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Brebers, or Berebers, a native race of inhabitants, from whom is derived the present word, Barbary. 844. Western Coast of Africa. Along the western coast of Africa are numerous kingdoms or states, and eountries of which it is needless to give a particular description. The principal countries and tribes are the Jaloffs, Foulahs, Guinea, Benin, Loango, Congo and Angola. These are inhabited by blacks, who resemble each other in their persons and features, with some slight differences, and their characters and modes of life have many points of similitude. They are mostly pagans, and great believers in witchcraft, inchantment and magic, offering sacrifices to malignant spirits to appease their enmity. Their huts are simple sheds, their utensils few, their arms are bows and arrows, and their food tonsists mostly of maiz, millet and fruits. 845. Climate, Productions, Trade. The climate of the western coast of Africa is hot, and along the rivers extremely unhealthy for the natives of northern latitudes. The seasons are divided into wet and dry. The earth produces the plants which are peculiar to the tropics and warm climates in great abundance—maiz, rice, mangroves, bamboo, sugar cane, ginger, turmeric, cocoanuts, indigo, cotton, cassava, yams, dyeing wood, melons, and others too numerous to be mentioned. The animals are elephants, lions, tigers, hyenas, antelopes, monkeys, the oran outang, and innumerable others, especially enormous serpents, twenty and thirty feet in length. These countries export gold dust, elephant's teeth, ostrich fethers, and some other commodities, but chiefly slaves. The traffick in slaves commenced in 1517, under a patent from the emperor Charles V. and has been extended to other nations, who supply their colonies in America with blacks to cultivate the lands. -o-o-oCAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 846. General Description. The territory belonging to Europeans, called the Cafe of Good Hosie, is the southern point of Africa, extending along the shore east and West 550 miles, with a bredth of 230 miles. It contains *ges of mountains running east and west, between which is the Karro, or great desert plain. The principal rivers are Olifant’s River and Fish River, the latter on the eastern frontier of the colony, but there are other considerable streams. A large part of this colony consists of barren land, but the eastern part is fertile. The country was settled by the Dutch in 1660, but was taken by the English in 1796, restored, but taken again in 1805. The white inhabitants are about 15,000, chiefly Dutch. The natives are called Hottentots, who, in their savage state, lived in small tribes or kraals, but are mostly reduced to slavery by the Dutch. On the northern frontier are the unsubdued ferocious Hottentots, called by the Dutch Bojesman, that is, bush-men, who often make inroads upon the Dutch settlements for the sake of plunder. 847. Cafte Town. The Cape, or furthest point of Africa, is a peninsula of 36 miles in length, which rises into a mountain, with many summits, one of which, from its flatness, is called Table Mountain. On one side of this is False Bay, and on the other Table Bay, which are harbors for shipping, At the head of Table Bay, on the north of the peninsula, is Cape Town, the chief settlement in the colony, containing 1100 houses, with a castle, magazines, barracks, a Calvinist and Lutheran church, and other public buildings. The population is computed at 6000 whites. Most of the European, and many of the tropical fruits thrive well in this colony, but the chief product for export is wine of an excellent kind, from the muscatel grape. 848. Eastern Coast of Africa. Little is known of the eastern side of Africa. The name of the principal countries are Natal, Delagoa, Sabia, Sofala, Mocaranga, Mozambic, Zanguebar and Ajan. The people of Delagoa Bay, who are black, tall and stout, are harmless and good natured, and, like other savages, have a practice of tatooing themselves. They inhabit a fine country, and purchase in trade blue linens, brass rings, copper wire, beads, tobacco pipes, and other trifles. Mocaranga is a more powerful and civilized kingdom. In this kingdom is a chain of high mountains, called Lupata, covered with snow ; and the river Zambezi, which encircles the kingdom, is said to be a league in bredth. The Portuguese have two fortresses in this country. It is said the emperor has no any queens, and the king’s guard consists of females lightly armed. 849. Mozambic. North of Zambezi is Mozambic, which is considered as subject to the Portuguese. Zanguebar is said to be marshy and unhealthy, inhabited partly by Pagans and partly by Mahometans. In this country is Melinda, which Vasco de Gama visited on the first voyage made round the Cape of Good Hope. The coast of Ajan is chiefly Mahometan, and some trade is carried on in ivory, gold and ambergris. Adel, a small state north of Ajan, is dependent on Abyssinia. The pagans in the south of Africa are called by the Mahometans Caffers, which in Arabic signifies infidels; but this is not the name of any nation whatever. 850. Madagascar. Madagascar, one of the largest islands on the globe, is situated east of Africa, between the 7th and 26th degrees of south latitude, being 840 miles in length, by 220 inbredth. A chain of mountains, diversified by romantic scenery, runs through the island, giving rise to numerous rivers. It produces the sugar cane, bananas, cocoa, tobacco, indigo, pepper, gum hac, benzoin, amber, ambergris, and all the plants of similar climates. Its minerals are rock crystal, gold, topaz, sapphire, emeralds and jaspers, and it abounds with cattle, sheep and buffaloes. The natives are of different complexions, some black, others olive, and probably of Arabian origin. Their villages are on eminences, surrounded by two rows of palisades, and a parapet of earth. 851. State of Society. The chiefs of the tribes are known by their red caps. They are not unacquainted with letters, the Arabic characters being used by the learned, and they have some historical books. The ignorant people are greatly frightened at magicians, who are numerous. Their paper is made of flashyrus, and their ink is a decoction of a certain bark. The profession of a butcher is deemed most honorable, and is claimed as a privilege by the nobles. There are seven differ*****, or ranks, which they believe to have descended from seven primitive females, and the lower ranks never aspire to the honor of being butchers. They are ingenious, hospitable, and believers in a supreme being. Their numbers are said to be not less than two or three millions. The French have repeatedly attempted to establish a colony here, without success. 852. Mauritius. Mauritius, or the Isle of France, lies about 400 miles east of Madagascar, in the 20th and 21st degrees of south latitude. It was settled by the French in 1720, who cultivate the earth by slaves. This island produces sugar, indigo, pepper and cotton, in great quantities, and is the center of the French power in the east. Cattle do not thrive well in this island, but fish, turtle and poultry are in abundance. Eels are found in the rivers six feet long, and so voracious as to seize a man when bathing, and hold him under water till drowned. Birds are numerous, and a species of bat as large as a kitten, is deemed delicious food. The mountains produce ebony of an excellent quality. 853. Bourbon. At the south east of Mauritius, lies Bourbon, in the 22d degree of south latitude, about 57 leagues in circumference, belonging to the French. It has no harbor, and in some places is inaccessible. In the south of the island is a volcano, which ejects bitumen, sulphur, and other substances. The climate is hot, but salubrious, and the air is tempered by breezes from the mountains, which are covered with snow. Wheat, maiz and rice are produced in abundance, with oranges, tamarinds, and other tropical fruits. . It abounds with cattle, sheep, goats and hogs, and the inhabitants, in 1763, were about 5000 whites and 15,000 blacks. No venemous animals are found in the island, but spiders as large as pigeon's eggs, which spin a web that might be a substitute for silk. Here also is the great bat mentioned in the preceding section. The inhabitants, by intermixture, are of all colors, and in the same family may be seen all shades from white to black. 854. Other African Islands. Opposit to the coast of Zanguebar, are Pemba, Zanzibar and Monfia. Pemba is 100 miles in circumference. These islands, with those of Comoro, are in possession of the natives, but tributary to Portugal. They produce rice, and the tropical fruits in abundance. To the southward, at a great distance from Africa, lies Desolation Isle, or Kerguelen's Land, which, like New Georgia, is barren, and visited only for seals or for curiosity. In the Atlantic is St. Helena, in the 16th degree of south latitude, an island belonging to the English East-India company, about 20 miles in circumference. It is inhabited by about 300 English families, and is chiefly valued as a place of refreshment for India ships. Opposit to Cape Verd are ten or twelve islands belonging to the Portuguese, most of them barren, but some of them producing rice, grass and fruits. The population is computed at 100,000 inhabitants, who differ little in color from the natives of Africa. -oNEW HOLLAND.
855. Situation and Extent. New Holland, which is now called a continent, is situated between l l and 39 degrees of south latitude, and between 112 and 155 degrees of east longitude, being 2700 miles in length from east to west, and 2000 miles in bredth from north to south. It was discovered by the Dutch in 1616. In 1770, capt. Cook, the celebrated English navigator, took formal possession of New Holland for the English government. In 1788, the English began to people it with convicted criminals, and a colony was founded at Port Jackson, on . east side of the new continent, not far from Botany
856. Matives of Wew Holland. The natives of New Holland are of small stature, with small limbs, black or copper colored skin, and bushy hair, longer than that of the Africans. They have flat noses, wide nostrils, sunk eyes, thick brows and lips, an enormous mouth, but teeth white and even. They thrust a bone or reed through the cartilage of the nose, which gives them a disgusting appearance, and they rub fish oil upon their skin to protect them from the musketoes. The females suffer the loss of two joints of the little finger on the left hand, to *le them the better to coil their fishing lines. They