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jects into the Egean Sea, on the north west, is Athos, a conical mount of 3300 feet altitude, whose summit exhibits numerous monasteries, hermitages and churches, inhabited and frequented by devotees, who have been allured to this spot by its delightful situation. Historians relate that Xerxes, when he invaded Greece, spent three years in cutting a trench, for the passage of his fleet, across the peninsula at the foot of this mountain ; but the accountis utterly improbable, and no traces of the work remain. 584. Antifiaros. In the island of Antiparos, in the Archipelago, is a grotto or cavern remarkable for its depth and singular structure. Its entrance, about two miles from the sea, is a spacious arch, formed of craggy rocks, overhung with brambles and climbing plants.Next to this is a narrow passage, covered with small crystals, which, by the light of torches, glitter like diamonds. After descending through dark passages, among craggy rocks and over dangerous precipices, about 1500 feet, the traveller finds himself in a vast cavern, 120 yards wide, and 60 yards high, the roof of which is hung with stalactites of beautiful white marble, among which are a thousand festoons of leaves and flowers, exhibiting one of the most wonderfully wild and enchanting scenes that nature ever produced. , 585. Religion. The religion of the Turks is founded on the Koran, a book written by Mahomet, a native of Mecca, who, in the beginning of the 7th century, pretending to be the apostle of God, undertook to re-establish the primitive religion, as professed by Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and the prophets. The principal doctrins of Mahometanism are, belief in God, in his angels, his scriptures, his prophets, in the resurrection and final judgment, and in God’s absolute decrees. These are doctrins of faith. The doctrins of practice are, prayer, washings, alms, fasting, pilgrimage to Mecca, and circumcision. In short, the Koran contains a medley of the doctrins of revelation, as believed by christians, and the most absurd human opinions. The Mahometans regard their own faith as the only ortho80s system, and treat all other denominations as dogs.

586. Ecclesiastical Orders. The highest officer in religious concerns is the mufti, or mahometan pontiff, who resides at Constantinople. Next to him are the moulahs, who are esteemed as dignitaries of the church, but are in fact doctors of the law. From the moulahs are selected the inferior muftis, or judges, throughout the empire, and the cadileskers, or chief justices. Next to these are the imaums, or parish priests, who perform service in the mosks. The cadis are judges who are annually appointed to administer justice in towns and villages. The koran is not only the rule of religious faith and practice, but also the code of civil law, by which the courts of justice are governed. 587. Monks and the Greek Religion. Among the Turks are certain monastic orders of men, called Dervishes, who are dedicated by solemn vows to religious offices, public prayer, and preaching. The Kadri affect to appear with little clothing, and to display their devotion by frantic and extravagant dances. The Greeks under the dominion of the Turks enjoy their own religion, retaining their priests, bishops, archbishops and patriarchs. But corruption is openly practiced in ecclesiastic preferments, and the dignities of the church are sold by the Turks, who delight to render the christians contemptible. 588. Government. The sultan is a despotic prince, but his power is subject to the laws of the koran, which impose some restraint upon his will. The government of the distant parts of the Turkish empire is intrusted to bashaws, who, too remote from their sovereign to feel a due responsibility, exercise despotic power over their subjects, and not unfrequently rebel against the sultan. The great officers of state often shake the power of the Sultan by their combinations, and sometimes the sovereign is deposed by the janizaries. The throne is hereditary in the family of Ossman. The chief council, called divan, of which the grand visier is president, assist the sultan with their advice. But all public offices are bought, and of course, are filled with vile, rapacious Innell. 589. Postulation, Army and Revenue. The popula-'

tion of the Turkish dominions in Europe, Asia, and Africa, is variously estimated at 49 millions, 41 millions and 32 millions, which diversity of opinions indicates that the number of inhabitants is very uncertain. European Turkey is estimated to contain 8 millions. The troops of the sultan consist of from 150,000 to 300,000 men, mostly ill disciplined, and little accustomed to subordination. The janizaries, or guards, are about 27,000, who sometimes revolt and depose their sovereign. The navy consists of 30 ships of the line, with numerous galleys and galliots. The revenue amounts yearly to 30 millions of dollars. 590. Manners and Customs. The Turks differ much in their manners from the nations of Europe. Marriage among them is a civil contract, which either party may break, and the parties seldom see each other till the ceremony is past. On the birth of a child, she father gives it a name, putting a grain of salt in its mouth— The dead are perfumed with incense, and wrapped in a cloth open at the top and bottom, to enable them to sit up and answer questions put to them by the angels of death. On the grave-stones are carved turbans denoting the sex. The Turks are temperate in diet, their food being mostly rice boiled with mutton or fowls, or a broth made of rice. When meat is roasted, it is cut into small bits, and put on a spit, with an onion between the pieces. The Turks make great use of coffee and opium. 59 l. Dress and Furniture. The Turks wear next to the body a garment of calico, over which is thrown a loose robe fastened by a girdle, in which is stuck a daggcr, and within this robe is carried a tobacco box, pocket book, and sometimes an ink horn, as, in Ezekiel's time, was the practice in Syria and Palestine.” The robe is usually of cloth, trimmed with fur. Their shoes or slippers are slightly made. A turban is worn on the head. The dress of the women differs little from that of the men, except the head dress, which is a sort of bonnet like an inverted basket, formed of pasteboard elegantly covered and ornamented. Females also wear a * Ezekiel, ix. 2,

veil which falls to the eye brows, and the under part of the face is concealed by a fine handkerchief. They use but little furniture, but an elegant carpet covers the floor, and instead of chairs, a seat like a sofa is raised by the sides of their apartments. 592. Language and Education. The Turkish language is a mixture of several dialects, and is far less pure than the Arabic or Persian. Literature is not much encouraged in Turkey, and education is at a low ebb. There are, however, some schools for the instruction of boys, and in the capital are some public libraries, and a market for books. Within a few years, a printing press has been established at Constantinople. The only profession which requires any learning is that of the law, which is connected with their religion. The priests are the doctors of law, who expound the koran, and the commentaries upon it; but there is nothing like a university or college in Turkey. 593. Chief Towns. Constantinofile. Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish empire, and called by the Turks Istampol, takes its name from Constantine, the Roman emperor, who enlarged the ancient city Byzantium, changed its name, and transferred the seat of empire from Rome to this city in the year 330. It stands in the beginning of the 42d degree of latitude, and the 30th degree of east longitude, on a point of land at the entrance of a strait called formerly the Bosphorus of Thrace, which conveys the water of the Euxine to the Mediterranean. Its situation is advantageous, and the climate delightful. 594. General view of Constantinofile. This city is about 1.4 miles, or as some authors allege, 24 miles in circumference, inclosed with walls, and on three sides by water. Its inhabitants are computed, by most writers, at a million, but others suppose the number not to exceed 400,000, of which number half are Turks, a fourth are Greeks, and the rest are Jews, Armenians and Franks, by which name the Turks call the Europeans, especially the French and English. The city contains more than 3700 streets, and a vast number of houses, but the houses in general are mean wooden

hovels. The Sultan has a seraglio on the sea side, which comprises a great number of buildings, and the temple of Sophia, formerly a christian church, and an elegant edifice, has been converted into a mosk. The principal entrance to the Seraglio is called capi, or the porte, and the latter name has passed to the Turkish court. 595. Trade, Harbor and Suburbs. The trade of this. city is carried on in bazars or bezestins, which are large square structures, covered with domes, and supported by arches and pilasters. In these is deposited and displayed all the merchandize which is for sale. The harbor is sufficiently capacious to contain 1200 ships, and the commerce of the city extends to most parts of Asia, Africa and Europe. The suburbs of Constantinople are, really towns, and one of them, called Pera, the residence, of foreign ministers, is one of the most delightful situations in the world. 596. Advantages and Disadvantages. The situation of Constantinople on a strait which connects two seas, the Mediterranean and Euxine, in the center of the eastern continent, with navigable water into the heart of Asia, Europe and Africa, with the excellence of its climate, harbor and adjacent lands, gives it advantages beyond any city on the globe, for splendor and prosperity. But it is subject to the superstitious, unenterprizing Turks, oppressed by a despotic government, frequently distressed and even depopulated by the plague, and being constructed of wooden buildings, it is often diminishcd by fires. In August, 1784, about 10,000 houses were laid in ashes by one conflagration. 597. Adrianofile. The second city in dignity and extent in European Turkey, is Adrianople, which stands 140 miles north west of Constantinople, on the river Maritz, the ancient Hebrus. It was built by the emperor Adrian, was taken by the Turks in 1362, and made the capital of their empire, till they took Constantinople in 1453. It is of a circular form, and contains 100,000 inhabitants, but the buildings in general are mean, and the streets dirty. The mosks and other public edifices are elegant ; the principal bazar, or market, is a beautiful arched building of half a mile in length,

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