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52. Minerals. The tin mines in Cornwall have been known from the earliest ages, the Phenicians having resorted to them for this article. The mines are inexhaustible, employing 100,000 workmen, and affording large Huantities of tin for exportation. In Derbyshire are lead mines, which afford also calamin and manganese. Iron is found in several places, but not in sufficient abundance for the manufactures. Zink, copper and plumbago, or black lead, are also found in England, with some ninerals of less value. 53. Salt. Fossil salt is found in abundance at Cheshire and Northwich. The mines in the latter place already extend under some akers of land; and the crystal roof, supported by immense pillars of salt, exhibitsabeautiful spectacle. 55. Of Coal. Fossil coal constitutes no small part of the natural riches of England. Vast bodies of this useful mineral in the north and west of England form inexhaustible sources of wealth. For two centuries past, since the wood of England has been nearly all consumed, coal has been almost the only fuel of that populous country. The transportation of coal from Newcastle to London employs 4 or 500 sail of shipping. 55. Matural curiosities. The cavern at Castleton, in Derbyshire, is mentioned as very remarkable for its vast extent; no bottom having been found by a line of more than 2000 feet in length. Many other caverns and chasms, worn by currents of water in limestone rocks, are found in the north and west of England; and a small river at Wethercot runs two miles under ground. On the coast of Lincolnshire are found the remains of a forest beneath the waters of the ocean, which, at some former period, overwhelmed the land. The chalky cliffs of Dover present a curious spectacle to the approaching stranger, while they form an inaccessible rampart against an invading foe. 56. Civil division of England. England is distributed into 40 counties or shires; and Wales into twelve ; making 52 in the whole. These counties were, under the Saxons, governed by officers called Ealdermen, or Counts. Under the Danes,these officers were denominated Earls :


but in modern times, the chief county officer is the sheriff. There are also cities, boroughs and cinque ports, which enjoy charters, or particular privileges, by immemorial custom. 57. Ecclesiastical division. For the purpose of ecclesiastical government, England is divided into two provinces, or Archbishoprics, and 24 Bishoprics or dioceses. The province or Archbishopric of Canterbury contains 21 dioceses, and that of York, three, with the Isle of Man. 58. City of London. London, the greatest commercial city in the world, was founded soon after the Christian era. It is situated in north latitude 51° 30, on the north banks of the Thames. It is about six miles in length, and from three to one in breadth; its circumference is about sixteen miles; and its population from 6 to 800,000 souls. The eastern part is a port thronged with mariners; the center is the seat of trade and manufactures, and the west end is the residence of the court, nobility and gentry. 59. General description of London. London is about 60 miles from the sea, and tho the tide is felt in the Thames, at this place the water is fresh. The river is 440 yards wide, and below the London Bridge is covered with shipping, whose innumerable masts rise like a forest upon the water. The houses of the city are generally of brick, and the streets well paved. Since the great fire in 1666, the streets are made more wide and regular. London contains 7000 streets, lanes, courts and alleys, and 100,000 houses. 60. Churches. London contains about 200 churches and chapels of the established religion, and 100 churches of other denominations. The most capacious and magnificent church is St. Paul’s, which is 500 feet in length, and the top of the cupola is 340 feet high. It is constructed of Portland stone, and the expense was estimated at a million sterling. 61. The monument. On the 2d of Sept. 1666, a fire broke out, which burnt with irresistible fury for three days, reducing to ashes 13,000 houses, 89 churches, and 400 streets. To commemorate this terrible conflagration, a monument was erected near London. Bridge. which rises 200 feet, with a stair case in the middle, by which it may be ascended. 62. Westminster Abbey. Westminster Abbey is a venerable pile of buildings, in the Gothic style, erected by Henry III. in which are deposited the bodies of the kings of England, and of the nobility and other distinguished persons. Here are beheld the monuments of princes, nobles, heroes, philosophers and poets, which impress the mind of a spectator with an awful solemnity, as he views this sanctuary of illustrious mortals, entombed and mingled with common dust. 63. Westminster Hall. This edifice is by no means elegant, but venerable for Gothic architecture, and for the solemnity of the business to which it is consecrated. It is a vast room of 230 feet in length by 70 in bredth, with a curious roof, and a ceiling of Irish oak. Here are held the coronation feasts of the kings and queens, and in the adjacent apartments are held the high courts of law and chancery. 64. Other remarkable edifices. The Tower is venerable for ancient fame, and for its curiosities. The Bank is an edifice of the Ionic order, not remarkable for elegance. The Royal Exchange is a noble building, erected at the expense of £80,000 sterling. The terrace of the Adelphi is a fine piece of architecure, which presents an interesting view of the river. The royal palace of St. James is an irregular building of no great magnificence. The Queen's Palace is distinguished for its elegant convenience, some valuable paintings, and an exceldent library. The west end of the town presents some elegant mansion houses of noblemen. 65. The old London Bridge. Before the Norman conquest, London Bridge was built of timber; but was repeatedly burnt. The last time, in the year 1212, in king John's reign, a church in Southwark being on fire, the citizens of London passed over the bridge in crowds; when suddenly the fire, driven by the wind, caught the north end of the bridge. The people, in their alarm, rushed on to the bridge to return to London, but were stopped by the flames; and in this confusion, the south end of the bridge took fire, when a multitude were on

the bridge. A number of vessels and boats came to their relief, and the people crowded into them in such numbers as to overset many, by which means near 3000 persons were drowned. 66. The firesent Bridge. The present London Bridge was built of stone in the year 1212. It is about 900 feet in length, and consists of 19 arches. It has a carriage way of 31 feet wide, and foot ways 7 feet wide on each side. It originally contained a line of houses, which were taken down in 1756, and several improvements were made on the bridge. 67. Westminster Bridge. Westminster Bridge is built of stone, and is 1223 feet in length, 44 feet in width, with foot ways on each side, and a ballustrade of stone with places of shelter from the rain. It is supported on 14 piers and 15 arches; the central arch being 76 feet wide. It was begun in 1738, and finished in 1750, at the expense of 6 389,000 sterling. 68. Black Friar's Bridge. Black Friar's Bridge is situated between the other two ; it is of stone, but differs from the others in having illiptical arches. It was begun in 1760, and finished in 1770, at an expense of * 152,000 sterling. From this bridge is a fine view of St. Paul’s Church. 69, Markets and fublic conveniences in London. London is supplied with every commodity which the agriculture and manufactures of the kingdoms and the commerce of the whole world can furnish. The consumption of flesh is said to require 100,000 cattle, and 700,000 sheep yearly, besides calves, pigs and fish in proportion. The city contains 600 inns and taverns; nearly as many coffee houses, and 6000 alehouses; while more than 1000 hackney coaches are licensed to convey persons from place to place in the city. 70, York. York is an ancient city, on the river Ouse, which penetrates it, and celebrated for the temporary residence and death of the Emperor Severus. It contains 17 parish churches, and its Gothic cathedral is one of the noblest buildings in England; being 525 feet

long, with a lofty spire, and windows of the finest painted

glass. The choir is adorned with numerous statues of

the Kings of England. The city is surrounded with a
wall, and being the chief city of the north, is the resort
of the nobility and gentry in winter.
71. Liversioal. Liverpool is a town of modern origin;
but is the second in England for population and wealth.
It was first constituted a parish in 1699. It is situated
•on the Mersey, in the county of Lancashire, in the
north west of England, and contains about 75,000 inhab-
itants. It carries on a great trade with Africa, the West-
Indies and United States; and from this place chiefly,
Manchester goods, salt and earthern ware of various spe-
cies, are imported into this country.
72. Bristol. Bristol is an ancient city, upon the Avon,
a little above its junction with the Severn, in the west
of England. It was formerly the second city in Eng-
land, but is now exceeded by Liverpool in trade, tho it
contains about the same number of inhabitants. It has
an extensive trade with Ireland, America, the West-In-
dies and the Baltic. In this city are hot wells, whose
waters are reckoned medicinal.
73. Bath. Near Bristol, and on the same river, stands
Bath, so called from its hot-baths; an elegant town, built
of white stone. Situated in a vale, it is hot in summer,
but is resorted to in spring and autumn by invalids, and
by multitudes for amusements and dissipation, in which
it is second only to London. The waters are valued for
their efficacy in gouty, bilious and paralytic cases.
74. Manchester. Manchester in Lancashire, was for-
merly a station for the Romans. In 1708 it contained
only 8000 inhabitants; but the present number is com-
puted at 70,000. This town is celebrated over Europe
and America, for its manufactures of cotton, and the ma-
chinery for spinning, invented or improved by Arkwright.
75. Birmingham. Birmingham, so called from a fam-
ily which formerly owned the village, has grown into
consequence, in modern times. It is situated in War-
wickshire, in the center of England, and contains 60,000
inhabitants. It is celebrated for its manufactures of
hard ware, gilt buttons, japanned and enammelled wares.
76. Sheffield. Sheffield, in the southern part of York-

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