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ed from seven primitive females, and the lower ranks never aspire to the honor of being butchers. They are ingenious, hospitable, and believers in a supreme being. Their numbers are said to be not less than two or three millions. The French have repeatedly attempted to establish a colony here, without success.
852. Mauritius Mauritius, or the Isle of France, lies about 400 miles east of Madagascar, in the 20th and 21st degrees of south latitude. It was settled by the French in 1720, who cultivate the earth by slaves. This island produces sugar, indigo, pepper and cotton, in great quantities, and is the center of the French power in the east. Cattle do not thrive well in this island, but fish, turtle and poultry are in abundance. Eels are found in the rivers six feet long, and so voracious as to seize a man when bathing, and hold him under water till drowned. Birds are numerous, and a species of bat as large as a kitten, is deemed delicious food. The mountains produce ebony of an excellent quality.
853. Bourbon. At the south east of Mauritius, lies Bourbon, in the 22d degree of south latitude, about 57 leagues in circumference, belonging to the French. It has no harbor, and in some places is inaccessible. In the south of the island is a volcano, which ejects bitumen, sulphur, and other substances. The climate is hot, but salubrious, and the air is tempered by breezes from the mountains, which are covered with snow. Wheat, maiz and rice are produced in abundance, with oranges, tamarinds, and other tropical fruits. It abounds with cattle, sheep, goats and hogs, and the inhabitants, in 1763, were about 5000 whites and 15,000 blacks. No venemous animals are found in the island, but spiders as large as pigeon's eggs, which spin a web that might be a substitute for silk. Here also is the great bat mentioned in the preceding section. The inhabitants, by intermixture, are of all colors, and in the same family may be seen all shades from white to black.
854. Other African Islands. Opposit to the coast of Zanguebar, are Pemba, Zanzibar and Monfia. Pemba is 100 miles in circumference. These islands, with those of Comoro, are in possession of the natives, but tributary to Portugal. They produce rice, and the tropical fruits in abundance. To the southward, at a great distance from Africa, lies Desolation Isle, or Kerguelen's Land, which, like New Georgia, is barren, and visited only for seals or for curiosity. In the Atlantic is St. Helena, in the 16th degree of south latitude, an island belonging to the English East-India company, about 20 miles in circumference. It is inhabited by about 500 English families, and is chiefly valued as a place of re. freshment for India ships. Opposit to Cape Verd are ten or twelve islands belonging to the Portuguese, most of them barren, but some of them producing rice, grass and fruits. The population is computed at 100,000 inhabitants, who differ little in color from the natives of Africa.
NEW HOLLAND. 855. Situation and Extent. New Holland, which is now called a continent, is situated between 11 and 39 degrees of south latitude, and between 112 and 155 degrees of east longitude, being 2700 miles in length from east to west, and 2000 miles in bredth from north to south. It was discovered by the Dutch in 1616. In 1770, capt. Cook, the celebrated English navigator, took formal possession of New Holland for the English government. In 1788, the English began to people it with convicted criminals, and a colony was founded at Port Jackson, on the east side of the new continent, not far from Botany Bay.
856. Natives of New Holland. The natives of New Holland are of small stature, with small limbs, black or copper colored skin, and bushy hair, longer than that of the Africans. They have flat noses, wide nostrils, sunk eyes, thick brows and lips, an enormous mouth, but teeth white and even. They thrust a bone or reed through the cartilage of the nose, which gives them a disgusting appearance, and they rub fish oil upon their skin to protect them from the musketoes. The females suffer the loss of two joints of the little finger on the left hand, to enable the the better to coil their fishing lines. They
lave no religion, but some faint idea of a future existence, thinking they shall return to the clouds from whence they fell. They live in families or tribes, the senior being styled father.
857. Manners and Customs. One numerous and powerful tribe has the singular prerogative of exacting a tooth from young men of another tribe ; this is the only token of dominion on the one hand, and subjection on the other. Their huts are of bark, shaped like an oven, with the fire at the mouth. Fish are taken by the females, with lines of bark, and hooks made of the mother of pearl oyster, or they are killed with a kind of prong, and are broiled often over a fire kindled on sand in a ca. noe. Fish is the principal food, but vermin are also devoured, and some eat squirrels and opossums. These savages are not very ceremonious in procuring wives, When a wife is wanted, the girl selected is knocked down and led to her intended husband. They are very superstitious, believing in witchcraft and ghosts, and using spells against thunder and lightning. Young people when they die are buried, but the elderly are burnt.
858. Animals. New Holland affords new species of animals, among which are some of the opossum kind. The largest of these is the kangaroo, which has short paws, but moves by leaping with his hind legsonly. The native dogs are of the chacal or jackall kind, and never bark. They are black or red, and some of them handsome. The platypus has jaws elongated like the bill of a bird. Here is also a new species of cassowary, seven feet in length, whose flesh tastes like beef. The black swan, larger than the white, with a bill of a rich scarlet, has a plumage of the most intense black, except the primaries and secondaries, which are white, and exhibits all the grace. ful actions of the white swan.
859. New Guinea, or Papua Papua, a large island situated between New Holland and the equator, was discovered by a Spaniard in 1528, but it contains no European settlement. The inhabitants on the sea coast seem to be of African or Malay origin, and it is said a race of men in the interior live on trees, which they ascend by means of notched poles. The Papuans, on the coast, live in huts, on stages in water, like other natives of the Asiatic Isles. They are stout, black, ugly men, often disfigured by marks, their eyes large, noses flat, and mouths from ear to ear, with lips amazingly thick, and woolly hair painted red, dressed into a bush like a mop, from two to three feet round. In this they wear a comb with diverging teeth, and sometimes fethers of the bird of paradise. To add to these embellishments, they wear rings, pieces of bone, or wood, in the nose, and females wear a brass ring in the left ear.
860. Animals and Productions. The Papua Isles, and especially Arroo, are the seats of the beautiful bird of paradise, of which there are several species. They migrate in slocks of 30 or 40, crying in flight like the English starling, but when surprised with a strong gale, they rise high in air, and croak like ravens. These isles also abound with elegant parrots, and the crowned pigeon, nearly as large as a turky. The productions are cocoa-nut, plantain, bread fruit trees. and sago, the latter being a chief article of food. The females make pots of clay, which they burn with grass or brush wood. The Papuans export to China bir:ls, small pearls, tortoise shells, and ambergris, receiving in return instruments and utensils.
861. Nerv Britain. East of Papua lie New Britain, New Ireland, and the Solomon Isles. The nutmeg tree is found there in abundance, with cocoa nuts, yams and ginger. The inhabitants of New Ireland were found to carry lances headed with flint, and to be very hostile. They are black, with faces streaked with white, and powdered hair. Some of their canoes are 90 feet in length, formed of a single tree. The inhabitants of the Solomon Isles are either black or copper colored, and wear little beads of gold about the neck. Some of their canoes are small, two being fastened together, and they make baskets of palm leaves.
862. New Caledonia and New Hebudes. New Cale. donia, discovered by capt. Cook in 1774, lies east of New Holland, between 19 and 22 degrees of south latitude. The inhabitants are an active, muscular race, with a deep brown complexion, with black frizzled hair, but not
woolly. Like all the natives of the tropical climates, their clothing is a wrapper about the waiste. They cultivate the soil, but subsist chiefly on yams, other roots and fish. Their houses are circular, in form of a bee. hive, constructed of small spars or reeds, covered with long coarse grass. They bury the dead, and ornament the graves of their chiefs with spears, darts and paddles stuck about them in the earth.
863. New Zealand. The islands of New Zealand were discovered by Tasman, a Dutch navigator in 1642. In 1770, capt. Cook sailed round them, and discovered a strait which divides them. The length of each island is nearly 600 miles, but the medial bredth about 150. Their situation is south east from New Holland, between 34 and 48 degrees of south latitude. The southern island is the most mountainous, the northern one the most fertile, and both are clothed with wood. The climate is temperate, producing many valuable trees and plants, and, in particular, flax which grows without culture.
864. Inhabitants. The inhabitants are tall and well made, with a brown complexion, and in features somewhat resembling Europeans. They inter the dead, and believe that after the third day, the heart separates from the corpse, and a spirit, hovering over the grave, approaches at the signal of a breeze of wind, and bears it to the clouds. Their divisions of time are the revolutions of the moon. Their dress is an oblong garment, made of silky flax, their ears are ornamented with beads, and their face besmeared with a red paint. Females wear necklaces of shark's teeth, or bunches of beads made of bones or shells. Their huts are poor, and their furniture and utensils little more than baskets, fish hooks, and a few other trifles. They believe in a supreme being, but have no place of worship, and living in hostility, they are cruel and revengeful to enemies. In combat they distort their features into hideous forms, and they devour the flesh of their captives.
865. Van Diemen's Land. Separated from the southern point of New Holland, and distant 90 leagues, is an island called Van Diemen's Land, about 160 miles im