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known, as the ice in the northern sea prevents navigators from exploring the northern tract. It is separated from America, at the southern point, by Davis’ Straits and Baffin's Bay; and on the east is the sea, which separates it from Iceland. This inhospitable region was peopled by a colony from Iceland, headed by Erick Rand, at a very early period, and the settlements were enlarged to 12 parishes and 190 villages, over which a bishop was appointed, and a trade was carried on between Norway and Greenland. But since 1406, the colony has been lost, by what means is unknown ; most probably the inhabitants were destroyed by the natives. 5 14. JVative Greenlanders. The natives of Greenland resemble, in their persons, the Laplanders, the Samoids, and Esquimoes, who have been already described. They are savages of the lowest kind, living in poor huts, clothed with skins, and subsisting on flesh, fish and fowls, with as little regard to cleanliness as the beasts. They are, however, quiet and hospitable, but cold and phlegmatic in their tempers. Their occupation is catching deer, fish, seals, whales and morses, in which they are wonderfully dextrous. The boats used for the purpose of killing whales are long, sufficient to hold 50 persons, and rowed wholly by women, who are condemned to do all the drudgery. 515. Shitzbergen and the Icebergs. Spitzbergen, or the sharp mountains, is an island, or rather a cluster of islands in the north sea, between 9 and 20 degrees east longitude, and 76 and 80 degrees north latitude. These islands are not inhabited, except by white bears and foxes, but some English seamen, left there by accident, passed a winter there, and also some Russians staid four years in that dreary region, but the neighboring seas are frequented by whalemen. In the valleys between vast mountains are here formed the Icebergs, or immense hills of ice, which accumulate till parts of them break off and roll into the sea. On the east side of Spitzbergen are seven of these valleys filled with ice. Some of the Icebergs rise many hundred feet, presenting a front of emerald green, and reflecting ten thousand romantic figures. When these masses fall into the sea, they are
often borne by currents or driven by winds to the southward, till they reach the latitudes of ships passing to and from Europe. They are always the terror, and often the destructioni of navigators. - SWEDEN. 516. Mame and History. Sweden has its name probably from the Sitones, or Sitons, a people who inhabited the country in the time of the Roman conquests in Germany. But the Swedish name is Swerige, that is, Swea rick, Swea country, or country of the Sweves. It is the ancient Scandinavia. The primitive inhabitants appear to have been Finns, who, many centuries before the christian era, were expelled by the Goths. Some remains of the Finns still exist in the northern regions of Sweden, and their name is impressed on the eastern gulf of the Baltic, and an adjoining province. The Goths maintained their possession of the country, and the modern Swedes are their descendants. 517. Situation and Extent. Sweden is situated between 55 and 70 degrees north latitude, and 12 and 30 degrees east longitude. It is bounded by the Baltic on the south, by the Categate and the mountains of Norway on the west, by Lapland on the north, and by Russia on the east. Its length is 1100 miles, and its bredth 600. The population is estimated at three millions of Souls. 518. Face of the Country and Climate. Sweden is diversified with mountains, lakes, rivers, creeks, forests, and cultivated fields. The western border is a chain of stupendous mountains, while the center is penetrated by the gulf of Bothnia, which divides Sweden nearly into two equal parts. The climate of Sweden is various; the southern and most populous part has warm summers, and more dry than Norway and Scotland, the vapors from the Atlantic being interrupted by the mountains. But the winters are severe, and the gulf of Bothnia is usually passable on ice. 519. Rivers and Lakes. The rivers in Sweden, called Elbs, or Elfs, are very numerous; most of them having their sources in lakes on the east of the great chaia which separates Sweden from Norway, but none of them are of great length, the largest being about 250 miles long. The Tornea, which rises in Lapland, and runs south to the Bothnic gulf, is about 300 miles in length. The lakes of Sweden are numerous. Wener, the largest, is 100 miles in length, by 50 in bredth, and receives 24 rivers. The Weter is of equal length, but narrower, and thoit receives 40 small streams, it has no outlet except the river Motala. 520. Forests and Animals. A considerable part of Sweden is covered with wood, many kinds of which furnish boards and timber for Great Britain. The principai kinds of timber are the oak, pine, fir, birch, poplar and mountain ash. In the more northern parts, little wood is seen except birch. The horses of Sweden are small, but spirited ; the cattle are the same as in other countries, the wild animals of the forest are the same as in the northern segions of America, with the advantage of the rane, that useful species of deer. 521. Minerals. Sweden abounds with minerals, and is considered as the parent of modern improvements in mineralogy. In Smoland are the gold mines of Adelfors, and in Salberg a mine of silver, but neither of these is very rich. The copper mine of Falun, in Delacarlia, is a chasm of almost a mile in circumference, with a depth of 1000 feet. It is supposed this mine has been worked a thousand years, and it now employs about 1200 men. But the most considerable metal is iron, which is very abundant in Sweden, and is exported to a great amount. Cobalt, zinc and antimony are also among the minerals of Sweden. 522. Religion. The religion of Sweden is the Lutheran, with one archbishop and 13 bishops,2537 parishes, and about 1500 priests and vicars. The clergy of the diocese elect three persons, and present their names to the king, from whom he appoints an archbishop or a bishop. In some of the parishes, the king has the appointment of the officiating minister; in others, some Private person ; and in some, the minister is elected by his brethren. *23. Government. The government of Sweden, from a remote period, was a limited monarchy, with a senate and states, consisting of the nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants. But after the reign of Charles XII, the states assumed all the powers of legislation, which introduced violent factions, between the party which favored the king, and that which adhered to the states, which were called hats and cafts. The contest produced bloodshed, the parties being supported by foreign influence, the one by France and the other by England. At last a new king, Gustavus III. came to the throne in 1772. This prince had been in France, and was evidently aided by the French court in the plan of a revolution in Sweden. 524. Change of Government. The first step of Gustavus towards gaining absolute power, was to court the people, and gain popularity by making them believe he was their best friend. At his coronation he promised to preserve all their liberties, and swore to observe the articles of agreement, which he signed for that purpose. But this was all hypocrisy, for he no sooner had won their confidence, than he executed a project to make himself absolute, imprisoned the council, and overturned the constitution of that kingdom, leaving to the states little more than nominal authority. This project was the more easily accomplished, as all orders of men had become weary of dissensions, and sought a refuge from such evils in the power of a monarch. In 1789, the states surrendered the little power they had enjoyed, and the king became absolute. 525. Revenue, Army and Mavy, Sweden is not a rich kingdom, as it is thinly inhabited, and a large part of it very barren. The revenue is estimated at 7 millions of dollars. The army consists of about 50,000 men, including the standing troops, and the national troops or militia, who are under arms only on days of review.— The navy consists of 25 or 30 ships of the line, besides 12 frigates and 50 galleys, the latter being much used on account of the shallow water of the Baltic. 526. Universities and Education. In Sweden are three universities, at Upsal, Obo and Lund. That at Upsal has numerous professors, with an excellent library, a botanic garden, observatory, and chemical laboratory, and about 600 students. In Sweden also are 14 colleges, and numerous classical schools. All the towns and many parts of the country have schools, and the poorest children receive a religious and moral education from the clergy or parochial teachers. . 527. Literature. Learning did not revive in Sweden as early as in Denmark and England, but in the last two centuries it has made rapid progress. The Swedish academy at Stockholm, founded in 1738, has published several volumes containing useful discoveries. Several other literary societies in Sweden are highly distinguished. Linnaeus, the father of the modern botany, has established the fame of his country, as well as his own.— This great man was so deeply impressed with the omnipresence of God, that he wrote over his door, “Live swithout sin, for God is firesent.” In mineralogy, Sweden has taken the leadin deep researches, and the names of Bergman, Cronstedt, and Scheele, will always be held in veneration by the lovers of natural history. 528. Language. The language of Sweden is a dialect of the Gothic, which has a near affinity with those of Denmark, Norway, Iceland, and even with the English. In the north west, the dialect of Delecarlia retains more of the ancient character of the Gothic. But the Finns still preserve their native tung, tho it appears to be
yielding to the Swedish. The Laplanders retain their
native language, which is a dialect of the Finnish. 529. Chief Cities. Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, is situated upon seven small rocky islands, between the Baltic and the lake Melar, surrounded by mountains, woods and gardens, This lake is 76 miles in length and 50 in bredth, and is thickly sprinkled with islands, which amount to 1290, and its banks are covered with towns, villages and country seats. It discharges its waters into the Baltic by two rapid currents at Stockholm. The circumference of this city is 13 miles, the inhabitants 80,000 ; its houses built of stone or brick, and coyered with white stucco. It has a good harbor entered by a strait, and tho the ice interrupts navigation for four Amonths, yet Stockholm is a place of extensive trade.