the Chignecto branch 60 feet. On the flat lands, the tide rushes forward with such rapidity as to overtake swine. Nova Scotia is indented with many small bays, none of which are worthy of notice, except Chebucto, on which stands Halifax, the principal town.

880. Rivers, Capes and Mountains. The principal rivers are Annapolis and Shubenaccadie. The most noted capes are Canso on the north east, and Sable on the south east ; the latter is remarkable for the loss of res. sels which it occasions. To the northward of Annapolis is a range of mountains of 80 miles in length, terminating in Cape Blowmedown. On the south shore is the high land of Aspotageon, which is a good land mark for seamen. About 30 miles north is the Ardois, the highest mountain in the province.

881. Lakes. This territory is diversified with seven ral lakes and ponds of some magnitude. Lake Porter is a narrow slip of water, 15 miles in length, which pours its waters into the Ocean, about 5 leagues east of Halifax, Potawoc lies near the head of Margaret's Bay ; the great lake of Shubenacaddie, 21 miles from Halifax, and Rosa signol, between Liverpool and Annapolis, with some smaller lakes, demand no particular description.

882. Soil, Productions and Fisheries. A considerable part of this province is rocky and barren, especially on the sea coast. The interior of the province is more fruita ful, and produces wheat, rye, oats, barley, and potatoes of an excellent kind. The province furnishes an abundance of spruce, hemlock, pine, fir, beech and maple. The neighboring sea abounds with fish of various sorts, as cod, salmon, mackarel, herrings, alewives, and others, Coal, iron, lime-stone and gypsum, abound in the province.

883. Chief Towns. Halifax. The principal town in Nova Scotia is Halifax, situated on Chebucto Bay, which is of easy entrance, a safe harbor, and sufficiently large to contain a thousand sail of vessels. Here is the navy yard, with stores for the royal navy. This town, which was settled by people from Great Britain in 1749, is laid out in oblong squares, upon the declivity of a hill, and contained in: 1793 about 4000 inhabitants.

884. Other Towns. On the south east, near Cape Sable, is Shelburne, on Port Roseway, containing 4 or 500 families. On the north, Manchester ; on the west, Annapolis ; to which may be added Digby, Lunenburg, Shawdon, New Dublin, Liverpool, Windsor, Cornwallis, and several others. The whole population of Nora Scotia, New Brunswick, and the adjacent islands, is computed at 50,000. · 885. Commerce. The trade of Nova Scotia consists mostly in the export of fish and lumber, and the import of cloths, wines, spirits, and sometimes corn, and such other commodities as the climate renders necessary, or the habits of the people demand.

NEW BRUNSWICK. 886. Situation and Boundaries. New Brunswick is the western division of the ancient Nova Scotia, lying on the west of the Bay of Fundy, and connected with Nova Scotia by a neck of land at the head of that bay. It ex. tends westerly to the Scooduc, which is the boundary of the United States, and from that river a north line to Canada is the western limit of New Brunswick. On the north, the province is bounded by Canada and the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

887. Mountains and Rivers. In the northern part of New Brunswick lies a chain of mountains or high lands, which may be considered as the extremity of the main chain which runs through the United States. The prin.cipal river is the St. John's, which proceeds from the Highlands in the north part of Maine, to the northward of the sources of the Penobscot, and by a very winding course of more than three hundred miles, disembogues into the bay of Fundy. There are some smaller rivers.

888. Soil and Productions. The intervals along the rivers, and especially on the St. John's, are excellent land, and no small part is cultivated. The province fur

nishes great forests of excellent timber and wood, consisting of pine, spruce, hemlock, beech, birch, ash and maple, and no part of America affords finer masts and spars than New Brunswick.

889. Chief Towns. St. John's, the chief town in the province, situated near the mouth of the river of that name, is regularly laid out, and contains about 1000 in-habitants. Frederickton, 80 miles from the mouth of that river, at the head of sloop navigation, is the present seat of government, and contains about five hundred inhabitants.

890. Singular Fall. A mile above the city of St. John, is a Fall, occasioned by a ridge of rocks over which the tide flows and ebbs. At low tide, the fresh water falls over the rocks towards the sca ; at high tide, the water flows from the sea over the rocks, and falls into the channel above, so that the water alternately falls in different directions. The only time when boats pass is at high water, when there is little or no current

891. Breton.* To the north east of Nova Scotia is Breton, an island of 100 miles in length, and from 20 to 80 in bredth, in the 46th and 47th degrees of north latitude, and separated from Nova Scotia by the strait of Canso. Near the center of the island, is a lake which receives several rivers, and communicates with the sea. This island contains much cultivable land and valuable timber. It was formerly annexed to the government of Nova Scotia, but in 1784 was constituted a separate government. It contains 3000 inhabitants, two thirds of which are French

892. Towns and Trade. The chief towns are Sidney and Arichat. Sidney, on the south east branch of Spanish river, is the seat of government, and contains a garrison. Arichat, on the Isle of Madam, is inhabited by fishermen. Lewisburg, a fortress, taken from the French by the New England troops in 1745, is considered as the key to Canada. The principal trade of the island consists in the export of coals and fish. The coal

* When this island was first discovered, it was mistaken for a part of the continent, and called Cape Breton. But this being an error, the word Cape ought not to be retained.

lies near the surface of the earth, and is in great abundance. One mine has taken fire, which cannot be extinguished.

893. History. The island was discovered by some of the first voyagers to America, and became the resort of fishermen. In 1713, it was settled by the French, first at Fort Dauphin, but they removed to Lewisburg. By the reduction of this fortress in 1745, the island came into possession of the British. The French had permission to remove, but they chose to remain.

894. St. John's. St. John's is an island, north of Nova Scotia, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, about 100 miles long, and from 10 to 35 broad. It contains some rivers, and much cultivable land. Charlotte Town is its principal town, and the residence of the lieutenant governor. The inhabitants are estimated at 5000.

The four governments of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Breton and St. John's, are each under the immediatc jurisdiction of a lieutenant governor, and all subject to a general governor, who resides at Quebec.

895. Smaller Islands. There are many small islands in the gulf of St. Lawrence, which have no permanent inhabitants. Anticosti, at the entrance of the river, is 120 miles long, but has no convenient harbor, and is uninhabited. The Magdalen Isles are frequented only by fishermen. Pierced Isle, south of Cape Gaspee, is so named from arched openings through a perpendicular rock, through which the tide flows and ebbs.

896. Newfoundland. Newfoundland was the first land discovered in North America, having been seen by John Cabot on his first yoyage, which must have been in 1494 or 5. It is situated in front of the great bay of St. Lawrence, extending in medial length and bredth about 350 miles, from 46 degrees 45 minutes, to 51 degrees 46 minutes north latitude, and 52 degrees 31 minutes to 59 degrees 40 minutes longitude west from London. On the north it is separated from the continent by the strait of Belisle.

857. General Description. Newfoundland was settled by the English under Gov. Gray in 1610, but its climate and soil are so unkindly, that the permanent inhabitants

are not more than 1000 families. The chief towns are Bonavista, Placentia and St. John's. It contains some good timber, but a great part of the island remains unexplored. It has a number of good harbors, and is highly valued for the fishery of cod on the banks, which exceeds every thing known in any other part of the world. It is computed that 3000 sail of vessels and 100,000 hands are employed in this fishery. • 898, General views of the Climate. The climate of the countries just described is extremely unpleasant. The winters are long and cold; and in summer thick chilling fogs cover the land and sea, and hide the face of the sun a great part of the time. These fogs, which are doubtless caused by the warmer waters of the gulf stream, and the rapidi evaporation which that water must suffer, in the colder regions of the north, are wafted over the land by every easterly wind, and for some months, an occasional blast of westerly wind affords the inhabitants the only opportunity to enjoy a serene sky and the cheering rays of the sun.

LOWER CANADA. 899. History. A Frenchman by the name of Cartier, entered and sailed up the St. Lawrence, or Great River of Canada in the year 1535; and called the country New France. A few convicts were transported and left at Tadousac, on the river Sagunau, in the year 1600 ; but the first regular settlement of Canada was made by Champlain, who founded Quebec in 1608. This province continued, with little interruption, in possession of the French, till the year 1759, when it was conquered by the English, and confirmed to them by the treaty of 1763.

900. Situation and Extent. Lower Canada is situated between 61 and 81 degrees of west longitude, and 45 and 52 north latitude. Its length east and west is 1000 miles, and its bredth 400. It is bounded south by the United States; west by Upper Canada ; north by NewBritain; and east by the gulf of St. Lawrence, and other British possessions.

901. Mountains. A chain of mountains runs nearly parrallel with the St. Lawrence and the great lakes on

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