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530. Gottenburg, Gottenburg, or Gotheburg, is situated upon the shore of the Skaggerac, and its harbor is not often impeded by ice, which gives it an advantage over Stockholm. Its population is about 20,000 souls, and its trade is extensive. In addition to its trade, it is enriched by the herring fishery, and it has the benefit of the India trade, the warehouses of the company being established at this place. 531. Other Towns. Upsal, containing about 3000 inhabitants, is chiefly distinguished by its university; Carlskrona, where are the docks and naval arsenals, contains about 12,000 inhabitants; Stralsund, in Pomerania, about the same number; Obo, the capital of Finland, contains about 9000 ; and a few others have a population of from 5 to 9000 souls. 532. Edifices and Canals. Sweden, tho it cannot vie with more southern kingdoms, in the magnificence of its public edifices, contains many elegant buildings, and as the nobles are numerous, and fond of a rural life, the country in the southern provinces abounds with handsome seats. The inland navigation has not been attended to till within a few years. The principal canal is that of Trolhattan, intended to open a communication between Stockholm and Gottenburg, along the river Gotha, and the lakes Melar, Hielmer and Wener. 533. Manufactures and Commerce. The chief manufactures in Sweden are those of iron and steel, as anchors, cannon, bombs, muskets, iron plate, nails, cast iron, &c. The furnaces and forges are computed at nearly 500. There are also manufactories of salt-peter, powder, vitriol, red lead, alum, copper and brass. The Swedes also make coarse woollens, and some silks and cottons, with hats, watches, and sail cloth. The commerce consists chiefly in the export of native commodities, iron, timber, pitch, tar and copper, with great quantities of herring ; and in the import of tobacco, sugar, coffee, drugs, silks, wines, and considerable corn, of ... which Sweden does not produce a sufficiency for its own consumption. j 534. Character and Manners. The Swedes are naturally a grave, candid, upright people, simple in their manners, hospitable to strangers, discerning and brave. The more atrocious crimes are rarely committed in Sweden, but intermperance is a prevailing viee. In the great towns, all the vices which attend wealth are common. The diet of the common people consists chiefly of hard rye bread, salted and dried fish, with milk and vegetables, and some pork, beef and salted mutton ; their drink is beer. The rich indulge in the use of luxuries, and all classes are addicted to convivial entertainments, music and dancing. --RUSSIA.

535. Mame and History. The name, Russia, is derived from the Russi or Borussi, a tribe of Slavons who settled in the country, but the name is comparatively modern. The Slavons were of Asiatic origin, and called by the ancients Sarmatae. These peopled the north eastern regions of Europe at an early period, but their history is involved in obscurity. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Russians were subdued by the Tartars, and the country was subdivided into numerous small kingdoms. John III. reduced the Tartars about the close of the 15th century, and Russia gradually became an extensive and powerful empire.

536. Situation and Extent. The Russian empire extends from Sweden and the Baltic on the west, to Kamchatska and the Pacific ocean on the east, a distance of 9000 miles, with a bredth of more than 2000 miles. It is, therefore, the most extensive empire that was ever governed by one sovereign. The northern boundary of Russia is the Arctic ocean, which, in winter, is covered with ice.

That part of Russia which is in Europe is about 1600 miles in length and 1000 in bredth, extending from 23 to 65 degrees east longitude, and from 47 to 72 north latitude. 537. Mountains and Forests. Russia in Europe is, in general, a level country, tho the region in which are the sources of the great rivers, Volga, Dwina and NiePer', is considerably elevated above the sea. The chief mountains are those of Olenetz, which run nearly north

and south about 1000 miles, on the west of the White Sea, and the great Uralian chain, which runs about 1 100 miles, along the north eastern border of Europe. But these are not of great altitude, the highest not exceeding an elevation of 4500 feet. Russia abounds with forests. 438. Rivers. The Volga. The Volga, or Wolga, the largest river in Europe, has its sources in some lakes on the high lands of Valday, between Petersburg and Moscow, and running slowly to the south east, till near its junction with the Kama, a large river from the Uralian mountains, it bends its course to the south west, to Tzaritzin, and then turning to the south east, discharges its waters into the Caspian sea by a multitude of channels. Its length is about 1700 miles, and being free from falls and shoals, it is boatable almost to its source. Its chief tributary streams are the Twerza, Kama and Oka. The Volga waters a fertile country, abounds with fish, and contains numerous islands. 539. The Don. The Don, anciently called Tanais, rises in the government of Tulan, and after a very winding course of 800 miles, falls into the sea of Azoff. The Don forms the boundary between Europe and Asia, from its mouth to its bend, where it approaches the Volga ; thence the latter river is its boundary, till it changes its course to the west ; then the Uralian mountains and the river Cara divide Asia from Europe. 540. The Wieper. The Nieper, anciently called Boristhenes, rises in the government of Smolensk, about 150 miles south of the sources of the Volga, and about 100 south east of the head of the Dwina, which flows to the Baltic. Its general direction is to the south east, except the last 200 miles, which is to the south west— At its entrance into the Euxine Sea, it forms a considerable bay, which receives also the Bog, an inferior river from the north west. The Nieper has 13 cataracts. 541. The Niester. The Niester, the ancient Tyras, has its sources on the north side of the Carpathian moun: tains, and forming a boundary between Russia and Turkey, after a course of about 600 miles, enters the Euxine at Akerman,

542. The Mēmel, Dwina and .Wova. The Memel, or Nimen, a river of secondary consequence, forms aboundary between Russia and Prussia, and enters the Baltic. The Dwina, a larger stream, after a course of 500 miles, enters the Baltic at Riga. The Neva, a river of 40 miles in length, but broad and deep, issues from the lake Ladoga, penetrates St. Petersburg, the capital of the empire, and enters the gulf of Finland. 543. The Dwina, and other Morthern Rivers. The Onega, a secondary river, runs north to the White Sea. The Dwina, a large river, running north west about 500 miles, enters the White Sea at Archangel. The Mezen, after a like course of 350 miles, enters the same sea. The Petshora, whose sources are in the Uralian mountains, enters the Northern Ocean, after a course of 450 miles. The Cara, a river of 140 miles in length, forms the boundary between Asia and Europe, north of the Ural mountains. -- - 544. Lakes. In the north western part of Russia is the lake Onega, which is 150 miles in length and 30 in bredth. To the west is Ladoga, about 130 miles in length and 70 in bredth. These lakes communicate by means of a channel or river called Swir, and discharge their waters into the gulf of Finland by the Neva. To the west and north of the White Sea are many lakes, the largest of which is Imandra. To the south are the Peypus, 60 miles in length and 30 in bredth, from which issues the river Norva : the Ilmen, on which stands the city Novogrod; the White Lake or Bielo ; and the Seleger, one of the sources of the Volga. 545. Face of the Country and Climate. Russia consists for the most part of vast plains, some of which, being considerably elevated, are called stefifts. One of these, north of the sea of Azoff, is 400 miles in length. As a great part of this vast empire lies in high northern latitudes, the climate is cold and the winters long. The Neva is usually froze from November to March ; and the northern border of Russia, above the Arctic Circle, has a night of several weeks in winter. But the southern part of Russia, along the north shore of the Ruxine and Azoff, enjoys a temperate climate, and

abounds with the rich fruits of more southern countries. 546. .4griculture. The soil of so extensive an empire as Russia is very various ; some of the plains are dry and barren, the northern regions contain marshes; but Russia contains much excellent land, the best of which is said to be along the Volga. In the northern parts, the land is little cultivated, and the inhabitants live by hunting and fishing. But the middle and southern provinces are as well cultivated as other northern countries of Europe, and the productions are the same— wheat, rye, barley, oats, millet, pease, buckwheat, flax, hemp and hops. Maiz and olives grow in Taurida; tobacco is also raised ; and madder, woad and saffron are spontaneous productions. The fruits are the same as in the northern states of America. . 547. Animals. The animals of Russia are the same as in other northern countries. The sea bear inhabits the borders of the northern ocean ; as do the rane, wolf, lynx and elk, the northern regions of the empire ; while the camel may be seen in the south. The domestic animals are the same as in the United States. The sheep are not of the best kind, but are possessed in great numbers in the southern provinces. In Taurida, the more opulent Tartars are said to possess 50,000 each; and the whole number of sheep on the peninsula is estimated at 7 millions. 548. Minerals. The chief minerals of Russia are found in the Asiatic division. About 60 miles from Moscow are iron mines, which are wrought, and iron and copper are found at Perm. In 1739, a gold mine was discovered in the mountains of Olonetz, but on experiment, proved to be not worth the expense of working. Some mineral springs have been found, the most valuable of which are near Sarepta, on the Volga, which are strongly impregnated with iron. In Buigova, a village in Olonetz, is a chalybeate spring, called St. Peter's Well, where the earth is so fully impregnated with iron, as to convert the roots of trees into a subtance like iron Ore.

549. Population. The whole population of Russia is

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