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their number is said to be 14,000. The mandarins of arms, who superintend the inferior departments of government, are about 18,000. The armies consist of nearly two millions of soldiers, of which a million are infantry, and the remainder cavalry. Their pay is about four cents 6 mills a day, with a small quantity of rice, Their arms are a helmet and saber, and a lance for horsemen, and for the infantry a pike and a saber; some however have fire arms, and others bows and arrows.
676, Manners and Customs. The Chinese, in color and figure, resemble the aboriginals of America sonearly, as to demonstrate them to have had a common origin. But the Chinese are highly cultivated, mild, affable, and submissive to government. Marriage is conducted by the parents, and the bride is never seen by her intended husband till married. Divorces are permitted in certain cases, but are not common. It is not permitted to bury the dead in towns, but the bodies are deposited on some barren hill not capable of cultivation. Mourners clothe themselves in white, and the period of mourning is three years, but usually shortened to 27 months. The father of a family is accountable for the conduct of his children and domestics, and a son is a minor until his father dies.
677. Houses and Dress. The houses are built of clay bricks, but usually wood, and ornamented with columns and open galleries. The articles of furniture are few. The dress of the Chinese is a long garment with largo sleeves, and a flowing girdle of silk. The shirt and drawers vary with the seasons. In winter, furs are much worn, from the skin of the sheep to that of the ermin, and fuel is so scarce in many parts, that the people have no fires in cold weather, depending on furs alone to defend them from cold. The head is covered with a hat like a funnel, but it varies according to rank. The chief amusements are dramatic exhibitions, which are often on stages in the streets ; and fire works, in which they excel all the world.
678. Punishments. The slightest punishment is the bastinado. For greater crimes, the culprit is compelled to wear a wooden collar, day and night, for a certain
time, which collar is heavy, and so made that he can neither see his feet, nor put his hand to his mouth. Robbers, peace-breakers and gamblers wear it three *months, without permission to enter a house during that period. Banishment to Tartary is the punishment of certain crimes, and some criminals are condemned to drag boats on the canals. Disrespectful treatment of parents is punished with 100 blows. Homicide is punished with death. Beheading is reserved for desperate 'assassins and murderers, as the most disgraceful punish. ment that can be inflicted. State criminals are doomed to be flayed alive and then cut in pieces.
679. Absurd Customs. In China a practice prevails of confining the feet of female infants, to prevent their growing to full size. This is done by wrapping the feet in tight bandages, till they cease to grow. Females submit to this painful constraint for the sake of having handsome feet, for a small foot is deemed a great beauty, To such a degree is this absurd practice carried, that the shoe of a full sized female does not exceed six inches in *length, and on feet of such a size, the females rather hobe
ble and totter, than walk with ease or grace. : It is a practice in China to expose infants, some of which perish ; others are saved and provided for by go'vernment. This practice originated in the poverty and necessities of the people, or in superstition. · 680. Ceremonies and Entertainments. To foreigners, the ceremoniousness of the Chinese is extremely irka some. Even an invitation to dine is repeated three sevea ral times. The master of the house introduces the guests into the hall, and salutes them ; he then orders wine, takes the cup with both hands, bows to all the 'guests, then advances to one side of the hall, casts his eyes to heaven, and pours the wine on the ground. Then he takes more wine, and, after many ceremonies, places the cup before the person who is to drink. Entertainments are begun by drinking wine the master of the house, falling on one knee, invites the guests to drink, then all take their cups in both hands, raise them as high as the forehead, then bring them lower than the table, then raise them to the mouth altogether. Each guest
has a separate table, and 24 dishes in succession. No knives are used, but two small pointed sticks, which the rich ornament with ivory. The entertainment ends with tea, after which, and a short interval of amusement in another room or a garden, there is a desert of sweetmeats and fruits.
681. Food and Wine. The Chinese eat rice in the southern provinces, but wheat in the northern. The af. fluent eat flesh of various kinds, and fish. They drink tea, but prefer bohea or souchong, and never use the green teas. A weak tea made in the morning is the common drink for the day, as cider and beer are with us. To save fuel, which is scarce and purchased by weight, the vessels in which water is heated are made as thin almost as paper. The wines of China are made of rice, which is steeped 20 or 30 days in water, in which other ingredients are thrown. The water is then boiled, and a fermentation takes place, which throws up a scum, under which is a very pure liquor, which is put into glazed vessels. From the remaining lees is distilled å spirit of an excellent quality.
682. Festivals. Several public festivals are annually celebrated in China. Among others is that in which the emperor sets an example of tilling the ground, to encourage the first and principal employment of men. The same day is celebrated by the governors of the provinces. In the morning, the governor of every city proceeds from his palace, with a numerous retinue, and crowned with flowers. His chair is surrounded with litters covered with silk carpets, the streets are hung with carpets, triumphal arches are erected at certain distances, lanterns are displayed, and the houses illuminated. The figure of a cow, made of baked earth, with gilt horns, is carried in procession, followed by laborers with imple. ments of husbandry, and a child with one foot shod, the other bare, representing labor and diligence. The procession is closed by comedians and people in masks. The governor proceeds to the eastern gate, and returns ; the cow is broke in pieces, and with her many earthen çalves, distributed to the people, and the ceremony con cludes with an oration in praise of agriculture.
· 683. Magnificence of the Viceroys. When a viceroy quits his palace, he is attended with a train in robes of ceremony, carried in a chair elegantly gilt, borne upon the shoulders of eight domestics, and preceded by guards, with two drummers beating copper basons to give notice of his approach. Eight other attendants carry standards of wood varnished, on which are inscribed his titles of honor. After these come 14 flags, with the figures of a dragon, a phenix, a tiger, &c. symbols of his office. Six officers follow, with an instrument like a shovel, on which are inscribed the qualities of the mandarin himself; two others bear a large umbrella of yellow silk, and its cover. The guards are preceded by two archers on horseback, followed by others with hooks fixed to long poles, ornamented with four tufts of silk. To these succeed files of soldiers armed with weapons of various kinds. The march of the emperor is still more pompous, and his procession closes with 4000 mandarins in train.
684. Tombs. The tombs of the Chinese are at a distance from a city or town, and usually surrounded by pines or cypresses. The coffins of the poor are placed under a shade, and covered with thatch, or inclosed in a small building. The tombs of the rich are in shape like a horse-shoe, whitened and finished with great taste. Those of mandarins are still more magnificent. A vault is constructed, over which is raised a pyramid of earth about 12 feet high, on which is laid a durable plaster. In front is placed a large long table of white marble, on which is a censer with two vases and two candlesticks of exquisit workmanship. Around the whole are arranged figures of officers, soldiers, saddled horses, camels, lions, and other animals, which produce a striking effect. It is a sacred duty of the descendants and relations of the deceased to visit his tomb once or twice in a year. At this time they pluck the weeds and bushes from around the tomb, and renew their expressions of grief. .
685. Funeral Ceremonies. In a few moments after a person dies, his body is dressed in his richest attire, adorned with the badges of his dignity, and placed in a coffin. The Chinese have a great passion for sumptuous coffins, insomuch that the rich will expend a thousand crowns for one ; the poor will give all they are worth, nay, the son will sell himself to buy a coffin for his father. Sometimes a valuable coffin is purchased twenty years before it is wanted, in which case it stands in the house as a piece of choice furniture. Before a corpse is laid in a coffin, some lime is sprinkled upon the bottom, and the head is laid on a pillow, to which is added a quantity of cotton to keep it steady. In this state the body remains from 3 to 7 days, exposed to the view of friends in the hall of ceremony, which is hung with white, i. terspersed with pieces of black or violet colored silk. The visiters, when they enter the hall, salute the deceased, and prostrate themselves; the salute is returned by the sons, who come from behind a curtain, where also are females concealed, who occasionally ut. ter plaintive cries. The procession to the grave is composed of men carrying pasteboard figures of slaves, lions, tigers, and the like, or carrying standards with flags, or censers filled with perfumes. The coffin is covered with a canopy, and preceded by musicians. Vhen_the coffin is deposited, the attendants are sumptuously ontertained ; and if the deceased was a grandee, some of his relations remain at the tomb a month or two, in suitable apartments, and every day renew their lamentations.
686. Language. The Chinese language is very ancient and singular. It does not, like other languages, consist of words composed of letters, but of certain sounds represented by characters. The primary, or radical words are a few hundreds only, but the sound of each is varied, by peculiar accents or modulations, to express different ideas, and the characters to represent them are multiplied to at least 80,000. The learning of this language is, therefore, a work of immense labor and difficulty. Thus the word tchu, pronounced with a clear tone of voice, signifies master or lord ; pronounced in a uniform tone by lengthening u, it signifies hog ; pronounced with a light rapid tone, it signifies kitchen ; and with a strong voice depressed at the close, it signifies a pillar. The Chinese words are all monosyllables, and