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broad, and 7 feet deep. Like other cities in that country, it has no water, but in cisterns, which is generally bad, as rains are not frequent; except the water conveyed in pipes from a single spring. The city contains ten large mosks, fifty small ones, three colleges, or public schools, and many smaller ones, with 50,000 inhabitants, one fourth of whom are Jews. The houses are of stone or brick, with a square court in the middle, and galleries all round.
839. Inhabitants. The inhabitants are mostly Ma. hometans, who, in their contempt of christians, and in their manners, resemble the Turks. They eat sitting cross legged round a table about four inches high, using neither knives nor forks. When they have done, a slave pours water on their hands to wash them. Their drink is mostly sherbet, coffee and water, but notwithstanding the prohibitions of the koran, wine is drank by some to excess. They have bagnios, or public baths, as in Turkey, the females separate from the males. Without the city are numerous sepulchers, and cells, or chapels, dedicated to marabouts, or reputed saints, which are visited every Friday. The Turkish soldiers are great tyrants, driving people out of the way as they pass, and even travelling about the country and living on free quarters. The lowest soldier domineers over a Moor, and takes from him his horse, if he likes him better than his own. But with all their bad qualities, they, in some respects, may make christians blush, for they never gamble, nor profane the name of God.
840. Manufactures and Commerce. The Algerines manufacture some silk, cotton, wool and lether ; also, carpets and coarse linens. But they have no manufactures of ropes, sails, nor iron. Their piracies are vexatious to all christian countries, and they have more shipping than any other piratical state. When they tako captives, they reduce them to abject slavery, and compel their friends to redeem them at an enormous price. Their exports consist of ostrich fethers, copper, ruggs, silk sashes, handkerchiefs, dates, christian slaves, and sometimes wheat. Their corsairs import various stuffs
and cloths, spices, tin, iron, cordage, ammunition, tar, sugar, alum, rice, aloes, and various other commodities.
MOROCCO. 841. Situation and Extent. The empire of Morocco lies west of Algiers, and extends along the African coast to the south west, upon the Atlantic, about 590 miles in length, with a various bredth. It consists of a number of petty kingdoms or principalities, as Fez, Tremosin, and others, comprehending a great part of ancient Mauritania. It contains many barren heaths, and here the celebrated Atlas displays its lofty summits, some parts of which are covered with snow in summer.
842. General Description. The inhabitants of Merocco are Moors and Arabs, who are Mahometans, and Jews, who carry on most of the trade. The natives are a tawny race, robust, and good horsemen. Their chief food is coscosu, which is a mixture of bits of paste with meat and vegetables, cooked by steam, and served up in an earthen dish, with butter and spices. The people are said to be superstitious, deceitful and cruel. The Arabs live under tents in moveable villages. Trade is carried on with the southern Africans by caravans, which travel over barren deserts, and barter cloths, silk, salt, &c. for slaves, gold and elephant's teeth. Their other commodities are red lether, indigo,cochineal and ostrich fethers. The chief Mahometan port is Teutan, and the Spaniards possess Ceuta, on the Strait of Gibraltar.
843. Toruns and Customs. The city of Morocco is in a large plain, diversified with shrubs and clumps of palm trees, and watered by streams from the Atlas. It is of considerable extent, surrounded by strong walls, con. taining the royal palace, and several mosks, which are squares with porticoes, the climate not requiring covered edifices. The ladies paint their cheeks and chins with a deep red, with a long black mark on the forehead, another on the tip of the nose, and several on the cheeks. Caravans, consisting of thousands of camels and dromedaries, annually travel to Mecca, with merchants, and devotees to the prophet, Mahomet. In Morocco live the Brebers, or Berebers, a native race of inhabitants, from whom is derived the present word, Barbary.
844. Western Coast of Africa. Along the western coast of Africa are numerous kingdoms or states, and eountries of which it is needless to give a particular de. scription. The principal countries and tribes are the Jaloffs, Foulahs, Guinea, Benin, Loango, Congo and Angola. These are inhabited by blacks, who resemble each other in their persons and features, with some slight differences, and their characters and modes of life have many points of similitude. They are mostly pagans, and great believers in witchcraft, inchantment and magic, offering sacrifices to malignant spirits to appease their enmity. Their huts are simple sheds, their utensils few, their arms are bows and arrows, and their food consists mostly of maiz, millet and fruits.
845. Climate, Productions, Trade. The climate of the western coast of Africa is hot, and along the rivers ex. tremely unhealthy for the natives of northern latitudes. The seasons are divided into wet and dry. The earth produces the plants which are peculiar to the tropics and warm climates in great abundance-maiz, rice, mangroves, bamboo, sugar cane, ginger, turmeric, cocoanuts, indigo, cotton, cassava, yams, dyeing wood, melons, and others too numerous to be mentioned. The animals are elephants, lions, tigers, hyenas, antelopes, monkeys, the oran outang, and innumerable others, especially enormous serpents, twenty and thirty feet in length. These countries export gold dust, elephant's teeth, ostrich fethers, and some other commodities, but chiefly slaves. The traffick in slaves commenced in 1517, under a patent from the emperor Charles V. and has been extended to other nations, who supply their colonies in America with blacks to cultivate the lands.
CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 846. General Description. The territory belonging to Europeans, called the Cape of Good Hope, is the southern point of Africa, extending along the shore east and west 550 miles, with a bredth of 230 miles. It contains ranges of mountains running east and west, between
which is the Karro, or great desert plain. The principal rivers are Olifant's River and Fish River, the latter on the eastern frontier of the colony, but there are other considerable streams. A large part of this colony consists of barren land, but the eastern part is fertile. The country was settled by the Dutch in 1660, but was taken by the English in 1796, restored, but taken again in 1805. The white inhabitants are about 15,000, chiefly Dutch. The natives are called Hottentots, who, in their savage state, lived in small tribes or kraals, but are mostly reduced to slavery by the Dutch. On the northern frontier are the unsubdued ferocious Hottentots, called by the Dutch Bosjesman, that is, bush-men, who often make inroads upon the Dutch settlements for the sake of plunder.
847. Cape Town. The Cape, or furthest point of Africa, is a peninsula of 36 miles in length, which rises into a mountain, with many summits, one of which, from its flatness, is called Table Mountain. On one side of this is False Bay, and on the other Table Bay, which are harbors for shipping, At the head of Table Bay, on the north of the peninsula, is Cape Town, the chief settlement in the colony, containing 1100 houses, with a castle, magazines, barracks, a Calvinist and Lutheran church, and other public buildings. The population is computed at 6000 whites. Most of the European, and many of the tropical fruits thrive well in this colony, but the chief product for export is wine of an excellent kind, from the muscatel grape.
848. Eastern Coast of Africa. Little is known of the eastern side of Africa. The name of the principal countries are Natal, Delagoa, Sabia, Sofala, Mocaranga, Mozambic, Zanguebar and Ajan. The people of Delagoa Bay, who are black, tall and stout, are harmless and good natured, and, like other savages, have a practice of tatooing themselves. They inhabit a fine country, and purchase in trade blue linens, brass rings, copper wire, beads, tobacco pipes, and other trifles. Mocaranga is a more powerful and civilized kingdom. In this kingdom is a chain of high mountains, called Lupata, covered with snow ; and the river Zambezi, which encircles the kingdom, is said to be a league in bredth. The Portuguese have two fortresses in this country. It is said the emperor has many queens, and the king's guard consists of females lightly armed.
849. Mozambic. North of Zambezi is Mozambic, which is considered as subject to the Portuguese. Zanguebar is said to be marshy and unhealthy, inhabited partly by Pagans and partly by Mahometans. In this country is Melinda, which Vasco de Gama visited on the first voyage made round the Cape of Good Hope. The coast of Ajan is chiefly Mahometan, and some trade is carried on in ivory, gold and ambergris. Adel, a small state north of Ajan, is dependent on Abyssinia. The pagans in the south of Africa are called by the Mahom. etans Caffers, which in Arabic signifies infidels ; but this is not the name of any nation whatever.
850. Madagascar Madagascar, one of the largest islands on the globe, is situated east of Africa, between the 7th and 26th degrees of south latitude, being 840 miles in length, by 220 in bredth. A chain of mountains, diversified by romantic scenery, runs through the island, giving rise to numerous rivers. It produces the sugar cane, bananas, cocoa, tobacco, indigo, pepper, gum lac, benzoin, amber, ambergris, and all the plants of similar climates. Its minerals are rock crystal, gold, topaz, sapphire, emeralds and jaspers, and it abounds with cattle, sheep and buffaloes. The natives are of different complexions, some black, others olive, and probably of Arabian origin. Their villages are an eminences, surrounded by two rows of palisades, and a parapet of earth.
851. State of Society. The chiefs of the tribes are known by their red caps. They are not unacquainted with letters, the Arabic characters being used by the learned, and they have some historical books. The ignurant people are greatly frightened at magicians, who are numerous. Their paper is made of papyrus, and their ink is a decoction of a certain bark. The profession of a butcher is deemed most honorable, and is claimed as a privilege by the nobles. There are seven different casts, or ranks, which they believe to haye descend