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cathedral is shown our Saviour's coat, and St. Peter’s staff, to which miracles are ascribed.

482. Liege. The bishopric of Liege, between Brabant and Luxemburg, is 90 miles in length, and from 25 to 35 in bredth. It is a fruitful country, abounding in corn, wine, pasture and wood, with mines of iron, lead, coal, and quarries of marble. In this territory is Spa, whose mineral waters are much celebrated. It is watered by the Samber and Meuse, on the latter of which stands Liege, the capital, in a fine valley, surrounded by hills. The Meuse is navigable to this city. It is well fortified, has 16 gates, 17 bridges, 154 streets, and 100,000 inhabitants. The churches and convents are numerous, and the cathedral contains many silver coffers full of relics, and silver statues of saints. This bishopric is large, populous and rich; containing 24 walled towns, 52 baronies, and 1500 parishes.

----DENMARK.

483. Mame and History. The kingdom of Denmark comprehends the peninsula of Jutland and Sleswick, part of Holstein, Norway, and several large islands in the Baltic. Denmark, or Dane Marc, signifies the country of the Danes. Norway is derived from Morrick, north kingdom, or Worth-waeg, north sea. The primitive inhabitants of Jutland were the Cimbri, a Celtic nation, from whom descended the Welch of Britain, whose language was formerly called from them Cumraeg. The Cimbri were expelled by the Goths and Teutones, a century or two before the christian era. The Swedes and Norwegians afterwards conquered the country, but its early revolutions are involved in obscurity. Christianity was introduced into Denmark in the ninth century. Norway was originally peopled by the Finns or tribes of the same race, which were afterwards conquered by the Goths, and it remained a distinct kingdom till 1387, when it was united to Denmark.

484. Situation and Extent. Denmark, including Jutland, Sleswick, the Duchy of Holstein, and the islands in the Baltic, lies between 54 and 58 degrees of north latitude, and between 8 and 13 of east longitude. Jutland is a peninsula of 250 miles in length, and from 40 to 100 in bredth. Norway is a narrow territory north of the Skaggerac Sea, or Categate, and between the ocean and a chain of mountains, which separate it from Sweden; in length 7 or 800 miles, and in utmost bredth, about 150. To these may be added Danish Lapland, a cold, barren region, of 250 miles in length. 485. Mountains. Jutland being a narrow slip of land contains no elevations which can be called mountains. The same is true of Holstein, and the islands in the Baltic. But in Norway a chain of very high mountains extends the whole length of the country between Sweden and Norway. The peaks have different names, and it is observable that as the Celts gave to the summits of mountains the name of fien or ben, a head, as in the words Pennine and Appennine, in Italy, and Ben Lomond in Scotland ; so the Gothic nations gave to such summits the name of horn, as in Grosshorn in Swisserland, Hornalend in Norway. The Norwegians also called mountains feld, as Dofrafeld, Langfeld. 486. Rivers. As Denmark and Norway consist of narrow tracts of land, bounded by the ocean and mountains, the rivers are necessarily small. The Eydar, between Sleswick and Holstein, was formerly the boundary between Denmark and Germany. The peninsula of Jutland has many small streams not worthy of notice. The Glomen, in Norway, is 300 miles in length, and remarkable for a multitude of cataracts, and for conveying 50,000 trees annually to Frederickstadt. To the west of this is the Damme, which enters Christiana Bay, and in Lapland is the Tana, which flows to the North Sea. 487. Creeks and Lakes. In the northern part of Jutland is Lymefiord, an arm of the sea, which penetrates from Categate almost through the peninsula, and within three miles of the ocean. It is navigable, full of fish, and contains many islands. There are many other fiords or friths, but smaller. The lakes in Norway are numerous. The Mioss is a narrow lake of 60 miles in length the Rands, or Rands-sion, 50 miles in length ; the Feemund is 50 *: in length ; the Tyri is a beautifui 2

sheet of water 15 miles in length, surrounded by a country diversified with hills, forests, and well cultivated fields. 488. Forests and Mative Animals. There are some woods in the Danish islands, but the principal are on the Norwegian mountains, which are clothed with pine and fir, that furnish masts and spars for the northern nations of Europe. Among the animals are the lemming, or Norwegian mouse, armies of which sometimes migrate from the mountains towards the sea, devouring every plant in their way. In the north is that celebrated and useful animal, the rane, a species of the deer kind,” which feeds the Laplander with its milk and flesh, or transports him on a sled upon the Snow with incredible speed. 489. Minerals. In Norway are the richest silver mines in Europe. Those near Kongsberg were discovered in 1623, by two peasants who were throwing stones for their amusement. They are worked by 36 shafts, and yield annually about 300,000 dollars. There are also mines of copper, cobalt, lead, but especially of iron; and the latter are esteemed the most profitable. These are mostly near Arindal, in Christiansand, and near Skeen. Norway also furnishes alum, marble, alabaster, jade and magnets. 490. Curiosities. The principal natural curiosity is the Malstrom, or tremendous whirlpool, at some distance from the shore of Norway. This is a rapid current, caused by the flowing and ebbing of the tide, between the islands of Loffoden, one of which is called Moskoe, and another Ver. So violent is the current, and such the whirling of the water, that its roaring may be heard for many miles. If a ship comes within its force, it is inevitably swallowed up, and shivered to pieces on the rocks below. Even the giant strength of the whale is not sufficient to save him from destruction.— When he begins to feel the force of the stream, the affrighted monster roars and bellows, and lashes the waves, in his mighty efforts to escape ; but all in vain; he is * *name is most corruptly written rein.

hurried forward and forced into the abyss, where he is instantly dashed to pieces. 491. Climate and Productions. The climate of Denmark, which is every where near the sea, is more moderate than in countries in the same latitude remote from the ocean. Yet it may be considered as a temperate climate in summer, and cold in winter ; for not unfrequently the entrance into the Baltic, and sometimes the Baltic itself, is covered with ice. The southern parts of Denmark and the islands are well cultivated, and produce corn and grass in abundance. But many parts are *marshy, and susceptible of great improvement. In Norway the crops are scanty, and the air so humid that great care is necessary to save them. 492. Religion. The religion of Denmark and Norway is the Lutheran. There is no archbishopric, but the dioceses are twelve, six in Denmark, four in Norway, and two in Iceland. The chief diocese is that of Zealand, whose income is nearly 4500 dollars a year. The inferior clergy are archdeacons, parish priests, and chaplains, who are maintained by glebes, tythes and surplice fees, but some of their livings fall short of 100 dollars a year. 493. Government. Denmark had anciently a free constitution; the king being elective, and the legislature consisting of representatives of the nobility, clergy and citizens. But the nobility claimed an entire exemption from taxes, while the citizens and peasants were extremely oppressed. At length the commons took the resolution to free themselves from the tyranny of the nobles, by making the king absolute ; which was effected in the year 1660, when the deputies of the clergy and people made a formal tender of their liberties and services to Frederick the third, who accepted the same, and promised them protection and relief. At this time the crown was made hereditary, and the king absolute ; but justice is administered according to a code of established laws. 494. Population, Revenues, Army and Mavy. The population of Denmark is estimated at nearly two millions and a half, of which Norway has 700,000, and Iceland 50,000. The revenue is about 7 millions of dollars, of which half a million is levied upon ships which pass the sound or strait at the entrace of the Baltic, between Zealand and Sweden. The army consists of about 70,000 men, and the navy of 33 ships of the line. But Denmark has not recently been engaged in war. 495. Education. There is a university at Copenhagen, and another at Kiel, with a royal academy of sciences founded in 1742. There is also the royal society of Icelandic literature, designed to cultivate the history of the north, and a society for cultivating science at Drontheim. In Denmark, schools are established in each parish for instructing common children in their own language, writing and arithmetic. There are also some Latin schools maintained at the king’s expense, four of which are in Norway, and two in Iceland. Denmark has produced some writers of eminence, as Saxo Grammaticus, Sweno, Snorro, the historian of Iceland, Tycho Brahe, the astronomer, and Niebuhr, the traweller. 496. Language. The languages spoke in the Danish dominions are all dialects of the Gothic, except the Laponic, or Laplandic, and that appears to have some affinity to the same language, so that it may be considered as a more ancient branch of the same stock. The purest dialect of the primitive Gothic is that of Iceland, for the inhabitants of that island being separated from the continent of Europe at an early period, have suffered no changes by migration or conquest. 497. Condition of the People. The peasantry of Denmark proper are said to be kept in vassalage, and of consequence are humbled, dispirited and idle ; and having no motive but necessity to induce them to labor, they are in a mean condition. The peasants in Norway, who enjoy more freedom, are in a much better condition. The Laplanders live in a cold, barren, inhospitable region, and resemble the Samoids, and northern Tartars. They are from four to five feet high, with short black hair, narrow dark eyes, large heads, thick lips, high checkbones, a wide mouth, and a swarthy complexion,

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