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870. Climate and Productions. The climate of the isles in the Pacific, is remarkably mild or temperate; the east or trade winds are regular, and hurricanes and violent tempests are not known. The isles produce yams, plantain, sugar-cane, and bread fruit in abundance. These, with fish, constitute almost the only subsistence of the natives. The animals are few ; the quadrupeds are only hogs, dogs and rats; the birds are white pigeons and plovers, owls, and a sort of raven. On Owyhee, one of the Sandwich isles, capt. Cook was killed by the natives in Feb. 1779; but his death was owing to a sudden impulse of unmerited resentment, and not to the natural ferociousness of the people.
871. Societi, Isles. Otaheite. A cluster of isles in the Pacific, is called the Society Isles, in honor of the Royal Society in England. The number is sixty or seventy; the principal of which, Otaheite, is about 120 miles in circumference, in the 18th degree of south latitude. It consists of two peninsulas, connected by a neck of land, surrounded by a reef of coral rocks. The land rises from the shore into hills and mountains, and is very fertile, being covered with trees and plants. The chief animals are bogs, dogs and poultry, with some wild fowls. Cattle, horses, sheep, goats, and ducks have been introduced by Europeans. The plants of all the tropical isles of the Pacific are nearly the same, yams, bananas, plantain, cocoa, sweet potatoes and the bread fruit.
872. Inhabitants. The inhabitants of Otaheite are estimated at 16000, who are remarkable for the simplicity of their minds, their good nature, affability, sincerity and benevolence. Their color is olive, and their stature exceeds the middle size. The females have fine black eyes, with white even teeth, and handsome limbs,with long black hair perfumed and ornamented with flowers. The dress and food of the inhabitants are nearly the same as in the Sandwich isłcs. They have one supreme Deity, and many inferior ones; each family has its Tee, or guardial, spirit, which is worshipped at the Morai, or burying Place. These benevolent children of undisguised na“re admit the immortality of the soul, but not a state
of future punishment. Their priests are numerous, and human victims are commonly criminals. Their happiness is often disturbed by wars between different isles or tribes. Their battles are fought on the water in long canoes, fitted with out-riggers or cross-pieces, to prevent them from oversetting, two of which are often fastened together. Their language is remarkably soft and melodious, and attempts are making to christianize them. 873. The Marquesas. The Marquesas, a groop of isles north east of Otaheite, in the 8th and 9th degrees of south latitude, were discovered by Mendana, a Spaniard, and named after Mendoza, a governor of Peru, Marquis of Caniente. The climate, productions and animals are nearly the same as those of the Society isles. But the inhabitants are described as far superior to the natives of other isles, in symmetry of shape and regularity of features. Their complexion is olive, but rather fairer than that of the natives of the Sandwich isles; but the practice of tatooing the body, which blackens the skin by numerous punctures, is universal. Their garments are simple, and made of the bark or fibers of plants. They have idols of wood, and are governed by a chief who has little power, and by their customs which are regarded as laws. 874. Friendly Isles. . The Friendly isles are a groop near the 20th degree of south latitude, which, in climate and productions, resemble those last described. But the inhabitants are represented as more grave and regular in their deportment, and distinguished for their industry and ingenuity. The principal isle, discovered by the Dutch navigator, Tasman, in 1643, is called Tongataboo, which exhibits a surprizing state of cultivation. The land is divided into fields, inclosed with reed fences of 6 feet high, and intersected with innumerable roads. The Fejee isles to the north west, are subject to Tongataboo. Still further north, are the Navigators, inhabited by a stout race of men, but ferocious, living in the midst of natural productions of the richest luxuriance. Innumerable other islands appear in the vast Patific Ocean, too numerous and too nearly resembling each other in every important feature, to require description.
BRITISH COLONIES IN AMERICA. 875, Vova Scotia. History. The territory now called Nova Scotia, was first granted by the French king Henry IV. to De Monts, in 1603, and called Acadie. The next year it was settled by a few Frenchmen at Port Royal. In 1621, king James granted the same territory to a Scots gentleman, Sir William Alexander, by the name of Wova Scotia, or New Scotland. It has been the subject of contending claims between Great Britain and France, and repeatedly in the possession of each. 876. Extent and Division. Nova Scotia, before the province was divided, comprehended the territory on the main land as far west as the river Scooduc, formerly called St. Croix, and the borders of Canada, with the island of St. John, and other islands within six leagues of the shore. It was more than 300 miles in length, and 250 in bredth. But in 1784 it was divided into two govern. ments, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. 877. Wova Scotia. The present government of Nova Scotia extends from 45 to 48 degrees of north latitude, to the south of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and is nearly surrounded by the Ocean. On the north east it is separated from Breton by the strait of Canso, and to the north lies St. Johns. On the west it is bounded by the Bay of Fundy, and by New Brunswick, from which it is separated by the river Missiquash. 878. Ectent and Form. The length of Nova Scotia is nearly 200 miles, and its medial bredth about 80. It is almost insulated by the Bay of Fundy, which penetrates 150 miles into the land, towards the Gulf of St. Lawrence, leaving an istmus of only 18 miles, connecting Nova Scotia with New Brunswick. Nova Scotia contains nearly 9 millions of akers, not more than a fourth part of which is settled. ... 879. , Bays. The Bay of Fundy, on the west of Nova Scotia, is one of the most remarkable in America. Its medial bredth is about 35 miles, and here is the highest
tide in the known world. The water driven into the bay from the south east is more and more compressed as the bay narrows towards the north, till at the heads of the bay, it rises in the basin of Minas 40 feet, and in the Chignecto branch 60 feet. On the flat lands, the tide rushes forward with such rapidity as to overtake swine. Nova Scotia is indented with many small bays, none of which are worthy of notice, except Chebucto, on which stands Halifax, the principal town. 880. Rivers, Cafes and Mountains. The principal rivers are Annapolis and Shubenaccadie. The most noted capes are Canso on the north east, and Sable on the south east ; the latter is remarkable for the loss of vessels which it occasions. To the northward of Annapolis is a range of mountains of 80 miles in length, terminating in Cape Blowmedown. On the south shore is the high land of Aspotageon, which is a good land mark for seamen. About 30 miles north is the Ardois, the highest mountain in the province. 881. Lakes. This territory is diversified with several lakes and ponds of some magnitude. Lake Porter is a narrow slip of water, 15 miles in length, which pours its waters into the Ocean, about 5 leagues east of Halifax. Potawoc lies near the head of Margaret's Bay; the great lake of Shubenacaddie, 21 miles from Halifax, and Rossignol, between Liverpool and Annapolis, with some smaller lakes, demand no particular description. 882. Soil, Productions and Fisheries. A considerable, part of this province is rocky and barren, especially on the sea coast. The interior of the province is more fruitful, and produces wheat, rye, oats, barley, and potatoes of an excellent kind. The province furnishes an abundance of spruce, hemlock, pine, fir, beech and maple. The neighboring sea abounds with fish of various sorts, as cod, salmon, mackarel, herrings, alewives, and others. Coal, iron, lime-stone and gypsum, abound in the proyince. 883. Chief Towns. Halifax. The principal town in Nova Scotia is Halifax, situated on Chebucto Bay, which is of easy entrance, a safe harbor, and sufficiently large to contain a * sail of yessels, Here is the navy 2
yard, with stores for the royal navy. This town, which was settled by people from Great Britain in 1749, is laid out in oblong squares, upon the declivity of a hill, and contained in 1793 about 4000 inhabitants. 884. Other Towns. On the south east, near Cape Sable, is Shelburne, on Port Roseway, containing 4 or 500 families. On the north, Manchester ; on the west, Annapolis ; to which may be added Digby, Lunenburg, Shawdon, New Dublin, Liverpool, Windsor, Cornwallis, and several others. The whole population of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the adjacentislands, is computed at 50,000. 885. Commerce. The trade of Nova Scotia consists mostly in the export of fish and lumber, and the import of cloths, wines, spirits, and sometimes corn, and such other commodities as the climate renders necessary, or the habits of the people demand. - -oNEW BRUNSWICK. 886. Sittiation and Boundaries. New Brunswick is the western division of the ancient Nova Scotia, lying on the west of the Bay of Fundy, and connected with Nova Scotia by a neck of land at the head of that bay. It extends westerly to the Scooduc, which is the boundary of the United States, and from that river a north line to Canada is the western limit of New Brunswick. On the north, the province is bounded by Canada and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 887. Mountains and Rivers. In the northern part of New Brunswick lies a chain of mountains or high lands, which may be considered as the extremity of the main chain which runs through the United States. The principal river is the St. John’s, which proceeds from the Highlands in the north part of Maine, to the northward of the sources of the Penobscot, and by a very winding course of more than three hundred miles, disembogues into the bay of Fundy. There are some smaller .rl Vers. . . 888. Soil and Prodictions. The intervals along the rivers, and especially on the St. John’s, are excellent land, and no small part is cultivated. The province fur