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taken from Poland abounds with forests and morasses. The southern province of Silesia borders on the Sudetic chain of mountains, and is hilly. This part of Prussia is fertile and healthful, while the Baltic provinces have a humid air and long winters. 436. Mountains. The only considerable mountains in Prussia are those of Silesia, called the Sudetic mountains, which separate Silesia from Moravia and Hungary, and are a continuation of the Carpathian chain. To the north west of this chain are some detached mountains, on the western border of Silesia. 437. Rivers. The largest rivers are the Elbe, the Oder, and the Vistula or Wiesel. The Elbe, which has been described under Germany, runs through the duchy of Magdeburg. The Oder, which has its sources in the mountains of Silesia, penetrates Brandenburg and Pomerania, and enters the Baltic after a course of 350 miles. The Vistula rises in the Carpathian mountains, near the sources of the Oder, and after a winding course of 450 miles, enters the Baltic near Dantzick. The smaller rivers are Memel, the eastern boundary of Prussia ; the Pregel, which passes by Konigsberg; the Narew and Bog, branches of the Vistula ; the Netze and the Worta, branches of the Oder, with many inferior StreamS. 438. Lakes. In the eastern parts of Prussia, lakes are numerous, one of which, the Spelding See, with its Creeks, extends 20 miles in every direction. The estuaries of the Oder, the Vistula and Memel are singular sheets of water, called, in German, Haffs. The Frish Haff of the Vistula is 70 miles in length, and from 3 to 10 in bredth. This bay is shallow, and does not admit vessels of large draft. The Curish Haff is 60 miles in length, by 30 in bredth, and is full of shelves dangerous to navigation. 439. Agriculture. The northern part of Prussia is sandy and barren, but the eastern part, or Prussian Poland, is fertile. Silesia is also in general fertile. The barren tracts in Brandenburg produce buckwheat and scanty crops of rye; but Silesia and other provinces produce most kinds of grain in abundance. Some maiz is L

produced in Silesia, and even wine, but of an inferior quality. The land is let in farms, and the peasants are hired as day laborers, a more favorable condition than they enjoyed under the Polish government. 440. Minerals. The plains of Prussia produce no minerals, but in the mountains of Silesia are found mines of copper, lead and iron ; also, chrysoprase, agates, and jaspers. Coal is found also in Silesia, and good peat in the level districts. The amber of Prussia has been celebrated for ages. It is found on a neck of land formed by the Frish Haff, on the Baltic shore, at the depth of 100 feet, lying on wood coal. Sometimes it is washed on shore by the winds. It is found in lumps of various sizes, some of which are of five pounds weight. This article produces to the crown a yearly revenue of 20,000 dollars. 441. Religion and Government. The prevailing religion of Prussia is Protestant, of the Lutheran and Calvinistic churches. But since the acquisition of a part of Poland, the Catholics are probably as numerous as the Protestants. It has been the policy of the Prussian kings to give a free toleration of religions, which has preserved the peace, and promoted the interest of their dominions. The government is an absolute hereditary monarchy, but the mildness of the administration renders the people prosperous and happy. 442. Revenues and Army. The revenues of Prussia are from 20 to 25 millions of dollars. The military force usually consists of about 200,000 men, including 40,000 cavalry. This great force has been rendered necessary by the situation and policy of Prussia, which is placed between Russia and Austria, two powerful empires, and which must defend with the sword provinces gained by the sword. At Berlin is a military school, and a school for cadets; and the Prussian discipline introduced by the late Frederick II. is the model for the armies of other nations. Prussia has no navy. 443. Language and Universities. The German is in general the language of Prussia, except in Polish Prussia, where the Slavonic prevails. There are several universitics, among which there is one at Frankfort on


the Oder, another at Konigsberg. But Prussia has been more distinguished for its military exploits, than for its literature ; the military spirit being the prevailing passion, leads the youth to seek for promotion and fame in the army, rather than in the walks of science. Yet the great Frederick was the patron of men of letters, and himself an author ; and Prussia can boast of some eminent writers and philosphers, as Cluverius, Copernicus, and Busching, the geographer. 444. Chief Cities. Berlin, the capital of Brandenburg and of all Prussia, is situated upon the Spree, a small river, and has a communication with the Elbe and the Oder. It has strait, wide, well paved streets, several large and beautiful squares, and pleasant walks, and is surrounded with gardens. It is divided into five parts, and has one royal street, terminated by a gate, which is fortified. The buildings are elegant, and the king’s palace magnificent, no palace in Europe being furnished with such a profusion of costly furniture. The king's stables are remarkable for mangers of stone, and iron pillars to separate the stalls. Here is also a grand arsenal of four buildings, forming a court in the middle; and an opera house, whose columns, supporting the roof, throw the whole into a grand saloon. The city contains 140,000 inhabitants. 445. Konigsberg. Konigsberg, upon the river Pregel, contains 50,000 inhabitants. It has a university, a magnificent palace, with a hall of 274 feet long and 59 broad, and several other noble edifices. The tower of the castle is ascended by 284 steps. The churches are 18, of which 14 belong to Lutherans, 3 to Calvinists, and one to Catholics. It has a considerable trade with the Baltic towns, but large vessels not having water to ascend the Pregel, anchor at Pillau on the Baltic. Konigsberg is five miles in circumference, and well fortified. 446. Dantzick. Dantzick is a large commercial town on a branch of the Vistula, four miles from the entrance of that river into the Baltic. It was formerly a free city, but in the last partition of Poland, in 1793, was seized by the king of Prussia. It is a handsome, populous city, ith a fine harbor, and the great mart of wheat which is

transported down the Vistula. The houses are well built, of stone or brick, and 6 or 7 stories high. The inhabitants are chiefly Lutherans, and amount to 50 or 60,000 souls. 447. Breslaw. Breslaw, the capital of Silesia, is situated on the Oder, at the conflux of the Ohlau. It is a large city, with many regular squares, broad streets, and stately edifices. The inhabitants, who are 50,000 in number, are chiefly Lutherans, with a mixture of Calvinists, Catholics, Greeks and Jews. It is a place of considerable trade, and some valuable manufactures, especially of linen. 448. Warsaw. Warsaw, which before the partition of Poland, was the capital of that kingdom, is now a Prussian city, upon the Vistula, with a population of 66,000 souls. It is partly on a plain, and partly on a declivity. The streets are broad, but ill paved ; the churches, palaces, and other public edifices, large and magnificent ; but the houses in general mean, and the whole city presents the gloomy aspect of poverty and decline. This city was taken by the Russians under Suwarrow in 1794, and the inhabitants of Praga, a town on the opposit side of the river, were mostly slain by the ferocious soldiers after the conflict had ceased. 449. Smaller Towns. Potsdam, 12 miles west of Berlin, is situated on an island, and decorated with royal magnificence. It contains 26,000 inhabitants; with numerous elegant edifices, and is occasionally the residence of the Prussian kings. Magdeburg, upon the Elbe, is a strong city, with many manufactures of wool and silk, and a considerable trade. Here is the mausoleum of Otho the Great, and the principal founderies and arsenals of Prussia. Stettin, in Pomerania, on the Oder, contains 18,000 inhabitants; Thorn, on the Vistula, 10,000; and Elbing, 14,000. 450. Manufactures and Commerce. The principal manufacture is the linen of Silesia, but the manufactures of glass, iron, brass, paper, wool and silk are considerable. The silk manufactures are valued at 2 millions of dollars, and part of the silk is produced in the country. Water mills are erected for spinning silks, wool and

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thred. The flax and hemp produced in the country furinish the materials for the linen manufactures, the exports of which are valued at 6 millions of dollars a year. Amber is an article of export, as are timber, skins, lether, flax and hemp, and especially wheat. Some cotton is manufactured in Prussia, as are porcelain, hardware, pipes, starch, bleached wax, gloves, tapestry, and many articles of less value. -oNETHERLANDS.

451. Wame and Division. The territory usually called Netherlands or Low Countries, from their situation in regard to Germany, or the lowness of the lands, was described by the Romans under the names of Batavia and Belgica. The whole territory was formerly divided into 17 provinces, and subject to the king of Spain ; but being much oppressed, the inhabitants revolted, and after a war of many years, seven of the provinces established their independence. These seven are usually styled Holland, or the states of Holland, from hole, a cavity, and land, so called from their low situation. The other ten provinces were called Austrian Netherlands, and remained subject to Austria till conquered by France in 1793.


452. Division, Situation and Extent. The provinces or states of Holland are, Holland, Overyssel, Frisland, Zealand, Utrecht, Groningen, Gelderland and Zutphen, the two latter being united in sovereignty, are called one state. They form a territory of nearly 150 miles. square, between the 50th and 54th degrees of north latitude, and between 3 and 7 east longitude. This territory is bounded on the west and north by the German sea or ocean; on the east by Germany, and on the south by the Austrian Netherlands or Belgica, or more properly by France, since Belgica is annexed to that monarchy. The whole population is 2,758,000.

453. Warnes and History. The territory of Holland, when Cesar conquered Gaul, was inhabited by the Batawi, a people of Teutonic origin. But the original ine

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