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habitants were Celts, who had been expelled by the Teutonic invaders. In addition to other names which have been mentioned, the people are called Dutch, or Teutsh, which is supposed to be derived from Teuth or Teut, a celebrated deity or leader among the Germans.” After the Romans abandoned their northern conquests, the Frisians conquered a part of this territory, and gave name to Frisland. The Franks also overrun a part of the country, but both these tribes were of Teutonic origin, and mingled with the Batavi. After being subject to various princes, this territory fell by marriage to the house of Austria. In 1566, these provinces revolted from Philip, and became ultimately independent. In 1795, Holland was subdued by France, and it has lately been erected into a monarchy under a French king. : 454. Face of the Country. Climate. Most of Holland is one continued plain, so low that many parts are below the surface of the ocean at full tide ; the lands having been reclaimed from the ocean, which is shut out by dykes. To the east, however, the land rises gradually into hills, which are covered with wood. In many parts of this territory there are marshes, and the whole is variegated with rivers, canals, and cultivated fields. The air, as must be expected in such a low and marshy country, is humid and cool. 455. Rivers. In Holland are two large rivers, the Rhine and Meuse. Just at its entrance into Holland, the Rhine divides into two branches; the northern one is called the Leck, which originally was a small stream, but receiving the waters of the Rhine, it is now a main branch, which unites with the Meuse in an estuary between Dort and Rotterdam. From this branch formerly issued a large current to the north, formed by the canai of Drusus, which connected the Rhine with the Issal, and a lake called Flevo, now the Zuider Zee. But this being afterwards nearly filled with mud, the river returned to the Leck. The southern channel of the Rhine is called the Waal, which unites with the Meuse. The Scheldt also enters Holland, and opening to an estuary,
a." word is the radical also of the Greek theos, and the Latin washes the south side of Zealand. The Issal and the Wecht are smaller rivers from the borders of Germany. 456, Lakes and Inland Waters. The lakes in Holland are not large, except the sea of Harlem, and the Y, which are hardly to be regarded as lakes of fresh water. The small lakes and morasses are numerous. The Zuider Zee or southern sea, is a large bay or expanse of water, which is said to have been a lake, but has now a communication with the ocean, between the Texel and Holland, and by other channels. By this bay ships pass to Amsterdam. The Dollaat sea is a bay between Groningen and Frisland, said to have been formed by an inundation in 1277, when 33 villages were overwhelmed and destroyed. 457. Religion. The religion of Holland is Calvinism, but all denominations are tolerated. The ecclesiastical persons are of four orders, professors in universities, preachers, elders and deacons. The church is governed by consistories, classes and synods. The consistory is composed of the clergy and elders of a town ; a class is composed of deputies from several towns, and commonly meets three times in a year, a part of its business being to visit the churches and inspect the clergy. The synods are provincial or national, the latter being assembled only on extraordinary occasions. The Catholics have 350 churches in Holland, and there are many Jews, Lutherans, Anabaptists, and a few Quakers. 458. Government. The government is a confederation of republics. Each state has its own council, consisting of nobles and burgesses; and each sends deputies to the States General, which have the general superintendency of all common concerns, But each state has only a single vote in the States General, and the negative of one state defeats a measure. This caution, which doubtless sprung from a laudable jealousy at first, renders the proceedings of that body too slow for times of difficulty and danger. The chief magistrate was formerly called Stadtholder; but the constitution of Holland has been modelled by the French, and materially altered. 459. Literature. There are five universities in Holland, at Leyden, Utrecht, Harderwyck, Franecker, and Groningen, with two inferior colleges at Amsterdam and Deventer, and an academy of sciences at Haerlem. This country has produced many men of eminence in learning, among whom may be named Erasmus, Grotius, Boerhaave, Merula, Vossius, Grevius, and others. The Dutch have been remarkable for controversial divinity, and for excellent criticisms on the classics. From the Dutch presses also we have some of the best editions of the Greek and Roman authors. The university of Leyden is the largest and most celebrated ; and many foreigners are invited by the sober, frugal habits of the Dutch, to place their sons at the universities in Holland. 460. Chief Towns. Amsterdam, upon the river Amstel, from which it takes its name, was in 1204 a small castle only, and a retreat for a few fishermen. In 1490 it was first surrounded by a brick wall, and in 1675 was enlarged to its present extent. It is fortified by a ditch 80 feet wide, filled with water, and a brick wall with 26 bastions, on each of which is now a wind-mill. The city is built on piles driven into the mud, and secured from inundations by dykes. The city is crossed by canals, which are lined with hewn stone, and bordered with rows of trees. Over these are numerous stone bridges. The houses are constructed of brickor stone, and keptremarkably clean. None but physicians and great men are permitted to use carriages in the city, and goods are conveyed from place to place on sleds. 461. Edifices. Amsterdam, which contains 220,000 inhabitants, who are of all religious denominations, has 1 I Calvinistic churches, 27 chapels for Catholics, with many other houses of worship for other denominations. The new church, dedicated to St. Catharine, is a magnificent structure, with windows elegantly painted, and a pulpit ornamented with various sculpture, and especially a representation of the four evangelists. The organ is one of the best in the world, having 52 stops, besides half stops, two rows of keys for the feet, and three for the hands, with a set of pipes that counterfeit the human voice. The stadthouse is 282 feet long, 255 feet broad, and 116 feet to the roof, and is erected on 14,000 Piles. Its round tower, 50 feet high, contains a harmo
nious chime of bells, and on the floor of the great hall are two marble globes, 22 feet in diameter. 462. Commerce of Amsterdam. The harbor of Amsterdam is very spacious, and sufficient to hold a thousand ships; but the water is so shallow at the bar, that large ships cannot enter without being lightened, or raised by machines called camels. Amsterdam is, however, next to London, the greatest commercial city in Europe, and before the late conquest of the French, was the banking house for all nations. The bank, which is kept in a vault under the stadthouse, is very rich, and of the highest credit. The bourse, or exchange, is built of freestone on 2000 wooden piles. Its length is 250 feet, and its galleries supported by 26 marble columns, on which are inscribed the names of the different nations that meet there for business. The arsenal is 200 feet in length, and contains on the lower floor, bullets; on the second, arms and cordage ; on the third, sails and flags; with a cistern on the top, holding 1600 tuns of water, to be used for extinguishing fire. 463. Police of the City. Amsterdam is governed by a council of 36 persons, who hold their office for life, and supply vacancies by their own choice. This council appoint the burgomasters, who are twelve in number, whose office is like that of aldermen in London, being the executive magistrates. These appoint the inferior officers, superintend all public works, watch over the peace of the city, and keep the keys of the bank. The schools and hospitals in the city are numerous, and the houses for the poor and for orphans are well regulated. There is also a rasp house for the idle and criminal, where men are kept sawing or rasping Brasil wood; and if refractory, they are confined to a cellar, into which the water runs so rapidly, that they must keep the pumps going, or be drowned. 464. Rotterdam. The second city in Holland, for commercial importance, is Rotterdam, which stands upon the north bank of the Meuse, 37 miles south of Amsterdam. It takes its name from the Rotter, a small stream that enters the Meuse at this place, and dam, a dyke. It contains about 50,000 souls, and has the ado vantage of deep water, so that ships of 300 tuns may pass to the middle of the town. In consequence of which, the spectator sees the masts of ships mingled with the trees that border the canals, and the chimneys of the city. The houses are handsome, well built, many of them 5 or 6 stories high, with steep roofs, and the ends towards the street. Upon the great bridge in the market place is a brass statue of the celebrated Erasmus, who was a native of this city, tho he died in Basil. The statue is on a marble pedestal, surrounded with iron railing. representing Erasmus in a surred gown and a round cap, with a book in his hand. 465. Leyden. Leyden, one of the most ancient and most beautiful cities in Holland, stands upon an old branch of the Rhine, which here spreads into a great number of channels, over which there are said to be 145 bridges. It contains 50,000 inhabitants, and is distinguished by its university, which has been long celebrated in Europe. The students all wear swords, and attend lectures in their night gowns and slippers. They do not lodge in the university, but in private houses— The library is large and rich in manuscripts. The gardens and meddows in the environs of Leyden, abound with plants and trees, and add much to the beauty of the scenery ; while numerous canals render a communication with other large towns easy and safe. 460. Harlem. Harlem, upon the river Sparren, near a large lake of the same name, contains 40,000 inhabitants. It is, like Leyden, surrounded by an old brick wall, and communicates with Amsterdam and Leyden by canals. To the south of the town is a wood, cut into delightful walks and villas. It is famous for sustaining a siege often months against the Spaniards in 1573, till the people were reduced to eat the vilest animals, and even grass. During this siege the inhabitants corresponded with the prince of Orange by means of pigeons, who carried letters in the air. This city claims the honor of the invention of printing, and indeed the first sessays were made by Laurence Coster, a magistrate of Harlem... This city has an academy of sciences, and is remarkable for bleaching linen.