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ground, and inclosed by a wall two miles in length, exhibits great magnificence. 692. Mankin. Nankin, which was the royal residence till the 15th century, is a larger city than Pekin, being 17 miles in circumference. It lies 3 miles from the Kian-ku, the largest river in China, to which canals are made, sufficient to bear large vessels. The city has lost much of its ancient splendor. The streets are narrow, but paved; the buildings are in general mean, but some public edifices are magnificent ; among others, a tower 200 feet high, covered with porcelain. It has nine stories, with cornishes on the outside, covered with green varnished tiles. Some parts of this city are deserted, others are populous, and it is remarkable for the manufacture of a cotton cloth, of which great quantities are exported under the name of nankeens. 693. Canton. Canton, a large commercial city, lies upon the river Taa, in the southern part of China, north latitude 23 degrees. It is estimated that it contains a million and a half of inhabitants. The streets are narrow, but strait and paved. The houses are low and plain, except the temples, which are more magnificent. Foreigners are not permitted to enter the city, but they have the privilege of resorting to and residing in the suburbs near the river, where all the foreign trade is carried on. Here are shipped vast quantities of tea, to Europe and America, of which 18 millions of pounds pass to Europe, and several millions to America. So populous is that country, that multitudes of poor people live in boats upon the rivers, and cats, rats, dogs, frogs and snakes, are constantly sold in market for food. 694. Highways. The excellent roads in China are evidence of high improvement. They are generally broad, in the southern provinces all paved, as are some in the northern, but on the pavement no horses or carriages are suffered to pass, an unpaved path being left for these on the sides. In many places the roads are cut through mountains ; in others, valleys have been filled, so as to make the road level, and in general the roads are bor. *** with lofty trees. Covered seats are erected along
the highways to shelter psssengers from the inclemencies of the weather; inns are also provided, but not well furnished, according to European ideas; and towers, with watch boxes on the top, and flags for signals in case of alarm, are erected on the road, for securing the peace of the country. These roads, and the numerous canals of China, facilitate a vast inland commerce. 695. Manufactures. The manufactures of China comprehend almost every article of necessity, convenience and luxury. The production of silk, which has been known in China from the remotest antiquity, furnishes that article in such abundance, that it is worn by all persons of moderate fortune, and great quantities exported. The mulberry is not suffered to grow to a tree, but its branches repeatedly mowed off, for the worms, so as to render the collection of the leaves easy. Here are made the most beautiful and durable satins, taffeties, crapes, brocades, plush, velvet, and other stuffs, and none but poor people will condescend to wear cotto Il. - 696. Porcelain. A manufacture of much celebrity is porcelain. This is made of a species of pure white clay called kaolin, and is divided into four classes, according to its fineness and beauty. That of the first class is all reserved for the use of the emperor. But the porcelain is so well imitated by the manufactures of Europe, that its value is very much reduced in our markets. Glass is made in China, but is much less valued than in Europe and America. 697. Commerce. The Chinese are not friendly to commerce, any farther than it takes off their superfluous commodities, and brings them necessaries. Hence they never send their own ships to distant countries for the purpose of importing foreign articles, but they tolerate foreigners in taking off their superfluous goods. The principal articles exported to Europe and America are tea, silk, porcelain and japanned wares, for which they take some woollen cloths, tin and furs, but chiefly specie. The trade with Russia is more valued, as the furs of Siberia are found necessary in China for clothing, and an inland commerce is carried on to a considerable extent between the northern provinces of China and the Asiatic dominions of Russia.
698. Revenue, Interest of Money, and Shiffling. The revenues of the emperor are stated at about 180 millions of dollars, and the taxes are mostly paid in the produce of the country, as in silk, grain, fruits and the like.— These are mostly consumed by the officers of government and army in the provinces, so that the people are not oppressed. Money lent produces an annual interest of 30 per cent. paid monthly. As the Chinese policy does not encourage foreign commerce, the art of ship building receives no improvement. Their vessels have only a main and foremast, without a bowsprit or topmast. Their sails are mats, strengthened by bamboos. They use for calking a gum mixed with lime, instead of pitch, and buckets instead of pumps. They claim to have been the inventors of the mariner’s compass, and are skilful in the management of their vessels.
'699. Situation and Extent. Between China and the Russian dominions in Asia, is an extensive territory, inhabited by several nations and hords of Tartars. This territory extends from the 72d degree of east longitude to the Pacific Ocean, or about 3200 miles in length ; and from the northern limit of Tibet to the confines of Siberia, or about 1200 miles in bredth. It is inhabited by considerable nations, as the Mandshurs, the Monguls, the tribes called Kalkas, Eluts and Kalmuks. From this region formerly issued numerous armies of Huns and Tartars, who repeatedly ravaged Europe ; but these nations are now mostly subject to China and Russia.
700. Mountains. This vast territory contains some large chains of mountains. On the north is the Altaic chain; on the west the great chain of Belur Tag, ancientiy called Imaus, running north and south, between the *sbecks and Kalmuks; and through the center, the Alak mountains. But this country is little known. One **kable feature must not be omitted, which is a vast *d Plain from the mountains of Tibeton the south, to the Altaic ridge on the north, and from Belur Tag on the west, to the Changai chain on the east, a distance of 1400 miles. A considerable part of this consists of barren land, called the deserts of Cobi and Shamo, which are destitute of water and plants, with the exception of a few spots, and can be travelled only with camels.
701. Rivers and Lakes. The chief river in Chinese Tartary is the Amur, which has its sources east of the Yoblonnoy mountains, and running easterly enters the Pacific Ocean, after a course of 1850 miles. This large river receives numerous other streams, in the country of the Mandshurs. In this territory also are the sources of the Irtish, the Ob, and the Yenessee, which have been described. This country contains also the large lakes of Tengis and Zainan, each 150 miles in length, and the Lop, which receives the harge river Yarkand. The Tengis, or Balkash, receives the Ili, a considerable river, celebrated in Tartaric history.
702. General Piew of the Inhabitants. This vast country is thinly peopled, containing from 4 to 6 millions of inhabitants, who are of different tribes. The three principal nations, the Mandshurs, Monguls and Tartars, have distinct languages. The most prevalent religion is Shamanism. The nations are now governed by princes who acknowledge the Chinese emperor as their sovereign. Writing is not unknown among the Monguls, but they are very illiterate. There are some cities and towns, but not of great magnitude. Agriculture is attended to in the southern parts, and some trade in ginseng, and pearls found in the rivers, is carried on by the Mandshurs with China and the Russians. Excellent horses are also among their exports.
703. Situation and Extent. Between Hindoostan and Tartary lies Tibet, a country little known to Europeans, It extends from the 75th to the 191st degree of east longitude, or about 1400 miles in length ; and from the 27th to the 35th degree of north latitude, or about 450 miles in wo. The population of this region
is not ascertained, but it is said the country is thinly inhabited. 704. Mountains and Rivers. Tibet contains great chains of mountains, which are said to be high, and cowered with snow, but they are imperfectly described. From the Hamala mountains, in the south west of Tibet, proceed the head streams of the Ganges and Burhampooter, the two great rivers which water Hindoostan. The Sampoo, which is the name of the head stream of the Burhampooter, has its sources on the north of the chain, and running south east about 1000 miles, bends to the south west, and after a course of 400 miles further, unites with the Ganges in an estuary. The two great Chinese rivers, the Hoan-ho and Kian-ku, both have their sources in Tibet, as does the Japanese, a large river of Cambodia, and the Irrawady of Birman. 705. Lakes and Forests. Tibet, like other mountainous inland countries, contains Inany lakes, one of which, the Terkiri, is said to be 80 miles in length, and 25 in bredth. In this country is a singular narrow lake of about 6 miles wide, in the form of a trench, surrounding an island of 12 miles in diameter. Here also is the lake which yields the tincal, or crude borax. Tibet contains large forests, especially Bootan, and its lofty mountainous situation renders it a cool country for its latitude. 706. Minerals and Animals. Tibet produces gold in abundance, iron, copper, lead and rock salt. The crude borax of that country is found in the bed of a lake, in shallow water, near the sides, and the cavities made by digging it are soon filled with the same substance. In deep water of the same lake is found rock salt. The lake is about 20 miles in length, and froze several months in the year. The animals of Tibet present a few singularities. The horses and cattle are said to be small, and the small breed of cattle called yak are covered with a thick long hair, with a long glossy tail, which is used in families to drive away flies. They do not low, like other, cattle, but manifest uneasiness by a grunting sound. Tibet produces goats with a fine hair, which is made into shawls; and the musk deer, which has two tusks curving from his upper jaw, to dig roots for food;